Mongol invasions of Japan
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (August 2013)|
|Mongol invasions of Japan|
|Part of the Mongol invasion of East Asia and Kublai Khan's Campaigns|
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol and Korean arrows and bombs
|Commanders and leaders|
| Emperor Kameyama
Taira no Kagetaka
|1274: a force of Mongol, Chinese and Korean soldiers numbering 23,000
with 600–800 ships (300 large vessels and 400–500 smaller craft)
1281: two forces of Mongol, Chinese and Korean soldiers, numbering 100,000 and 40,000
with 3,500 and 900 ships (respectively)
In 1281: 40,000 (?)
Reinforcements by Rokuhara Tandai : 60,000 (not yet arrived)
|Casualties and losses|
The Mongol invasions of Japan (元寇 Genkō?), which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom. Ultimately a failure, the invasion attempts are of macro-historical importance because they set a limit on Mongol expansion and rank as nation-defining events in the history of Japan.
The invasions are referred to in many works of fiction, and are the earliest events for which the word kamikaze ("divine wind") is widely used, referring to the two typhoons faced by the Mongol fleets.
- 1 Background
- 2 Contact
- 3 First invasion preparations
- 4 First invasion (1274)
- 5 Main battles of Battle of Bun'ei
- 6 Developments leading to the second invasion
- 7 Second invasion (1281)
- 8 Main battles of Battle of Kōan
- 9 Military significance
- 10 Gallery
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
After a series of Mongol invasions of Korea from 1231 to 1259, Goryeo signed a treaty in favor of the Mongols and became a vassal state. Kublai was declared Khagan of the Mongol Empire in 1260 (although this was not widely recognized by the Mongols in the west) and established his capital at Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) in 1264.
Japan at the time was ruled by the Shikken or Shogunate Regents of the Hōjō clan, who had intermarried with and wrested control from Minamoto no Yoriie, shogun of the Kamakura shogunate, after his death in 1203. The inner circle of the Hōjō clan had become so preeminent that they no longer consulted the council of the shogunate (Hyōjō (評定?)), the Imperial Court of Kyoto, or their gokenin vassals, and made their decisions at private meetings in their residences (yoriai (寄合?)).
In 1266, Kublai Khan dispatched emissaries to Japan with a letter saying:
Cherished from Mandate of Heaven, the Great Mongol emperor sends this letter to the King of Japan. The sovereigns of small countries, sharing borders with each other, have for a long time been concerned to communicate with each other and become friendly. Especially since my ancestor governed at heaven's command, innumerable countries from afar disputed our power and slighted our virtue. Goryeo rendered thanks for my ceasefire and for restoring their land and people when I ascended the throne. Our relation is feudatory like a father and son. We think you already know this. Goryeo is my eastern tributary. Japan was allied with Goryeo and sometimes with China since the founding of your country; however, Japan has never dispatched ambassadors since my ascending the throne. We are afraid that the Kingdom is yet to know this. Hence we dispatched a mission with our letter particularly expressing our wishes. Enter into friendly relations with each other from now on. We think all countries belong to one family. How are we in the right, unless we comprehend this? Nobody would wish to resort to arms.
Kublai essentially demanded that Japan become a vassal and send tribute under a threat of conflict. However, the emissaries returned empty-handed. A second set of emissaries were sent in 1268, returning empty-handed like the first. Both sets of emissaries met with the Chinzei Bugyō, or Defense Commissioner for the West, who passed on the message to Shikken, Hōjō Tokimune, Japan's ruler in Kamakura and to the Emperor of Japan in Kyoto.
After discussing the letters with his inner circle, there was much debate, but the Shikken had his mind made up; he had the emissaries sent back with no answer. The Mongols repeatedly resent demands, some through Korean emissaries and some through Mongol ambassadors on March 7, 1269; September 17, 1269; September 1271; and May 1272. However, each time, the bearers were not permitted to land in Kyushu.
The Imperial Court suggested surrender out of overwhelming fear, but really had no say in the matter since its marginalization after losing the Jōkyū War. The shogunate ordered all those who held fiefs in Kyūshū, the area closest to the Korean Peninsula and thus most likely to be attacked, to return to their lands and forces in Kyūshū moved west, further securing the most likely landing points.
After acknowledging its importance, the Imperial Court led great prayer services, and much government business was put off to deal with this crisis.
