Monarchy of Grenada
|King of Grenada|
since 8 September 2022
|Heir apparent||William, Prince of Wales|
|First monarch||Elizabeth II|
|Formation||7 February 1974|
|Administrative divisions (parishes)|
The monarchy of Grenada is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Grenada. The current Grenadian monarch and head of state, since 8 September 2022, is King Charles III. As sovereign, he is the personal embodiment of the Grenadian Crown. Although the person of the sovereign is equally shared with 14 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled King of Grenada and, in this capacity, he and other members of the royal family undertake public and private functions domestically and abroad as representatives of Grenada. However, the King is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role.
All executive authority of Grenada is vested in the sovereign, and royal assent is required for the Parliament of Grenada to enact laws and for letters patent and Orders in Council to have legal effect. Most of the powers are exercised by the elected members of parliament, the ministers of the Crown generally drawn from amongst them, and the judges and justices of the peace. Other powers vested in the monarch, such as the appointment of a prime minister, are significant but are treated only as reserve powers and as an important security part of the role of the monarchy.
The Crown primarily functions as a nonpartisan guarantor of continuous and stable governance in the country, with the most notable instance being the period of revolutionary government from 1979 to 1983. While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties are exercised by his representative, the governor-general of Grenada.
Grenada was sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498. First settled by indigenous peoples, Grenada by the time of European contact was inhabited by the Caribs. French colonists killed most of the Caribs on the island and established plantations on the island, eventually importing African slaves to work on the sugar plantations. Grenada remained French until 1762, when it capitulated to the British. It was formally ceded to Britain in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris. In 1779 it was recaptured by the French, but it was restored to Britain in 1783. The emancipation of the slaves finally took effect in 1833.
Grenada was headquarters of the government of the British Windward Islands from 1885 until 1958, when Grenada joined the West Indies Federation. The federation ended in 1962, after which Grenada attempted to federate with the remaining territories in the Eastern Caribbean. In March 1967, however, the island was granted "associate statehood" status by the United Kingdom, giving it complete control over its internal affairs.
A constitutional conference was held in London in 1973. Grenada gained independence on 7 February 1974, as a sovereign state and independent constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state of Grenada. The transition to independence was marked by violence, strikes, and controversy centring upon Eric Gairy, who was named prime minister. Opposition to Gairy's rule continued to mount, and a coalition called the New Jewel Movement (NJM) staged a bloodless coup in 1979, proclaiming the People's Revolutionary Government in Grenada, with their leader Maurice Bishop as prime minister.
People's Revolutionary Government (1979–1983)
The New Jewel Movement led by Maurice Bishop seized power in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) on 13 March 1979. On 25 March, Bishop announced the "People's Laws", which effectively suspended the 1973 constitution, but retained the Queen as Grenada's head of state. People's Law Number 3 stated:
The Head of State shall remain Her Majesty the Queen and her representative in this country shall continue to be the Governor-General who shall perform such functions as the People's Revolutionary Government may from time to time advise.
This was seen as an attempt by the People's Revolutionary Government to give an air of constitutional legitimacy to their administration. The Governor-General, Paul Scoon, who was also kept in office as the Queen's representative, became a mere figurehead, as the PRG had assumed both executive and legistative powers. Between 1979 and 1983, Scoon was said to have a "fairly relaxed" relationship with the PRG. This marked the first time in history that a "communist monarchy" existed within the Commonwealth of Nations.
In October 1983, following a power struggle within Bishop's own administration, the People's Revolutionary Government was overthrown in a violent coup in which Prime Minister Bishop and several other government officials were executed. A 16-member military council led by Hudson Austin took power and placed Scoon under house arrest. Scoon, acting through secret diplomatic channels, asked the United States and concerned Caribbean nations to intervene to restore peace and order to the island. The invasion coalition maintained that Scoon was within his rights to do so, acting under the reserve powers vested in the Crown. But an independent expert examination later found dubious constitutional basis for Scoon's call for foreign intervention and his assumption of executive and legislative power. On 25 October 1983, following the United States invasion of Grenada, the military junta was deposed, and Scoon and his family were evacuated from his official residence in St George's. The US and Caribbean governments quickly reaffirmed Scoon as the Queen's only legitimate representative in Grenada — and hence the only lawful authority on the island. It was later confirmed that Scoon had been in contact with the Queen ahead of the invasion; however, the Queen's office denied knowledge of any request for military action and the Queen was "extremely upset" by the invasion of one of her realms. The only document signed by the Governor-General asking for military assistance was dated after the invasion, which fuelled speculation that the United States had used Scoon as an excuse for its incursion into Grenada. Scoon, in his memoir, published in 2003, clarified that he had asked other Caribbean governments for the intervention of an allied military force.
