Mongolian wild ass
|Mongolian wild ass|
|Mongolian wild asses in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.|
|Subspecies:||E. h. hemionus|
|Equus hemionus hemionus
Equus (Asinus) hemionus bedfordi Matschie 1911
The Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), also known as Mongolian khulan, is the nominate subspecies of the onager. It is found in southern Mongolia and northern China. It was previously found in eastern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia before being extirpated there through hunting. In 2015, the Mongolian wild ass are listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Current population estimates are approximately 42,000 individuals in Mongolia and around 5,000 individuals in Northern China.
Taxonomy and etymology
Habitat and population
The Mongolian wild ass is the most widespread subspecies, although despite that, the subspecies lost about 50% of its former distribution range in Mongolia in the past 70 years. The former range of the Asiatic wild ass in East Asia between the seventeenth and the middle of the nineteenth century encompassed the greater part of Mongolia, areas of Siberia and Manchuria, the western part of Inner Mongolia and the northern part of Xinjiang. Its distribution range then dramatically reduced during the 1990s. A 1994–1997 survey estimated its population size at 33,000 to 63,000 individuals over a continuous distribution range encompassing all of southern Mongolia. In 2003, a new survey found approximately 20,000 individuals over an area of 177,563 square kilometres (68,557 sq mi) in southern Mongolia. The species had decreased to 14,000 individuals in 2009. The population estimates of the Mongolian population should be treated with caution due to a lack of proven survey protocols.
Biology and behavior
The Mongolian wild ass are herbivorous mammals. They feed on grasses, herbs and vegetation. They also feed on shrubs and trees in drier habitats. During spring and summer in Mongolia, the succulent plants of the Zygophyllaceae family form an important component of the diet of the Mongolian wild ass.
Mongolian khulans are known to dig holes at dry river beds and water sources to access to subsurface water to drink in response of the lack of water during hot summers in the Gobi Desert. Watering holes dug by khulans are also used by other species (wild and domestic) as well as by humans to access to water.
Poaching for meat appears to be an increasing problem in Mongolia. For some parts of the local population, wild ass and other wildlife meat seems to provide a substitute or even a cheap alternative to meat from domestic animals. In 2005, a national survey based on questionnaires, suggested that as many as 4,500 wild asses, about 20% of the whole population, may be poached each year. Moreover, political changes in the early 1990s allowed urban populations to return to nomadic land use, resulting in a sharp increase in human and livestock numbers in many rural areas.
Political and societal changes have disrupted traditional land use patterns, weakened law enforcement and also changed attitudes towards the use of natural resources, e.g., making wildlife an "open access" resource. It is expected that the re-migration of people and their livestock will result in increased wildlife–human interactions and may well threaten the survival of rare wildlife species in the Gobi Desert.
Since 1953, the Mongolian wild ass has been fully protected in Mongolia. The subspecies is also listed at appendix I of CITES (the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna) and was added to appendix II of the Convention of Migratory Species in 2002. However, due to human population growth in conjunction with severe winters in the past years, the number of conflicts between herders and Mongolian wild asses appear on the increase. Information on the basic biology of the subspecies and how it differs from others is lacking, which hampers conservation efforts.
- Turkmenian kulan, Equus hemionus kulan
- Persian onager (gur), Equus hemionus onager
- Indian wild ass (khur), Equus hemionus khur
- Syrian wild ass or hemippe, Equus hemionus hemippus (extinct)
- Kaczensky, P.; Lkhagvasuren, B.; Pereladova, O.; Hemami, M. & Bouskila, A. (2015). "Equus hemionus ssp. hemionus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 Jan 2016.
- Colin Groves and Peter Grubb (1 November 2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-421-40093-8.
- Clark, B. and Duncan, P. (1992). "Asian Wild Asses - Hemiones and Kiangs (E. hemionus Pallas and E. kiang Moorcroft)", pp. 17–21. In: P. Duncan (ed.) Zebras, Asses, and Horses: An Action Plan for the Conservation of Wild Equids. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group.
- IUCN. "Equus hemionus: Kaczensky, P., Lkhagvasuren, B., Pereladova, O., Hemami, M. & Bouskila, A.". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/iucn.uk.2015-4.rlts.t7951a45171204.en.
- Ian Lauder Mason (2002). Porter, Valerie, ed. Mason's World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds, Types, and Varieties (5th ed.). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 085199430X.
- Richard P. Reading; Henry M. Mix; Badamjaviin Lhagvasuren; Claudia Feh; David P. Kane; S. Dulamtseren & Sumyain Enkhbold (2001). "Status and distribution of khulan (Equus hemionus) in Mongolia". Journal of Zoology. 254 (3): 381–389. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000887.
- Mongolian Ministry of Nature and Environment. 2003. Status and distribution of the khulan in Mongolia in 2003. Unpublished report, Mongolian Ministry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
- S. T. Buckland; D. R. Anderson; K. P. Burnham; J. L. Laake; D. L. Borchers; L. Thomas, eds. (2001). Introduction to Distance Sampling. Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 432. ISBN 9780198509271.
- Kaczensky P. and C. Walzer. 2002a, 2002b, 2003a, 2003b. Przewalski horses, wolves and khulans in Mongolia. Bi-annual progress reports. available from: www.takhi.org
- Anne-Camille SOURIS & Association Goviin Khulan http://www.goviinkhulan.com, http://annecamille-souris.jimdo.com/work/
- P. Kaczensky & O. Gambatar unpubl. Data
- J. Wingard unpubl. data
- María E. Fernández-Giménez (1999). "Sustaining the steppes: a geographical history of pastoral land use in Mongolia". Geographical Review. 89 (3): 315–342. JSTOR 216154. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00222.x.
- Donald J. Bedunah & Sabine M. Schmidt (2004). "Pastoralism and protected area management in Mongolia's Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park". Development and Change. 35 (1): 167–191. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2004.00347.x.
- R. Mearns; D. Shombodon; G. Narangerel; U. Tuul; A. Enkhamgalan; B. Myagmarzhav; A. Bayanjargal & B. Bekhsuren (1994). "Natural resource mapping and seasonal variations and stresses in Mongolia" (PDF). RRA Notes. 20: 95–105.
- D. G. Pratt; D. C. MacMillan & I. J. Gordon (2004). "Local community attitudes to wildlife utilisation in the changing economic and social context of Mongolia". Biodiversity and Conservation. 13: 591–613. doi:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000009492.56373.cc.
- CMS 2002. Convention on Migratory Species. Appendix II.
- United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT): National Civil Defense and State Emergency Commission Ulaanbaatar. 2000. DZUD 2000-Mongolia: An evolving ecological, social and economic disaster: A rapid needs assessment report. United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT): National Civil Defense and State Emergency Commission Ulaanbaatar
- "Asiatic Wild Ass Equus hemionus". IUCN.org. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group.