Monad (nonstandard analysis)

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In nonstandard analysis, a monad (also called halo[1]) [2] is the set of points infinitesimally close to a given point.

Given a hyperreal number x in R, the monad of x is the set

If x is finite (limited), the unique real number in the monad of x is called the standard part of x.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Goldblatt, Robert (1998). Lectures on the Hyperreals. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-387-98464-X.
  2. ^ NumberPhile