First invasion preparations
The Khan was willing to go to war as early as 1268 after having been rebuffed twice, but found that his empire did not have the resources to provide him with a sufficient navy at that time. With Mongol entry into the Korean court by marriage of the Korean crown prince to Kublai Khan's daughter, a mass construction of ships began on Korea's south-eastern shores, while the Mongols continued to demand Japan's surrender.
Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271. In 1272, King Chungnyeol offered counsel to Kublai Khan. According to Goryeosa, Japan is yet to know the world is hallowed. So dispatch emissaries and convey our military power to Japan. Battle ships and military rations are well prepared. If you appoint me, I encourage you to the extent of my power. According to the History of Yuan, King of Goryeo ask Kublai Khan for conquering Japan. I am building 150 ships and encourage your conquest of Japan.
First invasion (1274)
In 1274, the Yuan fleet set out with an estimated 15,000 Mongol and Chinese soldiers and 8000 Korean soldiers in 300 large vessels and 400-500 smaller craft, although figures vary considerably depending on the source. They landed on Komodahama beach on Tsushima Island on October 5, 1274. So Sukekuni, governor of Tsushima, led a cavalry unit of 80 to defend the island, but he and his outnumbered unit were killed in the engagement. The Mongols, Chinese and Koreans occupied the island and killed many civilians.
The Mongols and Koreans subsequently invaded Iki. Tairano Takakage, the Governor of Iki, fought the invaders with about 100 of his cavalrymen, but he killed himself after his unit was defeated. The Mongols, Chinese and Koreans slaughtered many civilians in Iki. The Mongol forces committed atrocities such as piercing the hands of women and hanging them on their boats.
The Mongol forces landed on November 19 in Hakata Bay, a short distance from Dazaifu, the ancient administrative capital of Kyūshū. The following day brought the Battle of Bun'ei (文永の役), also known as the "First Battle of Hakata Bay".
The Japanese were inexperienced in managing such a large force (all of North Kyūshū had been mobilized), and the Mongols made significant initial progress. It had been approximately 50 years since the last major combat event in Japan (Go-Toba's adherents in 1221), leaving not a single Japanese general with adequate experience in moving large bodies of troops. In addition, the style of warfare that was customary within feudal Japan involved single combat, even on large battlefields.
The Mongols possessed foreign weapons which included superior long-range armaments (the short composite bows that the Mongols were famous for, with poisoned arrows, fire arrows, bow-launched arrows with small rocket engines attached and gunpowder-packed exploding arrows and grenades with ceramic shells thrown by slings to terrify the enemy's horses), and easily had the upper hand in open land combat. The Japanese force at Hakata Bay needed time to await the arrival of reinforcements, with which they would be able to overwhelm the Mongol invaders.
Around nightfall, a typhoon caused the Mongol ship captains to suggest that the land force reembark in order to avoid the risk of being marooned on Japanese soil. By daybreak, only a few ships had not set out to sea. Those that had were destroyed by the storm. Some accounts offer casualty reports that suggest 200 Mongol ships were lost. However, small Japanese boats were much more swift and maneuverable than Mongol ships, and the Japanese were able to board the remaining ships of the crippled Mongol army. The samurai approached and boarded the ships under cover of darkness and fell on the invaders ferociously. In the small confines of the ships, during the predawn darkness, the Mongols (trained as cavalrymen and horse archers) were unable to bring their bows to bear effectively. However, the long, thin Japanese swords got stuck and snapped off in the thick, boiled leather armor of the Mongols, causing blacksmiths to reevaluate their swords, which led to the invention and spread of the now-famous katana in the 13th and 14th century. The katana was made shorter and thicker.
Meanwhile, back in Kamakura, Tokimune was overcome with fear when the invasion finally came, and wanting to overcome his cowardice, he asked Mugaku Sogen, his Zen master also known as Bukko, for advice. Bukko replied he had to sit in meditation to find the source of his cowardice in himself. Tokimune went to Bukko and said, "Finally there is the greatest happening of my life." Bukko asked, "How do you plan to face it?" Tokimune screamed, "Katsu!" ("Victory!") as if he wanted to scare all the enemies in front of him. Bukko responded with satisfaction, "It is true that the son of a lion roars as a lion!" Since that time, Tokimune was instrumental in spreading Zen and Bushido in Japan among the samurai.
