Monkey D. Luffy

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Monkey D. Luffy
One Piece character
Monkey D. Luffy is wearing a red jacket with a straw hat, blue jean shorts, yellow sash, and sandals.
First appearanceOne Piece chapter 1: "Romance Dawn" (Weekly Shōnen Jump No. 34, 1997)
Created byEiichiro Oda
Voiced bySee Voice actors
In-universe information
Alias"Straw Hat" (麦わら, Mugiwara), Lucy, luffyland, luffytaro, the fifth emperor
AffiliationsStraw Hat Pirates (captain)

Straw Hat Grand Fleet (Commodore)

Dadan Family (former)
Devil FruitGum-Gum Fruit (ゴムゴムの実, Gomu Gomu no Mi)

Monkey D. Luffy (/ˈlfi/ LOO-fee) (Japanese: モンキー・D・ルフィ, Hepburn: Monkī Dī Rufi, [ɾɯɸiː]), also known as "Straw Hat" Luffy[n 1], is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the One Piece manga series, created by Eiichiro Oda. Luffy made his debut in One Piece Chapter #1 as a young boy who acquires the properties of rubber after accidentally eating the supernatural Gum-Gum Fruit.

Born on May 5, Luffy dreamed of being a pirate since childhood. At the age of 17, Luffy sets sails from the East Blue Sea to the Grand Line in search of the legendary treasure, One Piece, to succeed Gol D. Roger as King of the Pirates. Luffy, captain of the Straw Hat Pirates, recruits crew members, fights antagonists, and aids and befriends the inhabitants of several islands on his journey. Usually cheerful, he becomes serious when he fights. Luffy uses his elasticity to concentrate his power, executing a range of attacks. In his signature attack, Gum-Gum Pistol, he slingshots punches at opponents from a distance. Luffy also grows stronger over the course of the story, as reflected in his "Bounty" which is used to measure the threat he poses to the World Government. He is the grandson of Monkey D. Garp and son of Monkey D. Dragon,[1] but was raised by Curly Dadan, his foster mother,[2] meeting Portgas D. Ace and Sabo, his adopted brothers, in their childhood.[3]

Luffy appears in most of the episodes, films, television specials, and OVAs of the manga's anime adaptations and several of the franchise's video games. Due to the series' international popularity, Luffy has become one of the world's most recognizable anime characters. In addition to the One Piece franchise, the character has appeared in a number of manga and anime series and collaborative video games. His critical reception has been largely positive.

Creation and conception[edit]


When Eiichiro Oda created Luffy, he strove for a "manliness" similar to that of Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball series.[4] Oda said that he named his main character "Luffy" because he felt that the name suited him. When he later learned about the sailing term, "luffing", he was delighted by the coincidence.[5] In his prototype one-shots, "Romance Dawn", Oda refined the artistic style and story elements before publishing the final product a year later as the first chapter of One Piece. In the second version of "Romance Dawn", Luffy resembled his design at the beginning of the series.[6] To please his readers, Oda added rubberization to Luffy for comic effect[5] and tries to make the character straightforward.[7]

Voice actors[edit]

In the original Japanese version of the One Piece anime series and later spin-offs of the franchise, Luffy is voiced by Mayumi Tanaka.[8] Tanaka said jokingly that she regrets providing Luffy's voice because she is a mother in real life and Luffy is much younger.[9] Asked about her voicing, Tanaka said that she "strives for reality" in scenes where Luffy speaks when he is eating or touching his nose.[10] In the OVA Defeat the Pirate Ganzack!, Luffy was voiced by Urara Takano.[11]

The character was voiced by Erica Schroeder in originally 4kids Entertainment's English-language dubs of the franchise from 2004 until Funimation acquired the franchise in 2007.

