Mongols in China
|Regions with significant populations|
|Inner Mongolia · Qinghai · Xinjiang|
|Mongolian · Oirat · Buryat · Chinese|
|Predominantly Mongolian shamanism · Tibetan Buddhism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Buryats · Oirats|
Mongols in China or Mongolian Chinese (Chinese: 蒙古族; pinyin: Měnggǔ zú; lit. 'the Mongol ethnicity') are ethnic Mongols who were integrated into the nation-building of the Republic of China (1912–1949) after the fall of Qing Empire (1636–1911). Those not integrated broke away in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911 and again in 1921. The Republic of China recognized Mongols to be part of the Five Races Under One Union. Its successor, the People's Republic of China (1949—present), recognized Mongols to be one of the 55 ethnic minorities in China.
As of 2020, there are 6,290,204 Mongols in China, a 0.45% increase from the 2010 national census. Most of them live in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Qinghai. The Mongol population in China is nearly twice as much as that of the sovereign state of Mongolia.
The Mongols in China are divided between autonomous regions and provinces as follows:
- 68.72%: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
- 11.52%: Liaoning Province
- 2.96%: Jilin Province
- 2.92%: Hebei Province
- 2.58%: Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
- 2.43%: Heilongjiang Province
- 1.48%: Qinghai Province
- 1.41%: Henan Province
- 5.98%: Rest of mainland China
Besides the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, there are other Mongol autonomous administrative subdivisions in China.
- Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (in Qinghai)
- Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (in Xinjiang)
- Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture (in Xinjiang)
- Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County (in Hebei)
- Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County (in Liaoning)
- Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County (in Liaoning)
- Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County (in Jilin)
- Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County (in Heilongjiang)
- Subei Mongol Autonomous County (in Gansu)
- Henan Mongol Autonomous County (in Qinghai)
- Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County (in Xinjiang)
China classifies different Mongolian groups like Buryats and Oirats into the same single category as Mongol along with Inner Mongols. A non-Mongolic ethnic group, the Tuvans are also classified as Mongols by China. The official language used for all of these Mongols in China is a literary standard based on the Chahar dialect of Mongol.
The ethnic classification might be inaccurate due to lack of information regarding the registering policy.
Some populations officially classified as Mongols by the government of the People's Republic of China do not currently speak any form of Mongolic language. Such populations include the Sichuan Mongols (most of whom speak a form of Naic language), the Yunnan Mongols (most of whom speak a form of Loloish language), and the Mongols of Henan Mongol Autonomous County in Qinghai (most of whom speak Amdo Tibetan and/or Chinese).
According to a 2021 study, the Y-chromosomal haplogroup O2 (49.14%) ranked first among the Mongols of China, followed by C2 (22.86%), O1 (12.00%) and N1 (6.29%) . Y-chromosomal haplogroups D1, E, I, G, Q, and R were sparsely distributed in the studied Mongolian populations. Among the Mongols of China, mitochondrial haplogroup D was in first place (27.07%), followed by mitochondrial haplogroups B (11.60%), F (10.77%), Z (8.01%), G (7, 73%), C (6.91%), A (6.08%), N (5.25%) and M7 (5.25%). Other mitochondrial haplogroups (HV, H, I, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, T, U, W and Y) were sporadically distributed among the studied Mongols of China with frequencies of no more than 1.66%
Not all groups of people related to the medieval Mongols are officially classified as Mongols under the current system. Other official ethnic groups in China which speak Mongolic languages include:
- the Dongxiang of Gansu Province
- the Monguor of Qinghai and Gansu Provinces
- the Daur of Inner Mongolia
- the Bonan of Gansu Province
- some of the Yugurs of Gansu Province (other Yugurs speak a Turkic language)
- the Kuangjia Hui of Qinghai Province
- Sengge Rinchen, Qing dynasty nobleman and general
- Minggatu, ethnic Mongolian Chinese mathematician during the Qing dynasty
- Ulanhu, politician, former Chairman of Inner Mongolia, former Vice President of the People's Republic