Main battles of Battle of Bun'ei
Battle of Tsushima Island - Mongolian victory
On October 5, About 1,000 soldiers of Mongolian Army landed at Komoda Beach. Sukekuni So(宗助国), Shugodai of Tsushima Island was killed in action. The Mongolians slaughtered many dwellers of Tsushima island.
Battle of Iki Island - Mongolian victory
On October 14, Taira no Kagetaka(平景隆), Shugodai of Iki led about 100 soldiers. They were defeated by the Mongolian army and he committed suicide in Hidzume Castle(樋詰城). About 1,000 Japanese soldiers were killed there.
Battle of Hirato Island , Taka Island and Nokono Island - Mongolian victory
Battle of Akasaka - Japanese victory
The Mongolian Army landed on Sawara District and encamped at Akasaka. On seeing this situation, Takehusa Kikuchi(菊池武房) surprised the Mongolian army. The Mongolians escaped to Sohara, after losing about 100 soldiers.
Battle of Torikai-Gata - Japanese victory
Thousands of Mongolian soldiers were massed in Torikai-Gata. Suenaga Takezaki(竹崎季長), one of the Japanese commanders, attacked the Mongolian army and fought them. Soon, reinforcements led by Michiyasu Shiraisi(白石通泰) arrived and defeated the Mongolians soundly. The Mongolian casualties of this battle were about 13,500.
Withdrawal of Mongolian army
Due to the defeat in battle of Torikai-Gata, the Mongolian army was exhausted and withdrew to their ships. On seeing this situation, the Japanese army engaged in night attacks and killed many soldiers. Finally, Hong Dagu decided to withdraw to the Yuan-held continent. In the midst of withdrawal, they met a typhoon, most of their ships sank and many soldiers drowned.
Developments leading to the second invasion
Starting in 1275, the Shogunate increased efforts to defend against the second invasion, which they thought was sure to come. In addition to better organizing the samurai of Kyūshū, they ordered the construction of forts and a large stone wall (石塁, Sekirui), and other defensive structures at many potential landing points, including Hakata Bay, where a two meter high wall was constructed in 1276.
Religious services increased and the Hakōzaki shrine, having been destroyed by the Yuan forces, was rebuilt. A coastal watch was instituted and rewards were given to some 120 valiant samurai. There was even a plan for a raid on Goryeo to be carried out by Shōni Tsunesuke, a general from Kyūshū, though this was never executed.
After the failed invasion, Kublai Khan was tired of being ignored and not being allowed to land, so five Yuan emissaries were dispatched in September 1275 and sent to Kyūshū, refusing to leave without a reply. Tokimune responded by having them sent to Kamakura and then beheading them. The graves of those five executed Yuan emissaries exist to this day in Kamakura at Tatsunokuchi. Then again on July 29, 1279, five more Yuan emissaries were sent in the same manner, and again beheaded, this time in Hakata. Expecting another invasion, on Feb 21, 1280, the Imperial Court ordered all temples and shrines to pray for victory over the Yuan.
Second invasion (1281)
In the spring of 1281, the Mongols sent two separate forces. An impressive force of 900 ships containing 40,000 Yuan troops set out from Masan, Korea, while an even larger force of 100,000 sailed from southern China in 3,500 ships. The Mongols' plan called for an overwhelming coordinated attack by the combined imperial Yuan fleets. The Chinese fleet of the Yuan was delayed by difficulties in provisioning and manning the large number of ships they had.
Their Mongol fleet set sail, suffered heavy losses at Tsushima, and turned back. In the summer, the fleet took Iki-shima and moved on to Kyūshū, landing at several different locations. In a number of individual skirmishes, known collectively as the Battle of Kōan (弘安の役) or the "Second Battle of Hakata Bay", the Mongol forces were driven back to their ships. The Japanese army was heavily outnumbered, but had fortified the coastal line, and was easily able to repulse the auxiliaries that were launched against it. Beginning August 15, the now-famous kamikaze, a massive typhoon, assaulted the shores of Kyūshū for two days straight, and destroyed much of the Mongol fleet.
Furthermore, it is now believed that the destruction of the Mongol fleet was greatly facilitated by an additional factor. Most of the invasion force was composed of hastily-acquired flat-bottomed Chinese riverboats and ships built in Goryeo and all of a similar type. According to Goryeosa, Southern Song type ships were too costly and their construction was too slow, so the traditional types were constructed instead. Such ships (unlike ocean-going ships, which have a curved keel to prevent capsizing) were difficult to use on high seas, let alone during a massive typhoon.