The character is voiced by Colleen Clinkenbeard in Funimation's English-language dubs of the One Piece franchise.[12]


Luffy is usually recognizable by his straw hat, a gift from "Red-Haired" Shanks. In his early childhood, he wears a white shirt and blue shorts. The character has a scar under his left eye from stabbing himself to demonstrate his courage to Shanks and his crew.[13] He later wears a red vest, denim shorts and sandals before replacing his vest with a red, unbuttoned sea captain's coat[14] (revealing the X-shaped scar on his chest he received from Akainu),[15] and a yellow sash tied around his waist.[14] Concerning his ethnicity, Oda revealed that he imagines Luffy to be of Brazilian descent, albeit in a real world context.[16]


Luffy is portrayed as a carefree, happy-go-lucky character with great ambition and a huge appetite, often thinking with his stomach and comically gorging himself. Optimistic[17] and generally good-hearted, he is not as dimwitted as many believe him to be and often demonstrates more understanding than the other characters expect. Knowing the danger ahead, Luffy is willing to risk his life to become King of the Pirates and protect his crew. A capable and reliable captain, he never puts his crew or himself at risk out of incompetence. During the Loguetown story arc, Smoker (a navy captain at the time) says that Luffy "enjoys playing stupid"; Luffy responds with a mysterious smile.

He enlists Chopper and Brook for his crew not just for their personality or appearance, but also because of his instinctive ability to read people. Luffy needs key jobs filled by his crew (cook, navigator, medic, musician, and quartermaster, filled by Sanji, Nami, Chopper, Brook, and Franky respectively). At the beginning of the series, he said that he wanted at least 10 crew members with abilities he felt necessary for his goal. Despite his carefree personality, each crew member respects him in their own way.[18][19] Luffy is rarely concerned about the consequences of his actions, doing what he feels in the moment even if it leads to retaliation by a powerful force.[20] He is an extremely loyal captain, who has demonstrated throughout the series that he is willing to risk his life for the well-being of his crew.[21]


Luffy's rubberiness is a result of eating a Devil Fruit called the Gomu Gomu no Mi,[n 2][22] which makes him immune to electric attacks and most blunt forces also gives him the ability to stretch his body at will. He uses his elasticity to accelerate part or all of his body to deliver punches, kicks, head butts, and body checks or for propulsion. Like others exposed to Devil Fruit, Luffy cannot swim; when he is submerged in water or contacts the Sea-Prism Stone, he loses his strength and cannot move on his own. In addition to his Devil Fruit powers, he has immense strength, durability, speed, reflexes, agility, endurance and stamina.

Luffy's signature attack is the Gum-Gum Pistol, a punch which he learned during years of training. Another technique developed later in the series is Second Gear (ギア2 (セカンド), Gia Sekando), increasing his strength and speed for a short time but strains his body and can shorten his lifespan if used too long. Observing CP9's Shave (, Soru) technique, Luffy adapted the move to his rubber body and matched the assassins' speed. Third Gear (ギア3 (サード), Gia Sādo), another technique, uses air in his bones to attack but makes him shrink afterward.[23] Luffy can use both techniques simultaneously; after two years, he has gained better control of the techniques and is no longer affected by their drawbacks.

Eventually, Luffy develops his latent ability to use Haki (覇気, ambition). This ability has two main types: Armament Haki (武装色の覇気, Busōshoku no Haki), an armor-like force which can amplify defense and the force of attacks and negate a Devil Fruit user's defense, allow physical contact and damage, and Observation Haki (見聞色の覇気, Kenbunshoku no Haki), a sixth sense which can read a person's moves and detect their presence. He also has a rare third type, the Conquering King's Haki (覇王色の覇気, Haōshoku no Haki), which can render weak-willed people or animals near him unconscious.[24] Two years later, Luffy learns the basic three types of Haki and uses them with his improved attacks. As a result of his encounter with Magellan, he has also developed an immunity to poison (although it is shown that a strong poison may affect him, albeit very slowly). During his fight against Charlotte Katakuri, Luffy's Observation Haki gains the ability to see several seconds into the future.[25] During his time at Udon prison in Wano, Luffy's Armament Haki gains the ability to shoot a short blast of Haki from a distance which can also go inside his target's body or objects and destroy it from within.[26] During his fight with Kaido at the top of Onigashima, Luffy's Haoshoku Haki gains the ability to coat his entire body with it, similar to Busoshoku Haki.[27]