Following the invasion, the Governor-General, in the absence of a parliament and elected government, assumed executive and legislative powers, and reinstated the 1973 constitution. A nine-member Interim Advisory Council, led by Nicholas Brathwaite, was appointed in November 1983, to serve until elections due in 1984, which subsequently resulted in the victory of Herbert Blaize of the New National Party. This constitutes one of the few times in Commonwealth history that the Crown has been the active and dominant executive authority in a realm.
The Grenadian Crown and its aspects
Grenada is one of fifteen independent nations, known as Commonwealth realms, which shares its sovereign with other realms in the Commonwealth of Nations, with the monarch's relationship with Grenada completely independent from his position as monarch of any other realm. Despite sharing the same person as their respective monarch, each of the Commonwealth realms – including Grenada – is sovereign and independent of the others. The Grenadian monarch is represented by a viceroy—the governor-general of Grenada—in the country.
Since the independence of Grenada in 1974, the pan-national Crown has had both a shared and a separate character and the sovereign's role as monarch of Grenada is distinct to his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including the United Kingdom. The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution and in Grenada became a Grenadian, or "domesticated" establishment.
This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a unique Grenadian title and, when he is acting in public specifically as a representative of Grenada, he uses, where possible, Grenadian symbols, including the country's national flag, unique royal symbols, and the like. Only Grenadian government ministers can advise the sovereign on matters of Grenada.
In Grenada, the legal personality of the State is referred to as "His Majesty in right of Grenada", "His Majesty in right of His Government of Grenada", or the "Crown in right of its Government in Grenada".
In Grenada, the King's official title is: Charles the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Grenada and of His other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.
This style communicates Grenada's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the monarch's role specifically as soveregin of Grenada, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the realms. Typically, the Sovereign is styled "King of Grenada", and is addressed as such when in Grenada, or performing duties on behalf of Grenada abroad.
Oath of allegiance
As the embodiment of the state, the monarch is the locus of oaths of Allegiance. This is done in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein they promise to govern the peoples of their realms, "according to their respective laws and customs".
The oath of allegiance in Grenada is:
"I, (name), do swear [or solemnly affirm] that I will faithfully bear true allegiance to His Majesty King Charles the Third, His Heirs and Successors, according to law. [So help me God.]"
Like some realms, Grenada defers to United Kingdom law to determine the line of succession.
Succession is by absolute primogeniture governed by the provisions of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, as well as the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Bill of Rights 1689. This legislation limits the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though these constitutional laws, as they apply to Grenada, still lie within the control of the British parliament, neither the United Kingdom nor Grenada can change the rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship. This applies identically in all the other realms, and has been likened to a treaty amongst these countries.
Upon a demise of the Crown (the death or abdication of a sovereign), it is customary for the accession of the new monarch to be publicly proclaimed by the governor-general in the capital, St. George's, after the accession. Regardless of any proclamations, the late sovereign's heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. An appropriate period of mourning also follows, during which flags across the country are flown at half-mast to honour the late monarch.
Constitutional role and royal prerogative
The constitution of Grenada is made up of a variety of statutes and conventions which gives the country a parliamentary system of government under a constitutional monarchy, wherein the roles of the monarch and governor-general are both legal and practical, but not political. The Crown is regarded as a corporation, in which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the sovereign as the person at the centre of the constitutional construct, meaning all powers of state are constitutionally reposed in the Grenadian monarch. As such, the Crown owns all state property; all public lands are vested in the governor-general, and are therefore called Crown lands. The government of Grenada is also formally referred to as His Majesty's Government in Grenada.
