Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway
|Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway|
|Opened||31 May 2017|
|Line length||485 km (301 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||None, upgrade planned|
120 kilometres per hour (75 mph) (passenger)|
80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) (freight)
The Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway is a standard-gauge railway (SGR) in Kenya that connects the large Indian Ocean city of Mombasa with Nairobi, the country's capital and largest city. This SGR runs parallel to the defunct, narrow-gauge Uganda Railway that was completed in 1901 under British colonial rule. The East African Railway Master Plan provides for the Mombasa–Nairobi SGR to link with other SGRs being built in the East African Community.
At a cost of US$3.6 billion, the SGR is Kenya's most expensive infrastructure project since independence. The prime contractor was the China Road and Bridge Corporation, which hired 25,000 Kenyans to work on the railway. Phase 2A of this project was launched officially in October 2016.
The first fare-paying passengers boarded the "Madaraka Express" on Madaraka Day (1 June 2017), which was the 54th anniversary of Kenya's attainment of internal self rule after decades as a British colony. Commercial freight services began on 1 January 2018.
Because of the rough and hilly terrain, large portions of the SGR were built on viaducts, embankments, and cuttings. The Uganda Railway tackled the hilly terrain near Mazeras township by using a spiral. In contrast, the SGR passes through this area on two bridges, with the 43.5 metres (143 ft)-high Mazeras-2 bridge being the highest one on the route. As it approaches Nairobi, the SGR crosses the 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) Athi River Super Bridge, which at the time of its completion was the sixth-longest bridge in Africa. The SGR has 98 bridges.
Another purpose of the SGR's viaducts and embankments is environmental protection. A highway and the Uganda Railway pass through the transportation corridor between Tsavo East National Park and Tsavo West National Park. Because they are at ground level, collisions with wildlife occur. The viaducts and embankments elevate the SGR above ground level, allowing wildlife to pass safely underneath. Six underpasses also allow wildlife to move safely beneath the SGR.
There are nine passenger stations between Mombasa and Nairobi. Each station's architecture is inspired by local elements.
- Mombasa Terminus: Concentric circles and a central tower, representing a ripple in the ocean.
- Mariakani: Porticos are inspired by coconut trees, which are plentiful in the region.
- Miasenyi: White and brown stripes, inspired by the stripes of a zebra.
- Voi: V-shaped like a person with raised hands, representing the spirit of harambee. V is also the first letter of Voi.
- Mtito Andei: Sloping roofs, representing Mount Kilimanjaro and the Chyulu Hills.
- Kibwezi: Based on traditional African architecture, with leaves that shade passengers from the sun.
- Emali: A closed fist, representing unity.
- Athi River: Shaped like the region's hills.
- Nairobi Terminus: Two trains with a bridge on top.
Passengers can transfer at Nairobi Terminus to metre-gauge trains into the Nairobi city centre. Although they are designated as terminals, the Mombasa and Nairobi stations were built as through stations and were originally designated Mombasa West Station and Nairobi South Station. When Phase 2 of the SGR is completed, trains will continue through the Nairobi station to the Uganda border.
Kenya is a member of the Northern Corridor Integration Project (NCIP), which has selected the Chinese National Railway Class 1 standard for its railways. The adoption of a common standard allows for seamless integration between the railways of NCIP countries.
- Gauge: Standard-gauge
- Couplers: Janney AAR
- Brakes: Air
- Electrification: None, in planning
- Design capacity: 22 million tonnes per year
- Structure gauge: cargo transport with two containers stacked on top of each other 
In the 2000s, Kenya's colonial-era metre-gauge railways deteriorated from lack of maintenance. By 2016, passenger trains were taking an entire day to travel from Nairobi to Mombasa, compared to 12 hours during the early 1990s. Freight transported from the Port of Mombasa fell from 4.8 million tonnes per year in the 1980s to 1.5 million tonnes per year in 2012. In 2014, the Rift Valley Railways Consortium, the operator of railways in Kenya and Uganda, reported a loss of US$1.5 million.
At the same time, the Chinese government was funding railway construction in other African countries. In 2011, Kenya signed a memorandum of understanding with the China Road and Bridge Corporation to build a standard-gauge railway between Mombasa and Nairobi. The US$3.6 billion railway was the largest infrastructure project in Kenya since independence. Financing was finalised in May 2014, with the Exim Bank of China extending a loan for 90 percent of the project cost and the remaining 10 percent coming from the Kenyan government. The number of Kenyans who were hired to work on the railway was 25,000.
Tracklaying was completed in December 2016. Passenger service was officially inaugurated on 31 May 2017, eighteen months ahead of schedule.
|DF8B||CRRC Qishuyan||8||Freight locomotive|||
|DF7G||CRRC Qishuyan||2||Freight/Road switcher|||
|DF11||CRRC Qishuyan||5||Passenger locomotive|||
|25G||CRRC Nanjing Puzhen||39||Passenger coaches and support cars|||
|NX70||CRRC Qiqihar||150||Container car|||
Many of the employees working for the SGR are Kenyans. But as of July 2018, the key positions like train drivers and employees in the switching station were still Chinese. A handover to Kenyans had not happened after one year of operation, which triggered political discussions.
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Date found at introductory page: http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1450522/information-about-standard-gauge-railway
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