Luffy develops another technique, Fourth Gear (ギア4 (フォース), Gia Fōsu) (similar to Third Gear), inflating his muscles to increase the size of his limbs (except for his legs). He can make destructive moves by compressing and releasing his limbs, and can fly in a similar fashion to CP9's Moon Walk (月歩, Geppō) technique.[28]


Luffy's first bounty is 30,000,000 Berries, which he receives after defeating Buggy, Don Krieg and Arlong of east blue. His second Bounty is significantly higher, at 100,000,000 Berries, after defeating Crocodile of the Seven Warlords of the Sea. Luffy receives his third bounty of 300,000,000 Berries, after rampaging the Enies Lobby and retaking Nico Robin. His subsequent Bounty of 400,000,000 Berries, is mainly given to him because of defeating another Warlord of the Sea, Gecko Moria. After the timeskip, Luffy grows more powerful and receives a Bounty of 500,000,000 Berries, after defeating a third Warlord, Donquixote Doflamingo. After defeating Charlotte Cracker and Charlotte Katakuri, two of the Big Mom Pirate's top ranking members with bounties of 800,000,000 and 1,057,000,000 berries respectively, and having gone against Big Mom, one of the Four Emperors, he received his current Bounty of 1,500,000,000 Berries, the seventh-highest known Bounty in the One Piece world. Luffy's bounty is predicted to go up after the post-Wano arc, although it is not known how high it will go. Luffy plans to defeat Kaido, who is also one of the Four Emperors and has the highest bounty currently active in the series of 4,611,100,000 Berries.


One Piece[edit]

Luffy first appears as a young boy in Windmill Village, who befriends the pirate "Red-Haired" Shanks and intends to become one himself. He accidentally eats the Gum-Gum fruit and acquires rubber powers at the cost of being unable to swim. Luffy is later saved at sea by Shanks from being devoured by a Sea King, a large sea beast, and Shanks loses an arm.

Ten years later, Luffy leaves the village in search of the One Piece treasure and to become King of the Pirates. He meets swordsman Roronoa Zoro, ocean navigator and thief Nami, cowardly marksman and liar Usopp, and chivalrous chef Sanji, and invites them to join his crew. Luffy also encounters and defeats the East Blue pirate Buggy the Clown and the Fishman Arlong, becoming known to the general populace and the pirate-hating Marines, such as Captain Smoker.

The crew leaves the peaceful East Blue and enters the dangerous Grand Line on their ship the Going Merry. He later accepts an offer to return Princess Nefertari Vivi of Alabasta to her homeland to stop a rebellion incited by Seven Warlords of the Sea member and Baroque Works crime syndicate leader Sir Crocodile. On the way, Nami nearly dies of an illness and the crew goes to find a doctor on the winter Drum Island, which was recently devastated by the Blackbeard Pirates. After Nami is healed, the reindeer doctor Tony Tony Chopper joins the Straw Hat crew.

Upon arriving in Alabasta, Luffy briefly reunites with his brother Portgas D. Ace, a commander in the Whitebeard Pirates who is hunting his former subordinate Blackbeard. After defeating Crocodile, the World Government hides the fact that pirates saved the kingdom. Luffy accepts Crocodile’s mysterious subordinate Nico Robin as the archeologist of his crew.

Robin's knowledge comes in handy as the crew ventures towards an island in the sky. Though the existence of Sky Islands is widely ridiculed, Luffy meets the pirate Blackbeard — but does not find out his name. Blackbeard encourages Luffy that Sky Islands do exist and dreams of pirates never die. While visiting Skypiea, the crew is drawn into a four-hundred-year war over land. Luffy ends the war by defeating the god Eneru.