Most of the monarch's domestic duties are performed by the governor-general, appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister of Grenada.
All institutions of government act under the sovereign's authority; the vast powers that belong to the Grenadian Crown are collectively known as the Royal prerogative. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal Prerogative; moreover, the consent of the Crown is required before either of the houses of parliament may even debate a bill affecting the sovereign's prerogatives or interests.
One of the main duties of the Crown is to appoint a prime minister, who thereafter heads the Cabinet of Grenada and advises the monarch or governor-general on how to execute their executive powers over all aspects of government operations and foreign affairs. The monarch's, and thereby the viceroy's role is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a symbol of the legal authority under which all governments and agencies operate, while the Cabinet directs the use of the Royal Prerogative, which includes the privilege to declare war, maintain the King's peace, as well as to summon and prorogue parliament and call elections. However, it is important to note that the Royal Prerogative belongs to the Crown and not to any of the ministers, though it might have sometimes appeared that way, and the constitution allows the governor-general to unilaterally use these powers in relation to the dismissal of a prime minister, dissolution of parliament, and removal of a judge in exceptional, constitutional crisis situations.
There are also a few duties which are specifically performed by the monarch, such as appointing the governor-general.
The governor-general, to maintain the stability of the government of Grenada, appoints as prime minister the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Representatives. The governor-general additionally appoints a Cabinet, at the direction of the prime minister. The monarch is informed by his viceroy of the acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and other members of the ministry, and he remains fully briefed through regular communications from his Grenadian ministers. Members of various executive agencies and other officials are appointed by the Crown. The appointment of senators, magistrates, registrars and legal officers also falls under the Royal Prerogative.
The Royal Prerogative further extends to foreign affairs: the governor-general ratifies treaties, alliances, and international agreements. As with other uses of the Royal Prerogative, no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of Grenada; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The governor-general, on behalf of the monarch, also accredits Grenadian High Commissioners and ambassadors and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, the issuance of passports falls under the Royal Prerogative and, as such, all Grenadian passports are issued in the governor-general's name, the monarch's representative in the country.
The sovereign, along with the Senate and the House of Representatives, is one of the three components of the Parliament of Grenada. The authority of the Crown is embodied in the maces, which bear a crown at their apex. Grenada has two maces, one for the Senate (made in 1967), and one for the House of Representatives (made in the 18th century).
The monarch does not, however, participate in the legislative process; the viceroy does, though only in the granting of royal assent. Further, the constitution outlines that the governor-general alone is responsible for appointing senators. The viceroy must make seven senatorial appointments on the advice of the prime minister, three on the advice of leader of the opposition, and three on the advice of prime minister after the prime minister has consulted the organisations or interests which the senators would represent. There have been two instances, in 2013 and 2018, when Grenada did not have a formal parliamentary opposition, as the New National Party had won all seats in Parliament. On these occasions, the then governors-general acted on their own deliberate judgment to appoint members of the defeated National Democratic Congress to the Senate in order to provide opposition to government.
The viceroy additionally summons, prorogues, and dissolves parliament; after the latter, the writs for a general election are usually dropped by the governor-general at Government House, St George's. The new parliamentary session is marked by the Opening of Parliament, during which the monarch or the governor-general reads the Speech from the Throne.
I share my Government's desire to uphold and strengthen parliamentary democracy in Grenada and I am delighted to be here today to inaugurate this special session of the Third Parliament.— Elizabeth II of Grenada, Speech from the Thone at the Grenadian Parliament, 31 October 1985
All laws in Grenada are enacted only with the viceroy's granting of royal assent in the monarch's name. Thus, bills begin with the phrase: "Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of Grenada, and by the authority of the same, as follows:". The royal assent, and proclamation, are required for all acts of parliament, usually granted or withheld by the governor-general, with the Public Seal of Grenada.
The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice for all his subjects, and is thus traditionally deemed the fount of justice. In Grenada, criminal offences are legally deemed to be offences against the sovereign and proceedings for indictable offences are brought in the sovereign's name in the form of The King versus [Name]. Hence, the common law holds that the sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences.
