Monmouth order of battle

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Color painting showing a mounted general with raised sword rallying his troops
Battle of Monmouth painting shows George Washington rallying his men while an embarrassed Charles Lee waits nearby.

The Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778 saw a colonial American army under Major General George Washington fight a British army led by Lieutenant General Henry Clinton. After evacuating Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on June 18, Clinton intended to march his 13,000-man army to New York City. Washington sent 6,400 troops commanded by Major General Charles Lee to attack the British column of march near Monmouth Court House, New Jersey. When Clinton counterattacked, Lee ordered his badly deployed troops to fall back immediately. Washington brought up 7,000 men to support Lee's withdrawing wing and held his ground against repeated British assaults. That evening Clinton retreated from the field and continued his march to Sandy Hook, where the British fleet waited to ferry his army to New York. Both armies' casualties were about even in the last major battle in the northern colonies. Lee was court martialed for his behavior during the battle.[1]

British Army order of battle[edit]

Color painting of a white-wigged Henry Clinton in a red coat with dark blue lapels
Sir Henry Clinton

Lieutenant General Henry Clinton (12,000-13,000)[2]
Brigadier General Sir William Erskine, 1st Baronet, Quartermaster General

1st Division[edit]

Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis[3]

Black-and-white print of Charles Grey in late 18th century military uniform
Charles Grey

2nd Division[edit]

Black-and-white print of a bewigged Wilhelm von Knyphausen wearing a metal cuirass
Wilhelm von Knyphausen

Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen (not engaged)[12]

American Army order of battle[edit]

Color painting of a white-haired George Washington in a dark blue military uniform with gold epaulettes and white collar
George Washington

Major General George Washington (11,000)[18]

Advanced Guard[edit]

Painting of a youthful La Fayette in a dark military coat with buff lapels and waistcoat
Marquis de La Fayette

Major General Charles Lee[19]

Right Wing[edit]

On command officers led detachments in the Advance Guard.

Color painting of gray-haired Nathanael Greene in 1783 by Charles Willson Peale. Greene wears his general's uniform with a dark blue coat, a buff vest and turnbacks, and brass buttons.
Nathanael Greene

Major General Nathanael Greene[20]

Painting of heavy-set man in blue military uniform with buff lapels and waistcoat
William Smallwood

Left Wing[edit]

Black-and-white print of Lord Stirling in a military uniform
Lord Stirling

Major General William Alexander, Lord Stirling[21]

Note that at Valley Forge, the Pennsylvania brigades were led by Colonel Thomas Hartley, Lieutenant Colonel William Butler, and Brigadier General Thomas Conway.[24]

Sketch of curly-haired Glover with signature
John Glover

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
Citations
  1. ^ Eggenberger, 282
  2. ^ Johnson, 95. Johnson listed the British total strength and the organization down to brigade and detachment level.
  3. ^ Monmouth war game. This source specified the regiments in Cornwallis' division, but not those in Knyphausen's division.
  4. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the 1st Light Battalion organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
  5. ^ McGuire (2006), 33. This brigade, with a strength of 1,000 men, was drawn by lottery from the three foot guard regiments.
  6. ^ McGuire (2006), 379. The battalion's company organization was for September 12, 1777.
  7. ^ McGuire (2006), 6
  8. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the grenadier organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
  9. ^ Monmouth war game. This source lists James Agnew but he was killed at the Battle of Germantown.
  10. ^ McGuire (2006), 162. McGuire noted that the three grenadier battalions listed here fought at Red Bank. The war game only named three generic units.
  11. ^ Johnson, 95. The author placed the Hessian grenadiers in the 1st Division.
  12. ^ Johnson, 95. Johnson gave the general organization of Knyphausen's division.
  13. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the 2nd Light Battalion organization at the time of the Battle of Brandywine.
  14. ^ McGuire, 289. The author listed these units at Brandywine.
  15. ^ Johnson, 70. Johnson listed the 1st and 2nd Brigade units in his Germantown order of battle.
  16. ^ Johnson, 70. Johnson placed Erbprinz and Donop in Stirn's brigade at Germantown.
  17. ^ McGuire (2007), 162. McGuire noted that Mirbach fought at Red Bank. It is not known which Hessian brigade the unit was assigned to.
  18. ^ a b Morrissey (2008), 86
  19. ^ Morrissey (2008), 85
  20. ^ Morrissey (2004), 86-87
  21. ^ Monmouth war game. This source listed the units in Stirling's wing. It gave the three Pennsylvania brigade commanders as "Chmbr", "Johnsn", and "Magaw".
  22. ^ McGuire (2006), 249
  23. ^ McGuire (2006), 248
  24. ^ usahistory.org, Valley Forge

References[edit]