Monic languages

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Linguistic classificationAustroasiatic
  • Monic
Early form
Se asia lang map.png

The Monic /ˈmnɪk/ languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family descended from the Old Monic language of the kingdom of Dvaravati in what is now central Thailand. The Nyahkur people continue directly from that kingdom, whereas the Mon are descendants of those who migrated to Pegu after the 11th century Khmer conquest of Dvaravati.


Sidwell (2009:114) proposes the following tree ("stammbaum") for Monic, synthesizing past classifications from Therapan L-Thongkum (1984) and Diffloth (1984).

  • Old Mon / Proto-Monic
    • Nyah Kur
      • North
      • Central
      • South
    • Middle Mon
      • Literary Mon
      • Mon Ro: Northernmost dialect, spoken in the Pegu-Paung-Zingyaik area
        • West Mon Ro variety: Spoken from north of Martaban to Thaton
        • East Mon Ro variety: Spoken in a small area on the south bank of the Gyaing River
      • Mon Rao: Spoken around Moumein, extending several hundred kilometers south to Tavoy
        • North Mon Rao
        • Kamawet area Mon
        • South Mon Rao
        • Ye Mon Rao: This is the southernmost Mon variety.
      • Thai Mon (mix of Mon Ro and Mon Rao)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Monic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.


Further reading[edit]

  • Monic language studies. (1984). Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University Print. House.
  • Diffloth, Gérard. 1984 The Dvaravati Old Mon languages and Nyah Kur. Monic Language Studies. Chulalongkorn University Printing House, Bangkok.
  • Eppele, John William, Carey Statezni, and Nathan Statezni. 2008. Monic bibliography. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  • Eppele, John William, Carey Statezni, and Nathan Statezni. 2008. Monic bibliography with selected annotations. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  • Ferlus, Michel. 1983. Essai de phonétique historique de môn. Mon-Khmer Studies 12: 1–90.
  • Huffman, Franklin E. 1990. Burmese Mon, Thai Mon, and Nyah Kur: a synchronic comparison. Mon-Khmer Studies 16–17: 31–84.

External links[edit]