Magistrates are appointed by the governor-general, on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, in line with section 88 of the Constitution. The Judicial and Legal Services Commission, under the Supreme Court Order of 1967, appoints Justices of the Supreme Court of Grenada and the West Indies Associated States on the King's behalf. The Chief Justice of the Court meanwhile is appointed by the monarch via letters patent. The highest court of appeal for Grenada is the Judicial Committee of the King's Privy Council.
The governor-general, on behalf of the Grenadian monarch, can also grant immunity from prosecution, exercise the royal prerogative of mercy, and pardon offences against the Crown, either before, during, or after a trial. The exercise of the 'Prerogative of mercy' to grant a pardon and the commutation of prison sentences is described in section 72 of the Constitution.
The Crown and Honours
Within the Commonwealth realms, the monarch is deemed the fount of honour. Similarly, the monarch, as Sovereign of Grenada, confers awards and honours in Grenada in his name. Most of them are often awarded on the advice of "His Majesty's Grenada Ministers".
Through the passage of the National Honours and Awards Act in 2007, Grenada established two national orders, namely the Order of Grenada and the Prestige Order of the National Hero. The monarch's vice-regal representative, the governor-general, serves as the Chancellor of both these orders.
The Crown and the Police Force
The national police force of Grenada is known as the "Royal Grenada Police Force".
The Crown sits at the pinnacle of the Royal Grenada Police Force, with the Chief of Police being appointed by the governor-general. St Edward's Crown appears on the police force's badges and rank insignia, which illustrates the monarchy as the locus of authority.
Every member of the police force has to swear allegiance to the monarch of Grenada, on being appointed. Under the Police Act of Grenada, the current oath is:
"I, (name), do hereby swear by Almighty God (or do hereby solemnly and sincerely declare and affirm) that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to His Majesty King Charles the Third, His Heirs and Successors, and that I will faithfully serve His Majesty the King, His Heirs and Successors during my service in the Royal Grenada Police Force, that I will subject myself to all Acts, Orders and regulations for the time being in operation that relate to the Force and will discharge all the duties of a police officer according to law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will."
Grenadian royal symbols
The main symbol of the Grenadian monarchy is the sovereign himself. Thus, framed portraits of him are displayed in public buildings and government offices. The monarch also appears on commemorative Grenadian stamps.
Ceremonial maces are used in both the houses of Parliament to represent the royal authority of the sovereign. A crown also appears on insignia of honours and police force officers, which illustrates the monarchy as the locus of authority.
God Save The King is the royal anthem of Grenada.
Under the Citizenship Act of Grenada, new Grenadian citizens have to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch of Grenada, and his heirs and successors.
The insignia of the Order of the Nation featuring St Edward's Crown
The emblem of the Royal Grenada Police Force featuring St Edward's Crown
Princess Margaret visited Grenada in 1955.
Queen Elizabeth II first visited Grenada during her Caribbean tour of 1966. A Yachting Regatta was in progress in the harbour, and in St George's a Song of Welcome was sung by local children. The Queen later planted a tree, and viewed an agricultural exhibition and a variety performance. In 1985, the Queen opened Parliament in St George's and attended an investiture and a cultural presentation.
In the last few years, Grenada has been through momentous events and you have emerged with tremendous credit. As your Queen, I want to take this opportunity of congratulating the people of Grenada on the way you have prepared for and carried through the recent parliamentary elections which underlined your commitment to democracy. It has been a notable achievement and the world has watched with admiration.— Elizabeth II of Grenada, 1985
The Earl of Wessex visited in October 2003 as trustee of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award International Association, and presented awards at the Rex Grenadian. The Earl of Wessex returned in November 2004 to visit some of the areas devastated by Hurricane Ivan.
The Duke of York visited Grenada in February 2004 and toured Dorothy Hopkins Home for the Handicapped and the Grenada Boys Secondary School, Saint George's.
The Princess Royal visited in June 2011 to present Gold Awards to young achievers in The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, and attended discussions as part of the Caribbean-Canada Emerging Leaders' Dialogue.
The Earl and Countess of Wessex visited in 2012 to mark the Queen's Diamond Jubilee. During their visit, the couple attended a youth rally, met students during an art exhibition, and unveiled a plaque at the Botanical Gardens.