Upon landing back in the Blue Seas, the Going Merry is heavily damaged and Luffy seeks a shipwright to repair it. He meets Admiral Aokiji, who easily defeats him. Luffy learns about Robin's background and faces enemies connected to her on Water 7, the island with the best shipwrights in the world. Luffy's crew aligns with the cyborg shipwright Franky, initially an enemy, against the World Government intelligence agency Cipher Pol No. 9. Luffy and his crew save Robin and Franky from the government at Enies Lobby. After their fight with CP9, Luffy encounters his grandfather, Vice Admiral Monkey D. Garp. Garp tells him Shanks and Whitebeard are two of the Four Emperors, the most powerful pirates in the second half of the Grand Line. Luffy is surprised to learn from Garp that the leader of the Revolutionary Army which seeks to topple the World Government is Monkey D. Dragon, Luffy's father.

On the way to Fishman Island in their new ship the Thousand Sunny which Franky built, Luffy encounters the skeletal musician Brook. Brook accepts Luffy's offer to join the crew before declining since his shadow has been stolen. To return Brook's shadow, they defeat Warlord Gecko Moria, and Brook becomes Luffy's long-sought musician of the crew.

To enter Fishman Island, the crew takes a detour to the Sabaody Archipelago. Roger Pirates' First Mate Silvers Rayleigh is enlisted to coat the Thousand Sunny to enter ocean depths under the Red Line which marks the beginning of the second half of the Grand Line, known as the New World. By this time Luffy has gained worldwide fame as a notorious rookie with bounties of over 100 million; these rookies are known as Supernovas and include Zoro, Trafalgar Law, Eustass Kidd, and Capone "Gang" Bege. Yet Luffy, Zoro, and the rest of the Straw Hat Pirates are easily defeated by Admiral Kizaru after Luffy punches a World Noble, and Warlord Bartholomew Kuma sends the Straw Hat crew to separate parts of the world.

Stranded on Amazon Lily, an island ruled by the warlord Boa Hancock, Luffy impresses Hancock with his bravery and selflessness. Hancock falls in love with Luffy and brings him to the underground Impel Down prison to save his brother Ace, from execution after Ace was defeated by Blackbeard. Luffy breaks into the prison and meets previous foes and new allies, such as former Warlords Crocodile and Arlong's old captain Jimbei. Along with Buggy and members of the Revolutionary Army, Luffy frees the prisoners but Ace is transferred to Marineford for his execution. Luffy and Buggy lead the prisoners into the war in Marineford between the navy and Whitebeard's forces. Ace gives his life to save Luffy from Admiral Akainu. A broken Luffy is evacuated with Jimbei from Marineford by Trafalgar Law.

Returning to Amazon Lily, Luffy remembers first meeting Ace; after Shanks left Windmill Village, Luffy's grandfather Garp left him in the care of his friend the bandit Curly Dadan. Luffy befriends Ace and Sabo, who are like brothers to him, but Sabo is seemingly killed by a World Noble. After returning to Marineford to send a hidden message to his crew, Luffy trains with Rayleigh on Ruskaina Island to become stronger.

Two years later the Straw Hats reunite and finally make it to Fishman Island. Luffy and the others meet Jimbei and the island's princess, Shirahoshi, and are drawn into a battle for the island against the Fishman supremacist Hody Jones. He, the crew, and Jimbei conceive a plan to defeat Hody and his henchmen in a way that will alleviate racial tensions between humans and fish-men. After Hody's defeat, Jimbei promises to join the crew at a later date and Fishman Island seeks to join the Reverie summit of human kings held every four years. Luffy learns Akainu was promoted to Fleet Admiral and Blackbeard replaced Whitebeard as one of the Four Emperors. Luffy begins a feud with Emperor Big Mom over control of Fishman Island. The crew leaves the ocean depths and enters the secret New World island Punk Hazard.

Upon arriving at Punk Hazard island, half of the crew is captured by Caesar Clown, a jealous rival of the scientist Vegapunk and a subordinate of the Warlord and underworld broker Donquixote Doflamingo. Luffy and his crew ally with Trafalgar Law, now a Warlord, who plans to kidnap Caesar as part of a plan to take down Emperor Kaido. Samurai from the Wano Country, Kinemon, and Momonosuke join the alliance to venture to Dressrosa, the kingdom ruled by Doflamingo.

