Monmouth order of battle
The Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778 saw a colonial American army under Major General George Washington fight a British army led by Lieutenant General Henry Clinton. After evacuating Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on June 18, Clinton intended to march his 13,000-man army to New York City. Washington sent 6,400 troops commanded by Major General Charles Lee to attack the British column of march near Monmouth Court House, New Jersey. When Clinton counterattacked, Lee ordered his badly deployed troops to fall back immediately. Washington brought up 7,000 men to support Lee's withdrawing wing and held his ground against repeated British assaults. That evening Clinton retreated from the field and continued his march to Sandy Hook, where the British fleet waited to ferry his army to New York. Both armies' casualties were about even in the last major battle in the northern colonies. Lee was court martialed for his behavior during the battle.
British Army order of battle
- Artillery: Two 12-pound, 12 6-pound, and two 3-pound guns
- Guards Brigade: Brigadier General Edward Mathew
- Elements of 1st Foot Guard, 2nd Foot Guard, and 3rd Foot Guard Regiments
- 1st Battalion
- 2nd Battalion
- Stephen's company
- Murray's company
- O'Hara's company
- Martin's company
- Light company
- 3rd Brigade: General Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey
- 4th Brigade: Commander unknown
- 5th Brigade: Brigadier General Alexander Leslie
- Hessian Brigade: Colonel Johann August von Loos
- Linsing Grenadier Battalion
- Minningerode Grenadier Battalion
- Lengerke Grenadier Battalion
- 17th Light Dragoons
- 2nd Light Infantry Battalion, Major John Maitland
- 14 light companies of the line
- Hessian Jäger: Lieutenant Colonel Ludwig von Wurmb
- Maryland loyalists
- Pennsylvania loyalists
- West Jersey loyalists
- 1st Brigade: Major General James Grant
- 2nd Brigade: Major General Grant
- Hessian Brigade: Major General Johann Daniel Stirn
- Erbprinz Infantry Regiment
- Donop Infantry Regiment
- Mirbach Infantry Regiment
American Army order of battle
- Quartermaster General: Major General Nathanael Greene
- Inspector General: Major General: Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
- Senior Artillery Officer: Brigadier General Henry Knox
- Senior Engineer Officer: Brigadier General Louis Lebègue Duportail
- Adjutant General: Colonel Alexander Scammell
- Commissary Generals: Colonels Jeremiah Wadsworth and Clement Biddle
- Judge Advocate General: Colonel John Lawrence
- Military Secretary: Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. Harrison
- Assistant Secretary: James McHenry
- Aide-de-camp: Lieutenant Colonels John Fitzgerald, Alexander Hamilton, John Laurens and Richard Meade
- Volunteer aides-de-camp: Brigadier Generals Joseph Reed and John Cadwalader
- Wayne's Command: Brigadier General Anthony Wayne (est. 1,000)
- Scott's Command: Brigadier General Charles Scott (est. 1,440)
- Varnum's Brigade: Colonel John Durkee (est. 300)
- 4th Virginia (Scott's) Brigade: Colonel William Grayson (est. 600)
- New Jersey Brigade: Brigadier General William Maxwell (est. 1,000)
- 1st New Jersey Regiment: Colonel Matthias Ogden
- 2nd New Jersey Regiment: Colonel Israel Shreve
- 3rd New Jersey Regiment: Colonel Elias Dayton
- 4th New Jersey Regiment: Colonel Ephraim Martin
- Militia Light Horse: Lieutenant Colonel Anthony Walton White (40–50 horsemen)
- Company, 2nd Continental Artillery Regiment: Captain Thomas Randall (2 guns)
- Jackson's Detachment: Colonel Henry Jackson (est. 200–300)
- New Jersey Militia Brigade: Brigadier General Philemon Dickinson (est. 800)
- 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Hunterdon Militia: Colonels Philips, Beavers, Chambers and J. Taylor
- 1st, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Middlesex Militia: Colonels H. Van Dyke, J. Webster, Neilson and J. Hyer
- 1st and 2nd Somerset Militia: Colonels F. Frelinghuysen and Van Dyke
- 1st Burlington Militia: Colonel W. Shreve
- 3rd Monmouth Militia: Colonel D. Hendrickson
On command officers led detachments in the Advance Guard.
