According to local folklore, the term originates from an incident in which a monkey was hanged in Hartlepool, England. During the Napoleonic Wars, a French ship of the type chasse marée was wrecked off the coast of Hartlepool. The only survivor was a monkey, allegedly wearing a French uniform to provide amusement for the crew. On finding the monkey, some locals decided to hold an impromptu trial on the beach; since the monkey was unable to answer their questions and because they had seen neither a monkey nor a Frenchman before, they concluded that the monkey was in fact a French spy. Being found guilty the animal was duly sentenced to death and hanged on the beach. An alternative theory is that it was a young boy who was hanged (the term "powder-monkey" was commonly used for children employed on warships to prime the cannon with gunpowder).
The earliest mention of the hanging is from the popular song, written and performed by 19th century comic performer, Ned Corvan, "The Monkey Song". Given that "only after Corvan's appearances in Hartlepool is there strong evidence for the development of the Monkey story", the song seems the most plausible origin for the myth.
An earlier and remarkably similar monkey-hanging legend with a similar associated song refers to the inhabitants of Boddam, Aberdeenshire. With similar lyrics and scansion ("And the Boddamers hung the Monkey, O") it is plausible that Ned Corvan heard and adapted the song while travelling the Scottish Lowlands with Blind Willie Purvis.
The Monkey Song
In former times, mid war an' strife,
The French invasion threatened life,
An' all was armed to the knife,
The Fishermen hung the Monkey O!
The Fishermen wi' courage high,
Seized on the Monkey for a spy,
"Hang him" says yen, says another,"He'll die!"
They did, and they hung the Monkey O!.
They tortor'd the Monkey till loud he did squeak
Says yen, "That's French," says another "it's Greek"
For the Fishermen had got drunky, O!
"He's all ower hair!" sum chap did cry,
E'en up te summic cute an' sly
Wiv a cod's head then they closed an eye,
Afore they hung the Monkey O!
The Hartlepool monkey in popular culture
The local football club, Hartlepool United F.C., capitalised on their "Monkey Hangers" nickname by creating a mascot called "H'Angus the Monkey" in 1999. One wearer of the monkey suit, Stuart Drummond, unexpectedly became the first directly elected mayor of Hartlepool in 2002 while in the guise of H'Angus, but was forbidden from wearing the costume while in office. A statue of the monkey has been erected on the Headland; another at Hartlepool Marina (formerly in West Hartlepool) also serves to collect coins for a local hospice. Although some Hartlepool residents find the term "monkey hanger" insulting, a large number of residents have embraced the term and celebrate it is an important and unique characteristic of the town; as seen in the 2014 documentary Heart of the Pools 
The French comic book Le Singe de Hartlepool by Wilfrid Lupano and Jérémie Moreau published in 2012 tells this story.
Monkey hangers are kids to me
But even monkey hangers have a place to be
A little town in Teesside
In 2008, a novel based on the legend called The Hartlepool Monkey, written by Sean Longley, was published. The novel tells the story of the monkey, named Jacques LeSinge by the French doctor who discovers him, that was supposedly hanged. In the book, the monkey talks and possesses several other human characteristics.
In 2014, a documentary was made about the Hartlepool Monkey and its long lasting significance to the city and its inhabitants called Heart of The Pools.
- "The Hartlepool Monkey, Who hung the monkey?". This is Hartlepool. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- Maconie, Stuart (2008), Pies and Prejudice: In search of the North, Ebury Press, ISBN 978-0091910235 (p. 300-301)
- This Is Hartlepool
- Keith Gregson. Corvan - A Victorian Entertainer And His Songs.
- Westwood, Jennifer and Kingshill, Sophia (2009), The Lore of Scotland: A guide to Scottish legends, Random House Books, ISBN 9781905211623 (p. 302)
- "In praise of … H'Angus the Monkey". www.theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Dixon, Oliver (22 Jan 2007). "The Hartlepool Monkey". www.geolocation.ws. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "Hartlepool - formerly West Hartlepool". www.stanlaundon.com. Launton, Stan. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Maconie 2008 (p. 301)
- "Le Singe de Hartlepool page on Éditions Delcourt official site". www.editions-delcourt.fr. 2012.
- Bakewell, Sarah (29 February 2008). "The Hartlepool Monkey, By Sean Longley". The Independent.
- Daoust, Phil, "Pick of the Day" The Guardian, 8 July 2003
- Heart of The Pools