The Princess Royal visited Grenada again in 2015 as President of the Caribbean-Canada Emerging Leaders' Dialogue and attended a panel discussion at St. George's University. The Princess afterwards attended The Duke of Edinburgh's International Award Grenada Awards Ceremony.
The Queen and Prince Philip have very, very fond memories of their visits here. Today I've been lucky enough to follow in their footsteps, and have met some remarkable organisations working to empower young people through sport.— Prince Henry of Wales, 2016
Prince Harry visited Grenada in 2016, the year of the Queen's 90th birthday. Following his arrival at Grenada Cruise Port, the Prince travelled to Queens Park Grounds to attend a community sporting event, and later visited Grand Anse Beach to learn about the devastating impact of climate change. The Prince saw how coral gardeners were rebuilding the coral reef, and learnt about Grenada's efforts in restoring its mangroves, which were destroyed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. During the visit, the Prince also launched the Royal Household Hospitality scholarships for aspiring hospitality workers from the Caribbean.
Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall visited Grenada during their Caribbean tour in 2019. The couple were welcomed with a ceremony at the Grenada Houses of Parliament, and attended a reception to view a variety of exhibitions, including flowers from the Chelsea Flower Show. At the House of Chocolate, the couple undertook a tour of the centre, tasting chocolate bars and cocoa tea, before meeting farmers and chocolatiers. Later, the couple visited the Carenage Exhibition and met the owner and operators of Renegade Rum. The Prince of Wales later attended a Blue Economy round table at Spice Island Beach Resort, and visited Mount Cinnamon Dive Site to view an exposition on the Blue Economy on the beach.
The Earl and Countess of Wessex were due to visit Grenada in 2022 to mark the Queen's Platinum Jubilee, but their tour was postponed after talks with the island's government and governor-general. It was reported that representatives of Grenada's National Reparations Committee had planned to meet the couple and discuss Britain and the royal family's past links to slavery in the region.
In the 2016 Grenadian constitutional referendum a proposal to, among other things, remove references to the monarch from the oath of allegiance was rejected by 56.7% of voters.
In 2023, Grenada National Reparations Committee urgred the government to start the process of initiating a national conversation on becoming a republic. Ahead of the Coronation of King Charles III in 2023, Prime Minister Dickon Mitchell expressed his hope that the transition would happen during his leadership, while a poll by Lord Ashcroft the same month found that 56% of Grenadians supported Grenada remaining a monarchy, against 42% who supported a republic.
List of Grenadian monarchs
|Reign over Grenada||Full name||Consort||House|
|7 February 1974||8 September 2022||Elizabeth Alexandra Mary||Philip Mountbatten||Windsor|
|Governors-general: Sir Leo de Gale, Sir Paul Scoon, Sir Reginald Palmer, Sir Daniel Williams, Sir Carlyle Glean, Dame Cécile La Grenade|
Prime ministers: Sir Eric Gairy, Maurice Bishop, Bernard Coard, General Hudson Austin, Nicholas Brathwaite, Herbert Blaize, Ben Jones, George Brizan, Keith Mitchell, Tillman Thomas, Dickon Mitchell
|8 September 2022||present||Charles Philip Arthur George||Camilla Shand||Windsor|
|Governors-general: Dame Cécile La Grenade|
Prime ministers: Dickon Mitchell
- Lists of office-holders
- List of prime ministers of Elizabeth II
- List of prime ministers of Charles III
- List of Commonwealth visits made by Elizabeth II
- Monarchies in the Americas
- List of monarchies
- ^ a b c "Grenada". Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
- ^ "Grenada Constitutional Conference". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
- ^ a b D. A. Low (1988), Constitutional Heads and Political Crises: Commonwealth Episodes, 1945-85, Palgrave Macmillan UK, p. 154, ISBN 9781349101979
- ^ a b Murphy, Philip (2015), Monarchy and the End of Empire, Oxford Universtiy Press, pp. 165–170, ISBN 9780198757696
- ^ James Tudor (1988), Peace Progress and Democracy: Statements by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Barbados, 1986/1987, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, p. 49,
For the first time in the experience of the Commonwealth there existed a Communist monarchy, a curious anomaly which enabled Mr. Bishop to have his Ambassadors validly accredited by the head of state to foreign countries, either by the Queen herself or by the Governor General acting on her behalf. The system, curious as it appeared, worked in some fashion because vital portions of the constitutional structure remained intact.