Main battles of Battle of Kōan
Battle of Tsushima Island - Japanese victory
On May 21, the Mongolian Army landed on Tsushima island and invaded. They met fierce resistance there and later withdrew.
Battle of Shikano Island - Japanese victory
On the morning of June 8, the Japanese army divided their force into two and attacked along Umi no Nakamichi. The Japanese army lost 300 soldiers but defeated Hong Dagu and Zhang Cheng. Hong Dagu nearly died in this battle.
On June 9, Zhang Cheng solidified the defense of his army, but due to the fierce Japanese attacks, the Mongolian army was again defeated. After this defeat, the Mongolian army escaped to Iki Island.
Battle of Iki Island - Japanese victory
On June 29, ten thousands of Japanese army including Matuura Clan, Ryuzoji Clan and Takagi Clan begun an all-out attack on Iki Island. On July 2, Iekiyo Ryuzoji landed on Setoura beach and defeated the Mongolian army. As a result, the Mongolian army decided to abandon Iki Island and withdrew to Hirato Island.
Battle of Taka Island - annihilation of Mongolian army
On July 7, there were about 100,000 soldiers of the Mongol army without commanders. Upon seeing this development, the Japanese army carried out an all-out attack. Korechika togo, Koretoo Togo, Sukekado Hujiwara and Nagahisa Shimazu defeated 100,000 soldiers. The Japanese army took 20,000 to 30,000 prisoners in this battle. At the completion of this battle, Japan's victory was confirmed.
From a military perspective, the failed invasions of Kublai Khan were the first of only three instances (the others being Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and the Japanese invasion of Ryukyu) when the samurai fought foreign troops rather than amongst themselves. It is also the first time samurai clans fought for the sake of Japan itself instead of for more narrowly defined clan interests. The invasions also exposed the Japanese to an alien fighting style which, lacking the single combat that characterized traditional samurai combat, they saw as inferior. This difference is noted in the Hachiman Gudōkun:
According to our manner of fighting we must first call out by name someone from the enemy ranks, and then attack in single combat. But the Mongols took no notice at all of such conventions. They rushed forward all together in a mass, grappling with any individuals they could catch and killing them.
The Mongol method of advances and withdrawals accompanied by bells, drums and war cries was also unknown in Japan, as was the technique of Mongolian archers, which involved shooting arrows en masse into the air rather than long-ranged one-on-one combat. The Zen Buddhism of Hojo Tokimune and his Zen master Bukko had gained credibility beyond national boundaries, and the first mass followings of Zen teachings among samurai began to flourish.
The failed invasions also mark the first use of the word kamikaze ("Divine Wind"). They also perpetuated the Japanese belief that they could not be defeated, which remained an important aspect of Japanese foreign policy until the end of World War II. The failed invasions also demonstrated a weakness of the Mongols – the inability to mount naval invasions successfully (see also Mongol invasions of Vietnam.) After the death of Kublai, his successor, Temür Khan, unsuccessfully demanded the submission of Japan in 1295.
The Mongols and the Ashikaga shogunate of Japan made peace in the late 14th century during the reign of Toghon Temür, the last Yuan emperor in Khanbaliq. Long before the peace agreement, there was stable trade in East Asia under the dominance of the Mongols and Japan.
As a consequence of the destruction of the Mongol fleets, Japan's independence was guaranteed. Simultaneously, a power struggle within Japan led to the dominance of military governments and diminishing Imperial power.
The Mongol invasions are an early example of gunpowder warfare. One of the most notable technological innovations during the war was the use of explosive bombs. The bombs are known in Chinese as "thunder crash bombs" and were fired from catapults, inflicting damage on enemy soldiers. An illustration of a bomb is depicted in a Japanese scroll, showing their use by the Mongols against mounted samurai. Archaeological evidence of the use of gunpowder was finally confirmed when multiple shells of the explosive bombs were discovered in an underwater shipwreck off the shore of Japan by the Kyushu Okinawa Society for Underwater Archaeology. X-rays by Japanese scientists of the excavated shells provided proof that they contained gunpowder.
