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Map of Arusha Region's districts with Monduli District highlighted.
Monduli District is one of the five districts of the Arusha Region of Tanzania. It is located in the northeastern section of the country. It is bordered to the north by Kenya, to the east by the Kilimanjaro Region and Arumeru District, to the south by the Manyara Region and to the west by Ngorongoro District and Karatu District. The town of Monduli is the administrative seat of the district. According to the 2002 Tanzania National Census, the population of the Monduli District was 185,237.
The word Monduli was originated in the ward Monduli Juu. There was a wealthy Maasai ancestor with the name of Monduli, who lived in the area during the times of German colonization. The Germans colonized the area (later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi) in 1880s. They brought forced labour and land alienation but also Christianity and European education, teaching science, math, engineering, and even German. Tanganyika gained its independence on December 9, 1961, under the leadership of Prime Minister Julius Nyerere. In April 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar, a former British protectorate, united to form Tanzania under President Nyerere.
For parliamentary elections, Arusha Region is divided into constituencies. As of the 2010 elections Monduli District had one constituency, Monduli Constituency.
The Monduli District is near the city of Arusha and Mt. Meru. The Monduli Mountains run through the area. The area contains plain land, rainforest, and mountains. The famous volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Maasai for Mountain God, resides among the Monduli Mountains. This volcano holds a special place in the hearts of the local Maasai and is a stunning geographic landmark.
The Monduli District is an extremely popular tourist spot. One is able to wander the hills and plains, while observing the wildlife. People often visit the area in order to witness first-hand how the local people, the Maasai, live. They have the opportunity to hike with a Maasai villager and stay in a Maasai boma. The Red Market is a small market held every Saturday in the village of Monduli Juu. In the market the villagers are able to purchase all their necessities, including clothing, food, and livestock. Local tourist attractions include lake Manyara, mount Meru, Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, and the Ngorongoro crater. These other attractions help promote the Monduli region and assist in bringing people to the area.
The people that reside in the Monduli District are the Maasai people. They are nomadic people who shepherd sheep and cows. The main languages are Swahili and Maasai. Alongside pastoralism, a significant portion of people also engage in some sorts of farming and some still live in huts made of mud. They are a friendly people and live peacefully alongside one another. The women do most of the caring for children and farming, while the men and adolescents roam the fields with the livestock during the day. Maasai dance is a large part of the area and its people. The men of the area tend to have more control in the family life. The area contains about 4.6 million animals, majority of which is livestock.
The dominant religion of the district is Christianity, along with tribal beliefs.
The presiding factor of the economy of the area is agriculture, it accounts for 45% of the GDP. This includes both commercial and peasantry farms. The second biggest part of the economy is tourism, which accounts for about 20% of the region's GDP. In 2007 the region's GDP accounted for approximately 4.5% of the country's GDP.
Monduli town, located in Monduli district, is an educational center for surrounding regions. Irkisongo, Moringe Sokoine, Engutoto, Orkeeswa, and Manyara Secondary Schools are located there, as is the Monduli Teachers' College and the MaaSae Girls' Advanced Lutheran Secondary School. Land has been set aside for a proposed branch of the Lutheran founded Tumaini University at Makumira near Arusha. Also in the district is the Tanzania People's Defence Force Tanzania Military Academy. Education is important and it has been a problem educating all the children, due to the fact many of them work with their family in the fields herding the families livestock.
Disease in this area is a problem. People suffer from various diseases, such as malaria. The majority of diseases are mosquito-borne and difficult to avoid. However, due to the higher altitude of the area, mosquitoes are not as common. Monduli has one hospital, one health centre, and 22 dispensaries.
- "2002 Population and Housing General Report: Arusha: Monduli". Archived from the original on 18 March 2004.
- In English, the Swahili "Mto wa Mbu" means river of mosquitoes.
- http://www.arusha.go.tz/english/Pages/Health/index.php[permanent dead link]