|President of Tunisia|
13 December 2011 – 31 December 2014
|Prime Minister||Beji Caid Essebsi|
|Preceded by||Fouad Mebazaa|
|Succeeded by||Beji Caid Essebsi|
|Member of the Constituent Assembly|
for Nabeul's 2nd district
22 November 2011 – 13 December 2011
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Samia Abbou|
|President of the Congress for the Republic|
24 July 2001 – 13 December 2011
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Abderraouf Ayadi (Acting)|
|President of the Tunisian Human Rights League|
12 March 1989 – 5 February 1994
|Preceded by||Mohamed Charfi|
|Succeeded by||Taoufik Bouderbala|
|Born||7 July 1945|
Grombalia, French Tunisia
|Congress for the Republic|
|Alma mater||University of Strasbourg|
Mohamed Moncef Marzouki (Arabic: محمد المنصف المرزوقي; Muhammad al-Munṣif al-Marzūqī, born 7 July 1945) is a Tunisian politician who served as the fifth president of Tunisia from 2011 to 2014. Through his career he has been a human rights activist, physician and politician. On 12 December 2011, he was elected President of Tunisia by the Constituent Assembly.
Born in Grombalia, Tunisia, Marzouki was the son of a Qadi. His father, being a supporter of Salah Ben Youssef (Bourguiba's opponent), emigrated to Morocco in the late 1950s because of political pressures. Marzouki finished his secondary education in Tangier, where he obtained the Baccalauréat in 1961. He then went to study medicine at the University of Strasbourg in France. Returning to Tunisia in 1979, he founded the Center for Community Medicine in Sousse and the African Network for Prevention of Child Abuse, also joining Tunisian League for Human Rights. In his youth, he had travelled to India to study Mahatma Gandhi's non-violent resistance. Later, he also travelled to South Africa to study its transition from apartheid.
When the government cracked down violently on the Islamist Ennahda Movement in 1991, Marzouki confronted Tunisian President Ben Ali calling on him to adhere to the law. In 1993, Marzouki was a founding member of the National Committee for the Defense of Prisoners of Conscience, but he resigned after it was taken over by supporters of the government. He was arrested on several occasions on charges relating to the propagation of false news and working with banned Islamist groups. He subsequently founded the National Committee for Liberties. He became President of the Arab Commission for Human Rights and as of 17 January 2011[ref] continues as a member of its executive board.
President of Tunisia
On 12 December 2011, the Constituent Assembly of Tunisia, a body elected to govern the country and draft a new constitution, elected Marzouki as interim president, with 155 votes for, 3 against, and 42 blank votes. Blank votes were the result of a boycott from the opposition parties, who considered the new mini-constitution of the country an undemocratic one. He was the first president who was not an heir to the legacy of the country's founding president, Habib Bourguiba.
On 3 May 2012, Nessma TV owner Nabil Karoui and two others were convicted of "blasphemy" and "disturbing public order". The charges stemmed from the network's decision to broadcast a dubbed version of the 2007 Franco-Iranian film Persepolis, which includes several visual depictions of God. Karoui was fined 2,400 dinars for the broadcast, while the station's programming director and the president of the women's organization which provided dubbing for the film were fined 1,200 dinars. Responding to the verdict, Marzouki stated to members of the press in the presidential palace in Tunis, "I think this verdict is bad for the image of Tunisia. Now people in the rest of the world will only be talking about this when they talk about Tunisia."
In March 2014, President Marzouki lifted the state of emergency that had been in place since the outbreak of the 2011 revolution, and a top military chief said soldiers stationed in some of the country's most sensitive areas would return to their barracks. The decree from President Marzouki said the state of emergency ordered in January 2011 is lifted across the country immediately. The state of emergency was imposed by longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and maintained after he was overthrown. It was repeatedly renewed.
In April 2014, he cut his pay by two-thirds, citing the state's need to be a model in dealing with the deteriorating financial situation.
On 25 June 2015, Marzouki participated in the Freedom Flotilla III to the Gaza Strip. On 29 June, during their approach to the territorial waters of Gaza, but while still in international waters, the flotilla was intercepted by the Israeli navy and taken to the port of Ashdod, where the participants were interviewed. Marzouki was greeted by a delegation of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, but he declined to talk with them. On 30 June, he was deported to Paris and returned to Tunis on 1 July, where he was greeted by hundreds of supporters. In 2016, he was appointed by the African Union to oversee the Comorian presidential election. On 14 October 2021, the Tunisia government under Kais Saied stripped Marzouki of his diplomatic passport. In November 2021, Moncef Marzouki was the subject of an international arrest warrant issued by the Tunisian government for endangering state security. On 23 December 2021, Marzouki was sentenced to four years in prison and was found guilty of “undermining the security of the state from abroad” and of having caused “diplomatic harm”. Marzouki rejected the ruling, describing it as illegal, saying it was “issued by an illegitimate president who overturned the constitution”.
On 29 December 2021, Marzouki vowed to return to Tunisia and "overthrow the incumbent regime". In January 2022, Marzouki was among 19 predominantly high-ranking politicians to be referred to court for trial by the Tunisian judiciary for "electoral violations" allegedly committed during the 2019 presidential elections.
In 2022 Marzouki was sentenced to 4 years in prison.