- Stephen Turnbull (19 February 2013). The Mongol Invasions of Japan 1274 and 1281. Osprey Publishing. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-1-4728-0045-9. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- The conquest of Ainu lands: ecology and culture in Japanese expansion, 1590–1800 By Brett L. Walker, p.133
- Original text in Chinese: 上天眷命大蒙古國皇帝奉書日本國王朕惟自古小國之君境土相接尚務講信修睦況我祖宗受天明命奄有區夏遐方異域畏威懷德者不可悉數朕即位之初以高麗無辜之民久瘁鋒鏑即令罷兵還其疆域反其旄倪高麗君臣感戴來朝義雖君臣歡若父子計王之君臣亦已知之高麗朕之東藩也日本密邇高麗開國以來亦時通中國至於朕躬而無一乘之使以通和好尚恐王國知之未審故特遣使持書布告朕志冀自今以往通問結好以相親睦且聖人以四海為家不相通好豈一家之理哉以至用兵夫孰所好王其圖之不宣至元三年八月日
- Goryeosa 『高麗史』世家巻第二十七 元宗十三年 三月己亥（March 11, 1272） 「惟彼日本 未蒙聖化。 故發詔使 繼糴軍容 戰艦兵糧 方在所須。儻以此事委臣 庶幾勉盡心力 小助王師」
- History of Yuan 『元史』 卷十二 本紀第十二 世祖九 至元十九年七月壬戌（August 9, 1282）「高麗国王請、自造船百五十艘、助征日本。」
- Goryeosa volume 104 episode 17 "invasion of Tsushima and annihilation"
- 『高麗史』 巻一百四 列伝十七 金方慶「入對馬島、撃殺甚衆」
- 『高麗史』 巻八十七 表巻第二「十月、金方慶與元元帥忽敦洪茶丘等征日本、至壹岐戰敗、軍不還者萬三千五百餘人」
- 『高麗史』巻一百四 列伝十七 金方慶「諸軍與戰、及暮乃解、方慶謂忽敦茶丘曰、『兵法千里縣軍、其鋒不可當、我師雖少、已入敵境、人自爲戰、即孟明焚船淮陰背水也、請復戰』、忽敦曰、『兵法小敵之堅、大敵之擒、策疲乏之兵、敵日滋之衆、非完計也、不若回軍』復亨中流矢、先登舟、遂引兵還、會夜大風雨、戰艦觸岩多敗、?堕水死、到合浦、」
- Reed, Edward J. (1880). Japan: its History, Traditions, and Religions, p. 291., p. 291, at Google Books
- Winters, Harold et al. (2001). Battling the Elements, p. 14., p. 14, at Google Books
- Goryeosa 『高麗史』 列伝巻十七 「若依蛮様則工費多将不及期」「用本國船様督造」
- 『高麗史』 巻一百四 列伝十七 金方慶「方慶與忻都茶丘朴球金周鼎等發、至日本世界村大明浦」
- 『高麗史節要』巻二十 十四葉 忠烈王七年六月壬申（八日）「六月壬申（八日）、金方慶金周鼎朴球朴之亮荊萬戸等、與日本兵力戰、斬首三百餘級、官軍潰、茶丘乗馬走、王萬戸復横撃之、斬五十餘級、日本兵之退、茶丘僅免、翼日復戰敗績、」
- 『高麗史』巻一百四 列伝十七 金方慶「六月、方慶周鼎球之亮荊萬戸等、與日本兵合戰、斬三百餘級、日本兵突進、官軍潰、茶丘棄馬走、王萬戸復横撃之、斬五十餘級、日本兵之退、茶丘僅免、翼日復戰敗績、」
- 『元史』巻一百五十四 列傳第四十一 洪福源・附洪俊奇「十七年、授龍虎衞上將軍、征東行省右丞、十八年、與右丞欣都、將舟師四萬、由高麗金州合浦以進、時右丞范文虎等、將兵十萬、由慶元、定海等処渡海、期至日本一岐、平戸等島合兵登岸、兵未交、秋八月、風壞舟而還。」
- 『肥前武雄神社文書』黒尾社大宮司藤原経門申状「肥前国御家人黒尾社大宮司藤原資門謹言上 欲早且依合戦忠節、且任傍例、預勲功賞去弘安四年遺賊合戦事、 右、遺賊襲来之時、於千崎息乗移于賊船、資門乍被疵、生虜一人分取一人了、将又攻上鷹嶋棟原、致合戦忠之刻、生慮二人了、此等子細、於鎮西談議所、被経其沙汰、相尋証人等、被注進之処、相漏平均恩賞之条、愁吟之至、何事如之哉、且如傍例者、到越訴之輩、面々蒙其賞了、且資門自身被疵之条、宰府注進分明也、争可相漏平均軍賞哉、如承及者、防戦警固之輩、皆以蒙軍賞了、何自身手負資門不預忠賞、空送年月之条、尤可有御哀憐哉、所詮於所々戦場、或自身被疵、或分取生慮之条、証人等状?宰府注進分明之上者、依合戦忠節、任傍例欲預平均軍賞、仍恐々言上如件、 永仁四年八月 日」
- 『高麗史』巻二十九 世家二十九 忠烈王二 忠烈王八年六月己丑（一日）の条「蠻軍?把沈聰等六人、自白本逃來言、本明州人、至元十八年六月十八日、従葛剌歹萬戸上船至日本、値悪風船敗、衆軍十三四萬、同栖一山、十月初八日、日本軍至、我軍飢不能戰、皆降日本、擇留工匠及知田者、餘皆殺之、王遣上將軍印侯郎將柳庇、押聰等送干元。/（八月）甲午（九日）、蠻軍五人、自日本逃來」
- 『元史』巻二百八 列傳第九十五 外夷一 日本國「（至元十八年）官軍六月入海、七月至平壷島（平戸島）、移五龍山（鷹島か）、八月一日、風破舟、五日、文虎等諸將各自擇堅好船乘之、棄士卒十餘萬于山下、衆議推張百戸者爲主帥、號之曰張總管、聽其約束、方伐木作舟欲還、七日日本人來戰、盡死、餘二三萬爲其虜去、九日、至八角島、盡殺蒙古、高麗、漢人、謂新附軍爲唐人、不殺而奴之、?輩是也、蓋行省官議事不相下、故皆棄軍歸、久之、莫靑與呉萬五者亦逃還、十萬之衆得還者三人耳。」