- ^ a b Caribbean and Central American Databook, Caribbean/Central American Action, 1991, p. 194
- ^ Phillips, Fred, Sir (1985). West Indian constitutions : post independence reform. New York: Oceana Publications. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-379-20834-2. OCLC 13126249.
- ^ Report of the Delegation to Eastern Caribbean and South American Countries of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, Second Session, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984, p. 12
- ^ a b c The Queen's role in Grenada
- ^ a b Queen and Grenada
- ^ Mallory, J.R. (August 1956). "Seals and Symbols: From Substance to Form in Commonwealth Equality". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. Montreal: Blackwell Publishing. 22 (3): 281–291. doi:10.2307/138434. ISSN 0008-4085. JSTOR 138434.
- ^ Nathan Tidridge (2011), Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: An Introduction to Our Form of Government, Dundurn, p. 205, ISBN 9781554889808,
The Crown is an institution that has grown to become specific to the country in which it now finds itself planted. No longer just a British monarchy, the Crown is separately a Jamaican monarchy, Tuvaluan monarchy, Canadian monarchy, et cetera.
- ^ "Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act". laws.gov.gd. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
- ^ a b "Crown Proceedings Act". laws.gov.gd. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
- ^ a b "SR&O 37 of 2022 Reign of Royal King Charles the Third Proclamation, 2022". laws.gov.gd. 12 September 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
- ^ "The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II".
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 55
- ^ Clegg, Nick (26 March 2015), Commencement of Succession to the Crown Act 2013 :Written statement – HCWS490, London: Queen's Printer, retrieved 26 March 2015
- ^ "Some Commonwealth countries still without royal assent on primogeniture law change". www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ Justice Rouleau in a 2003 court ruling wrote that "Union under the ... Crown together with other Commonwealth countries [is a] constitutional principle". O’Donohue v. Canada, 2003 CanLII 41404 (ON S.C.)
- ^ September 12th, 2022 | Prime Minister and team sign book of condolence at GG's residence. Government Information Service of Grenada (GIS). Retrieved 14 September 2022 – via Youtube.
- ^ "PM's statement on passing of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II". NOW Grenada. 8 September 2022.
- ^ "Governor General to attend Queen Elizabeth II's funeral". NOW Grenada. 12 September 2022.
- ^ a b Cox, Noel; Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law: Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence; Volume 9, Number 3 (September 2002)
- ^ "Crown Lands Act". laws.gov.gd. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
- ^ "Appointment of the Governor-General". Government of Grenada. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020.
- ^ Elizabeth II (1974), Constitution of Grenada (PDF), p. 15, retrieved 14 May 2023
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 32
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 29
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 32
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 15
- ^ a b c "Office of the Governor-General". Government of Grenada. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020.
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 32
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 32-33
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 17
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 44
- ^ Passports
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 17
- ^ a b "About the Grenada Houses of Parliament". Grenada Houses of Parliament. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
- ^ a b "These Shall be Thine Arts: The meaning of the Mace of the House of Representatives". NOW Grenada. 7 February 2017.
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 27
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 17
- ^ "Burke, Bernardine and Vincent to fill final three seats in the senate". NOW Grenada. 21 March 2013.
- ^ "Grenada's no parliamentary opposition: A none-issue!". NOW Grenada. 4 April 2018.
- ^ "NDC Heartbeat: The constitutional breach in the Senate". Now Grenada. 22 June 2018.
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 29
- ^ "PM announces date for Grenada's next General Elections". NOW Grenada. 15 May 2022.