With Caesar hostage, the alliance lands on Dressrosa, where Luffy enters a tournament to win Ace's Devil Fruit. Here he finds out that Sabo is still alive and is part of the Revolutionary Army. Sabo wins the tournament, and with Luffy's blessing, Sabo consumes Ace's Devil Fruit. Due to the machinations of Doflamingo, some of the crew is forced to leave for the island of Zou. Luffy and the rest of the crew are forced to fight for their lives when they stumble on the truth of Doflamingo's operations, who attempts to kill everyone in Dressrosa to keep the truth of his rule hidden. With the aid of his fellow competitors in the tournament, Luffy defeats Doflamingo. In the aftermath, seven pirate crews pledge their loyalty to Luffy, despite his protests, marking the formation of the Straw Hat Grand Fleet.

Afterward, the remaining crew and their friends are transported by their new subordinates to Zou and learn it was devastated by the forces of Emperor Kaido. Luffy also learns that Sanji, who was part of the group that heads to Zou first, had been blackmailed by his family to agree to an arranged marriage to the daughter of Emperor Big Mom. The crew learns from the Mink Tribe about the Road Poneglyphs and their connection to the final island Laugh Tale, where the One Piece is. An alliance between the Samurai, Mink, Straw Hats and Law is made to defeat Kaido, who is revealed to rule over Wano via a puppet Shogun.

Be forewarned going to Wano, Luffy, and half the crew, along with the Mink warriors Pedro and Carrot infiltrate Big Mom's territory Tottoland both to retrieve Sanji and copy the writing on the Road Poneglyph that Big Mom has in her possession. Luffy and Sanji learn the wedding is a set-up to murder Sanji's family for their advanced technology, while Brook steals a printing of the Road Poneglyph. Big Mom's subordinates Jimbei and Bege betray her and Luffy and Sanji enact a failed assassination attempt on Big Mom at the wedding, in front of the press. Jimbei joins the crew but is temporarily left behind as the rest of the crew barely escapes from Big Mom's territory. Luffy defeats two of Big Mom's three generals and is proclaimed by the press as the Fifth Emperor of the sea as his bounty skyrockets.

After the fight with Big Mom, Luffy becomes a hot topic at the Reverie, a global summit of rulers of 50 nations in Mary Geoise, the capital of the World Government above the Red Line. Most view him as a dangerous madman, but the kings of Sakura, Alabasta, Fishman Island, Dressrosa, and Prodence, secretly favor Luffy since he saved them from tyranny. Meanwhile, Luffy and the others are separated entering the Wano Country. Luffy reunites with Zoro before meeting with the rest of the crew and alliance. Luffy challenges Emperor Kaido but is defeated and thrown in prison alongside fellow Supernova Eustass Kidd.

In other media[edit]

Luffy has appeared in every One Piece licensed electronic video game to date, including Jump Super Stars and Jump Ultimate Stars, and is featured in the 2006 Dragon Ball Z-One Piece-Naruto crossover game Battle Stadium D.O.N. Luffy, Son Goku and Naruto Uzumaki were avatars in the MMORPG Second Life for a Jump Festa promotion, "Jumpland@Second Life".[29] Luffy has also been mentioned in songs. He sings about being a wanted pirate in "Wanted!"[30] and about One Piece in "Every-One Piece!"[31] Luffy is a major playable character in the crossover game, J-Stars Victory VS.[32]

The character has made guest appearances in Japanese television shows and manga. Luffy and several other characters joined the cast of Dragon Ball in a spinoff entitled Cross Epoch.[33] On April 3, 2011, Luffy and the other One Piece protagonists appeared in the first episode of the Toriko anime series and the crossover manga chapter.[34] Luffy made a cameo appearance in a Weekly Shonen Jump episode of To Love-Ru, and the Gum-Gum was mentioned in the 50th episode of the Gin Tama anime series.[35] In 2008, Toei Animation sponsored the Italian Pallavolo Modena volleyball team; Pietro Rinaldi and Edoardo Ciabattini's black uniforms were decorated with an image of Luffy on the front.[36] Luffy appeared on the cover of the January 2010 issue of the Japanese fashion magazine Men's Non-No, the first manga character to do so. His clothes were designed by Shinichi "Miter" Mita.[37]