- 『薩摩比志島文書』比志島時範軍忠状案「次月七月七日鷹嶋合戦之時、自陸地馳向事、爰時範依合戦之忠勤、爲預御裁許、粗言上如件、 弘安五年二月 日」
- 『薩摩比志島文書』島津長久證状「同閏七月七日鷹嶋合戦之時、五郎次郎自陸地馳向候之条、令見知候了、若此條僞申候者、日本國中大少神罸可罷蒙長久之身候、恐惶謹言、 弘安五年四月十五日 大炊助長久」
- Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan and the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 19., p. 19, at Google Books
- Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 146., p. 146, at Google Books
- Delgado, James (February 2003). "Relics of the Kamikaze". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 56 (1).
- Davis, Paul K. (1999). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514366-9; OCLC 0195143663
- Reed, Edward J. (1880). Japan: its History, Traditions, and Religions. London: J. Murray. OCLC 1309476
- Sansom, George. (1958). A History of Japan to 1334, Stanford University Press, 1958.
- Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan and the Mongol Conquests, 1190-1400. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-96862-1
- Winters, Harold A.; Gerald E. Galloway Jr.; William J. Reynolds and David W. Rhyne. (2001). Battling the Elements: Weather and Terrain in the Conduct of War. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 9780801866487; OCLC 492683854
- Conlan, Thomas. (2001). In Little Need of Divine Intervention, Cornell University Press, 2001 — includes a black-and-white reproduction of the Moko Shurai Ekotoba, as well as translations of relevant Kamakura-era documents and an essay by Prof. Conlan concerning the Invasions (in which he argues that the Japanese were better placed to withstand the Mongols than traditionally given credit for). The essay is available in pdf form at this link.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mongol invasions of Japan.|
- Mongol Invasion Scrolls Online - an interactive viewer detailing the Moko Shurai Ekotoba, developed by Professor Thomas Conlan
- Mongol Invasions of Japan - selection of photos by Louis Chor
- Mongol Invasions Painting Scrolls - more illustrations from the Moko Shurai Ekotoba
- Goryeosa 高麗史 full text from the National Diet Library of Japan   
- Sasaki, Randall James (2008), The origin of the lost fleet of the Mongol Empire (PDF) (An MA thesis discussing the construction of the invasion fleet, and the discovery of its remains by modern underwater archaeologists)