- ^ Sir Paul Scoon (2003), Survival for Service: My Experiences as Governor General of Grenada, Macmillan Caribbean, p. 229, ISBN 9780333970645
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 27
- ^ "Constitution of Grenada (Elections and Boundaries Commission) (Amendment) Bill, 2016" (PDF). Ministry of Finance Grenada. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
- ^ "Constitution of Grenada (Rights and Freedoms) (Amendment) Bill, 2016" (PDF). Ministry of Finance Grenada. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
- ^ "Data Protection Act 2023". gazettes.gov.gd. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
- ^ Davis, Reginald (1976), Elizabeth, our Queen, Collins, p. 36, ISBN 9780002112338
- ^ "Knights v. The Queen (Grenada)". Casemine. 21 May 1998.
- ^ "Nigel Sookram v The Queen: From the Court of Appeal of Grenada" (PDF). JCPC. 23 February 2011.
- ^ "The Queen v Joshua Mitchell". vLex Grenada. 11 April 2017.
- ^ Halsbury's Laws of England, volume 12(1): "Crown Proceedings and Crown Practice", paragraph 101
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 44
- ^ "Appointment to the office of Chief Justice of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court" (PDF). CARICOM. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
- ^ "Role of the JCPC". JCPC. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 72
- ^ Commonwealth Journal: The Journal of the Royal Commonwealth Society · Volumes 12-14, Royal Commonwealth Society, 1969, p. 99
- ^ "No. 63380". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 June 2021. p. B49.
- ^ "No. 63572". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 2022. p. N45.
- ^ "National Honours and Awards Act". laws.gov.gd. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
- ^ Elizabeth II 1974, p. 44
- ^ a b "Police Act". laws.gov.gd. 3 May 2023.
- ^ a b "Rank Structure of the Royal Grenada Police Force". Government of Grenada. Archived from the original on 8 May 2023.
- ^ "Grenada 2012 MNH Royalty Stamps Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee 4v M/S". The Joy of Stamps. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
- ^ "Grenada 2022 MNH Royalty Stamps Queen Elizabeth II Platinum Jubilee 1v S/S". The Joy of Stamps. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
- ^ The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2012, p. 765, ISBN 9780160911422
- ^ "Citizenship Act". laws.gov.gd. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
- ^ "Princess Margaret In Grenada (1955)". British Pathé. Retrieved 21 May 2023 – via YouTube.
- ^ a b Royal visits
- ^ Sir Paul Scoon (2003), Survival for Service: My Experiences as Governor General of Grenada, Macmillan Caribbean, p. 230, ISBN 9780333970645
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 22 October 2003
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 19 November 2004
- ^ "Prince Edward to tour hurricane affected areas in Grenada tomorrow". grenadianconnection.com. 18 November 2004.
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 24 February 2004
- ^ "Prince Andrew visits Grenada and Barbados". grenadianconnection.com. 25 February 2004.
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 6 June 2011
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 7 June 2011
- ^ "The Earl and The Countess of Wessex tour the West Indies". The Royal Family. 14 February 2012.
- ^ "Courl Circular", The Royal Family, 30 September 2015
- ^ "Minister of State Hon Alexandra Otway Noel Welcome Prince Harry to Grenada". Government Information Service of Grenada (GIS). 30 November 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2023 – via YouTube.
- ^ "Prince Harry visits Grenada on behalf of The Queen". The Royal Family. 28 November 2016.
- ^ "Prince Harry unveils palace hospitality workers scheme". BBC News. 29 November 2016.
- ^ "Royal Visit to the Caribbean: Grenada". princeofwales.gov.uk. 23 March 2019. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020.
- ^ Adams, Charley (22 April 2022). "Earl and Countess of Wessex: Prince Edward and Sophie postpone Grenada trip". BBC. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
- ^ Trevelyan, Laura (22 April 2022). "Earl and Countess of Wessex: Why Grenada wanted to talk to royals about slavery". BBC. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
- ^ "Fact Sheet: Grenada Constitution Reform". NOW Grenada. 19 September 2016.
- ^ "National Results". Parliamentary Elections Office. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
- ^ "People's majority decision to delink from British Monarchy". NOW Grenada. 1 March 2023.
- ^ "Grenadian prime minister 'hopes' country will become republic under his leadership". Sky News. 4 May 2023.
- ^ "Uncharted Realms: The Future of the Monarchy in the UK and Around the World - Lord Ashcroft Polls". lordashcroftpolls.com. 2 May 2023.