Tunisian National Honours
- Grand Collar of the Order of Independence (In his capacity as President of the Tunisian Republic)
- Grand Collar of the Order of the Republic (In his capacity as President of the Tunisian Republic)
- Grand Collar of the National Order of Merit of Tunisia (In his capacity as President of the Tunisian Republic)
- France : Commander of the Legion of Honour (4 July 2013)
- Morocco : Special Class of the Order of Muhammad (31 May 2014)
- Egypt : Grand Cross of the Golden Lion of Alexandria (6 June 2014)
- Niger : Grand Cross of the Order of the Niger (23 June 2014)
Distinctions and awards
- The Maghrebian Medicine Prize (1982)
- Foundation Scanno Literary Prize (1988)
- The Price of the Arab Congress of Medicine (1989)
- Human Rights Watch awards for Freedoms (2001)
- Gold Medal of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2012)
- The Chatham House Prize for the year 2012 in London (with Rached Ghannouchi)
- Honorary Degree from University of Tsukuba in 2013
- Al Qods Prize for 2015 in Chicago
- Foundation Ducci Peace Award for 2016 in Rome
- One of the 100 Most Influential Arabs in the World in 2018
- Arabes, si vous parliez, ed. Lieu commun, Paris, 1987
- Laisse mon pays se réveiller : vers une quatrième civilisation, ed. Éditions pour le Maghreb arabe, Tunis, 1988
- Le mal arabe, ed. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2004
- Dictateurs en sursis : une voie démocratique pour le monde arabe, ed. de l'Atelier, Paris, 2009
- L'invention d'une démocratie. Les leçons de l'expérience tunisienne, ed. La Découverte, Paris, 2013
- Tunisie, du triomphe au naufrage (with Pierre Piccinin da Prata & Thibaut Werpin), ed. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2013
- "Veteran human rights activist chosen as Tunisia's new interim president", The Telegraph, 15 November 2011
- Tunisian activist to serve as interim president, CBC News, 12 December 2011
- Jacobs, Donna (5 April 2013), "Tunisia's bold gamble on democracy: 'One day or another, we will win'", Diplomat & International Canada
- "Marzouki se fait allumer en Algérie". Maghreb Intelligence. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Moncef Marzouki declares presidential candidacy". Al Arabiya. 16 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Marzouki: Tunisia's opposition stalwart turned president". English.alarabiya.net. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Coll, Steve. "The Casbah Coalition. Tunisia's second revolution", The New Yorker, 4 April 2011. retrieved on 30 April 2011.
- "What is the Arab Commission for Human Rights". 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "Déclaration constitutive". Congress for the Republic. 24 July 2001. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "Première liste des membres fondateurs du CPR". Congress for the Republic. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "Tunisia's assembly elects human rights activist as interim president". Washington Post. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Tunisian activist, Moncef Marzouki, named president". BBC News. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Mzioudet, Houda (14 December 2011), "Ennahda's Jebali Appointed as Tunisian Prime Minister", Tunisia-live.net, archived from the original on 17 January 2012, retrieved 21 December 2011
- Tunisian PM presents new government, AFP, 20 December 2011, archived from the original on 21 December 2011, retrieved 21 December 2011
- "Owner of Nessma TV Fined 2,400 Dinars in Persepolis Trial : Tunisia Live". Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Controversial Tunisian Court Ruling Reflects Dilemmas of the Arab Spring". Time. 3 May 2012.
- "Tunisia launches Truth and Dignity Commission". 9 June 2014.
- "Tunisia ends state of emergency after 3 years - the Washington Post". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
- "Tunisian president cuts own pay by two-thirds". 14 April 2014.
- "Tunisian secular leader Essebsi sworn in as new president", Reuters, 31 December 2014.
- Tunisia's ex-president Marzouki arrives in France after detention in Israel, Ahram Online, 30 June 2015
- "Marzouki en mission d'observation des élections aux Îles Comores". 10 February 2016.
- "Tunisia withdraws diplomatic passport of ex-leader as Western pressure mounts". Reuters. 14 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
- "Tunisie : Moncef Marzouki visé par un mandat d'arrêt international". Jeune Afrique. 5 November 2021. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
- "Ex-Tunisian President Marzouki sentenced to 4 years in absentia". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
- "Tunisia's former president Marzouki sentenced to jail in absentia". France 24. 22 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
- "Ex-Tunisian president vows to overthrow incumbent regime". Middle East Monitor. 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
- "Tunisian judiciary refers 19 people to trial for 'electoral crimes'". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
- "Ex-Tunisian President Marzouki sentenced to 4 years in absentia".
- "La nouvelle 'Première dame' de Tunisie : Pourquoi tant de mystère?". Nawaat. 3 April 2013.
- "Les limites du concept sont-elles encore négociables ?". 2001.
- "Le Directeur général remet la Médaille d'or de l'ISESCO au Président tunisien". 29 December 2012.
- "Chatham House Prize 2012 - Rached Ghannouchi and Moncef Marzouki". 8 April 2015.
- "Marzouki docteur honoris causa de l'université de Tsukuba". 4 July 2013.
- "Le Prix annuel d'El Qods 2015, attribué à Moncef Marzouki". 29 November 2015.
- "Moncef Marzouki reçoit le Prix de la Paix de la Fondation italienne Ducci". 16 March 2016.
- "Toplist Arabic 2018". 17 January 2018.