Luffy led all three Shōnen Jump character popularity polls.[38][39][40] According to Funimation Entertainment's Mike McFarland and Christopher Sabat, Luffy was more likable than Dragon Ball's Son Goku.[41] Joe McCulloch preferred Luffy to Naruto Uzumaki from Naruto because Luffy "work[ed] his ass off" to achieve his goals after accidentally acquiring his powers.[42] Luffy was nominated in the Best Male Character category for the 2008 Society for the Promotion of Japanese Animation Awards, losing to Ichigo Kurosaki of Bleach.[43][44] He was ranked 22nd on Chris Mackenzie's IGN list of top-25 anime characters of all time.[45] NTT customers chose Luffy as their second-favorite black-haired male anime character.[46] The Gum-Gum Gatling technique topped the male category in a Japanese survey of the most popular moves in manga and anime.[47] In a Japanese TV special from August 2017, Luffy was voted as the 8th "strongest hero" from the Showa Era as well as the 4th one from the Heisei Era.[48]

Luffy has been praised in a number of publications. T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews called Luffy "likabl[y] goofy" and an idealist with infectious optimism.[49] In a review of One Piece The Movie: Dead End no Bōken, the fourth One Piece film, The Star Online described him as "an airhead and brilliant fighter".[50] Rika Takahashi of EX wrote that Luffy's stretching powers set One Piece apart from "the old stereotypical adventure manga" and the many other "combat-oriented mangas [sic]", making the series "something new and interesting".[51] Anime News Network (ANN) writer Zac Bertschy found Luffy reminiscent of Rurouni Kenshin's character Himura Kenshin in personality and attitude, but still thought him entertaining.[52] Mania Entertainment's Bryce Coulter called Luffy a "great shonen hero".[53] ANN's Carl Kimlinger wrote, "Colleen Clinkenbeard's Luffy continues to grow on you".[54] In the final chapter of Naruto, Boruto Uzumaki makes a drawing of Luffy as a legacy of him and the series.[55]

In a Weekly Shonen Jump manga, Tsugihagi Hyouryuu Sakka (a character resembling Luffy) says, "Instead of saying what you hate, say what you like!" In the One Piece manga, Luffy cited but changed it to "Instead of saying what you like, say what you hate!" The meme was acknowledged in the crossover fighting game, J-Stars Victory VS[56]

On The 1st Global One Piece Characters Popularity Poll, in which more than 12 Million votes from all over the world, Luffy topped the list having a total votes of 1,637,921 points. [57] Not only that, but also Luffy ranked first in all of previous official popularity polls in which very rare to happened to the other main protagonist in other mangas.[58] [59]


  1. ^ 麦わらのルフィ, Mugiwara no Rufi
  2. ^ The Devil Fruit that Luffy gained his abilities from was originally called the Gomu no Mi (ゴムの実, lit. fruit of rubber), but after the editor pointed out that a real rubber fruit existed, the name was changed to the Gomu Gomu no Mi (ゴムゴムの実, lit. fruit of rubber rubber, renamed "Gum-Gum Fruit" in the English adaptations). ("Interview with Eiichiro Oda" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2008.)


  1. ^ Oda, Eiichiro (2007). 心中お察しする. One Piece (in Japanese). 45. Shueisha. ISBN 978-4-08-874314-1.
  2. ^ Oda, Eiichiro (2009). "551 四皇"白ひげ"". ありがとう. One Piece (in Japanese). 56. Shueisha. ISBN 978-4-08-874761-3.
  3. ^ Oda, Eiichiro (2010). "585 兄弟盃". 弟よ. One Piece (in Japanese). 60. Shueisha. ISBN 978-4-08-870125-7.
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  8. ^ Toei Animation (October 20, 1999). "俺はルフィ! 海賊王になる男だ!". One Piece. Fuji TV. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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  26. ^ One Piece Manga Chapter 955 and Episode 956
  27. ^ One Piece Manga Chapter 1010
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