- 1st Virginia Brigade: Brigadier General Peter Muhlenberg (575)
- 2nd Virginia Brigade: Colonel Christian Febiger vice Brigadier General George Weedon (449)
- 3rd Virginia Brigade: Brigadier General William Woodford (385)
- 1st Maryland Brigade: Brigadier General William Smallwood (657)
- 2nd Maryland Brigade: Brigadier General Smallwood (529)
- New Hampshire Brigade: Brigadier General Enoch Poor (639)
- North Carolina Brigade: Colonel Thomas Clark vice Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh (369)
- Connecticut Brigade: Brigadier General Jedediah Huntington (509)
- Artillery: Four 3-pound guns, two 6-pound guns
- 1st Pennsylvania Brigade: Colonel James Chambers (352)
- 2nd Pennsylvania Brigade: Colonel Francis Johnston (401)
- 3rd Pennsylvania Brigade: Colonel Robert Magaw (343)
- 2nd Massachusetts Brigade: Brigadier General John Glover (512)
- 3rd Massachusetts Brigade: Brigadier General John Paterson (357)
- 4th Massachusetts Brigade: Brigadier General Ebenezer Learned (294)
- Eggenberger, 282
- Johnson, 95. Johnson listed the British total strength and the organization down to brigade and detachment level.
- Monmouth war game. This source specified the regiments in Cornwallis' division, but not those in Knyphausen's division.
- McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the 1st Light Battalion organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
- McGuire (2006), 33. This brigade, with a strength of 1,000 men, was drawn by lottery from the three foot guard regiments.
- McGuire (2006), 379. The battalion's company organization was for September 12, 1777.
- McGuire (2006), 6
- McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the grenadier organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
- Monmouth war game. This source lists James Agnew but he was killed at the Battle of Germantown.
- McGuire (2006), 162. McGuire noted that the three grenadier battalions listed here fought at Red Bank. The war game only named three generic units.
- Johnson, 95. The author placed the Hessian grenadiers in the 1st Division.
- Johnson, 95. Johnson gave the general organization of Knyphausen's division.
- McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the 2nd Light Battalion organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
- McGuire, 289. The author listed these units at Brandywine.
- Johnson, 70. Johnson listed the 1st and 2nd Brigade units in his Germantown order of battle.
- Johnson, 70. Johnson placed Erbprinz and Donop in Stirn's brigade at Germantown.
- McGuire (2007), 162. McGuire noted that Mirbach fought at Red Bank. It is not known which Hessian brigade the unit was assigned to.
- Morrissey (2008), 86
- Morrissey (2008), 85
- Morrissey (2004), 86-87
- Monmouth war game. This source listed the units in Stirling's wing. It gave the three Pennsylvania brigade commanders as "Chmbr", "Johnsn", and "Magaw".
- McGuire (2006), 249
- McGuire (2006), 248
- usahistory.org, Valley Forge
- Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24913-1.
- Heitman, Francis Bernard (1914). Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army during the War of the Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Rare Book Shop Publishing Company.
- Johnson, Curt (1975). Battles of the American Revolution. London: Rand McNally & Company. ISBN 0-528-81022-7.
- Martin, David G., Millman, Leonard, Smith, Eric Lee. Battle of Monmouth: The Colonies take the Offensive war game. New York, NY: Simulations Publications, Inc., 1982.
- Morrissey, Brendan (2008). Monmouth Courthouse 1778: The last great battle in the North. Long Island City, N.Y.: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-772-7.
- McGuire, Thomas J. (2006). The Philadelphia Campaign, Volume I. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0178-6.
- McGuire, Thomas J. (2007). The Philadelphia Campaign, Volume II. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0206-5.
- revolutionarywar101.com American Revolutionary War Units
- ushistory.org Regiments at Valley Forge