- Bayanqolu, Communist Party Secretary of Jilin Province, former Party Secretary of Ningbo
- Uyunqimg, former Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
- Fu Ying, Deputy Foreign Minister, former ambassador to the United Kingdom, Australia and the Philippines
- Li Siguang, geologist, founder of China's geomechanics
- Yang Shixian, chemist, chancellor of Nankai University
- Siqin Gaowa, actress
- Mengke Bateer, CBA and NBA basketball player
- Bao Xishun, one of the tallest people in the world
- Tengger, a pop/rock musician
- Buren Bayaer, singer, composer and a disc jockey
- Uudam, child singer
- Huugjilt, man wrongfully executed in 1996
- Zhang Xiaoping
- Chinggeltei (1924–2013), linguist, one of the world's few experts on the Khitan language
- Jalsan, linguist and Buddhist leader
- Batdorj-in Baasanjab, actor
- Xiao Qian, academic
- Bai Xue, lawyer and legal academic
- Bai Yansong, TV anchor
- Yangwei Linghua, singer and female vocal of Phoenix Legend
- Han Lei, pop singer
- Wang Lijun, disgraced police chief and political figure
- Bai Wenqi, lieutenant general of the PLA Air Force
- Ulan, deputy party chief of Hunan Province
- Qilu, Director of New Energy Materials and Technology Laboratory of Peking University
An ethnic Mongol Chinese musician performing Inner Mongolian style morin khuur
- Demographics of China
- Khatso (Yunnan Mongols)
- Mongols in Taiwan
- Oirats (Western Mongols)
- Sichuan Mongols
- Upper Mongols
- ^ a b "Main Data of the Seventh National Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
- ^ a b "China Statistical Yearbook 2021".
- ^ Jirimutu, Jerry (1998). "A socio‐demographic profile of the Mongols in China, 1990". Central Asian Survey. 17 (1): 93–108. doi:10.1080/02634939808401025.
- ^ Bulag, Uradyn E. (2003). "Mongolian Ethnicity and Linguistic Anxiety in China". American Anthropologist. 105 (4): 753–763. doi:10.1525/aa.2003.105.4.753. Archived from the original on 2004-06-03.
The quest for the standardization of Mongolian [language] in Inner Mongolia was a product as much of a domestication of the Mongols in China as a protest against the imposition of Chinese [Standard Beijing Mandarin] as the national standard language to which all minority languages were forced to conform.
- ^ Wang, Jian; Teng, Xing (2016). "Teachers' beliefs of behaviors, learning, and teaching related to minority students: a comparison of Han and Mongolian Chinese teachers". Teaching Education. 27 (4): 371–395. doi:10.1080/10476210.2016.1153623. S2CID 147587249.
- ^ Deng, Xinmei; Ding; Cheng; Chou (2016). "Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese". Frontiers in Psychology. 7 (1692): 1692. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01692. PMC 5081370. PMID 27833582.
- ^ Mongush, M. V. "Tuvans of Mongolia and China." International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1 (1996), 225-243. Talat Tekin, ed. Seoul: Inst. of Asian Culture & Development.
- ^ "Öbür mongγul ayalγu bol dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü saγuri ayalγu bolqu büged dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü barimǰiy-a abiy-a ni čaqar aman ayalγun-du saγurilaγsan bayidaγ." (Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85).
- ^ [http://www.lupm.org/mn/pages/101026mn.htm y (Mongolian): Millions of Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region registered as "Mongol" and "Manchu" according to Chinese policy since the 1980s. There is no enough information about Chinese ethnic minorities due to the government policy.
- ^ Өвөр Монголын хүн ам (Mongolian)
- Mongush, M.V. (1996). "Tuvans of Mongolia and China". International Journal of Central Asian Studies. 1: 225–243.
- (in Mongolian) Sečenbaγatur, Qasgerel, Tuyaγ-a [Туяa], Bu. Jirannige, Wu Yingzhe, Činggeltei. 2005. Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal [A guide to the regional dialects of Mongolian]. Kökeqota: ÖMAKQ. ISBN 7-204-07621-4.
- Human Rights in China: China, Minority Exclusion, Marginalization and Rising Tensions, London, Minority Rights Group International, 2007
- de Rachewiltz, Igor. 1981. “ON A RECENT TRANSLATION OF THE MENG-TA PEI-LU AND HEI-TA SHIH-LÜEH: A REVIEW ARTICLE”. Monumenta Serica 35. Maney Publishing: 571–82. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40726521.
- 蒙韃備錄 https://archive.org/details/02081581.cn
- 黑鞑事略 http://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=80917 http://www.chinaknowledge.de/Literature/Historiography/heidashilve.html
- The Mongolian ethnic minority Chinese government information.