Monchina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Monchina
Sementales H-B monchina (cropped).jpg
Conservation status
Other namesBasque: Behi montxina
Country of originSpain
Distribution
Standard
Usebeef[3]
Traits
Weight
  • Male:
    average 400 kg[4]: 107 
  • Female:
    average 275 kg[4]: 107 
Height
  • Male:
    average 1.30 m[4]: 107 
  • Female:
    average 1.25 m[4]: 107 
Horn statushorned
  • Cattle
  • Bos (primigenius) taurus

The Monchina, Basque: Behi montxina, is a Spanish breed of mountain cattle indigenous to the autonomous communities of Cantabria and the Basque Country in northern Spain.[5] It is related to the Betizu and possibly to the Terreña breeds of cattle of the Basque Country, and is closely associated with the Villano de las Encartaciones breed of dog, which is traditionally used in managing it.[6]: 249  It is classified by the Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, the Spanish ministry of agriculture, as a "Raza Autóctona en Peligro de Extinción" or native breed at risk of extinction.[7]

History[edit]

The Terreña originates in the northern part of the province of Álava and the southern part of that of Bizkaia; some are found in the comarca of Enkarterri in Bizkaia, and there are some localised populations in Gipuzkoa. The Terreña was formerly found in large numbers, and was the most numerous breed in these areas; in the mid-twentieth century there were over 15,000 head.[4]: 158  The industrialisation of agriculture and depopulation of rural areas in the latter part of that century led to an acute fall in numbers,[4]: 158  and in 1991 the population was reported to be 208 head.[2] Conservation efforts began in the 1990s. The Terreña breed received official recognition on 9 December 2003.[4]: 158 

The Terreña is among the breeds classified as "at risk of extinction" by the Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, the Spanish ministry of agriculture.[7] At the end of 2014 the total population was recorded as 2474, of which 2260 were female and 214 male.[8]

Use and management[edit]

The Terreña was formerly a triple-purpose breed, used as a draught animal and for milk and meat production, but is now raised only for meat. Terreño oxen were in the past used in the traditional Basque rural sport of idi probak, or stone-pulling.[4]: 158 [3]

The cattle are traditionally managed extensively, ranging freely on mountain pasture from April to November, and spending the winter months at pasture in the neighbouring valleys.[4]: 159 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barbara Rischkowsky, D. Pilling (eds.) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Accessed January 2021.
  2. ^ a b Breed data sheet: Monchina / Spain (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed January 2021.
  3. ^ a b Raza bovina Monchina: Usos y sistema de explotación (in Spanish). Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Accessed January 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miguel Fernández Rodríguez, Mariano Gómez Fernández, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, Silvia Adán Belmonte, Miguel Jiménez Cabras (eds.) (2009). Guía de campo de las razas autóctonas españolas (in Spanish). Madrid: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. ISBN 9788449109461.
  5. ^ Monchina: ganado bovino (in Spanish). Federación Española de Asociaciones de Ganado Selecto. Archived 1 January 2011.
  6. ^ Valerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J.G. Hall, D. Phillip Sponenberg (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding (sixth edition). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9781780647944.
  7. ^ a b Raza bovina Monchina: Datos Generales (in Spanish). Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Accessed January 2021.
  8. ^ Raza bovina Terreña: Datos Censales (in Spanish). Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Accessed January 2021.