Monoamine reuptake inhibitor

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A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI)[1] is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT). This in turn results in an increase in the synaptic concentrations of one or more of these neurotransmitters and therefore an increase in monoaminergic neurotransmission.

Uses[edit]

The majority of currently approved antidepressants act predominantly or exclusively as MRIs, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and almost all of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).[2] Many psychostimulants used either as in the treatment of ADHD or as appetite suppressants in the treatment of obesity also behave as MRIs, although notably amphetamine (and methamphetamine), which do act to some extent as monoamine reuptake inhibitors, exerts their effects primarily as releasing agents.[3][4] Additionally, psychostimulants acting as MRIs that affect dopamine such as cocaine and methylphenidate are often abused as recreational drugs.[5] As a result, many of them have become controlled substances, which in turn has resulted in the clandestine synthesis of a vast array of designer drugs for the purpose of bypassing drug laws; a prime example of such is the mixed monoamine reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent mephedrone.[6]

Types of MRIs[edit]

There are a variety of different kinds of MRIs, of which include the following:

Binding profiles[edit]

Binding profiles of MRIs at human MATs[7]
Compound SERT NET DAT Type Class
Amfonelic acid ND ND 207 DRI Stimulant
Amineptine*[8][9] >100,000 (rat) 10,000 (rat) 1,000–1,400 (rat) DRI Stimulant
Amitriptyline 4.30 35 3,250 SNRI TCA
Amoxapine 58 16.0 4,310 SNRI TeCA
Atomoxetine 8.9 2.03 1,080 SNRI Stimulant
Bupropion 9,100 52,000 520 NDRI Stimulant
Butriptyline 1,360 5,100 3,940 N/A (IA) TCA
Chlorphenamine 15.2 1,440 1,060 SRI Antihistamine
Citalopram 1.16 4,070 28,100 SRI SSRI
Clomipramine 0.28 38 2,190 SNRI TCA
Cocaethylene[10] 3,878 >10,000 555 SDRI Stimulant
Cocaine[10] 304 779 478 SNDRI Stimulant
Desipramine 17.6 0.83 3,190 SNRI TCA
Desmethylcitalopram 3.6 1,820 18,300 SRI SSRI
Desmethylsertraline 3.0 390 129 SRI SSRI
Desmethylsibutramine[11] 15 20 49 SNDRI SNRI
Desoxypipradrol[12] 53,700 550 50 NDRI Stimulant
Desvenlafaxine*[13] 47 531 ND SNRI SNRI
Dextroamphetamine >100,000 530 2,900 NDRA Stimulant
Dextromethamphetamine >100,000 660 2,800 NDRA Stimulant
Didesmethylsibutramine[11] 20 15 45 SNDRI SNRI
Diphenhydramine 3,800 960 2,200 N/A (IA) Antihistamine
Dosulepin (dothiepin) 8.6 46 5,310 SNRI TCA
Doxepin 68 29.5 12,100 SNRI TCA
Duloxetine*[14] 3.7 20 439 SNRI SNRI
Escitalopram[15] 1.1 7,841 27,410 SRI SSRI
Etoperidone 890 20,000 52,000 SRI SARI
Femoxetine 11.0 760 2,050 SRI SSRI
Fluoxetine 0.81 240 3,600 SRI SSRI
Fluvoxamine 2.2 1,300 9,200 SRI SSRI
GBR-12935[10] 289 277 4.90 DRI Stimulant
Imipramine 1.40 37 8,500 SNRI TCA
Indatraline[10] 3.10 12.6 1.90 SNDRI Stimulant
Iprindole 1,620 1,262 6,530 N/A (IA) TCA
Levomilnacipran*[16] 19.0 10.5 >100,000 SNRI SNRI
Lofepramine 70 5.4 18,000 SNRI TCA
Maprotiline 5,800 11.1 1,000 NRI TeCA
Mazindol 39 0.45 8.1 NDRI Stimulant
MDPV[17] 3,349 26 4.1 NDRI Stimulant
Methylphenidate 44,000 234 24 NDRI Stimulant
Mianserin 4,000 71 9,400 NRI TeCA
Milnacipran*[14] 151 68 >100,000 SNRI SNRI
Mirtazapine >100,000 4,600 >100,000 N/A (IA) TeCA
Modafinil*[18] >50,000 136,000 4,043 DRI Stimulant
Nefazodone 200 360 360 SNDRI SARI
Nefopam[19] 29 33 531 SNDRI Analgesic
Nisoxetine[10] 427 2.3 1,235 NRI Stimulant
Nomifensine 1,010 15.6 56 NDRI Stimulant
Norfluoxetine 1.47 1,426 420 SRI SSRI
Nortriptyline 18 4.37 1,140 SNRI TCA
Oxaprotiline 3,900 4.9 4,340 NRI TeCA
Paroxetine 0.13 40 490 SRI SSRI
Protriptyline 19.6 1.41 2,100 SNRI TCA
Reboxetine[20] 129 1.1 >10,000 NRI Stimulant
Sertraline 0.29 420 25 SRI SSRI
Sibutramine[11] 298 5,451 943 SNDRI SNRI
Trazodone 160 8,500 7,400 SRI SARI
Trimipramine 149 2,450 3,780 SRI TCA
Vanoxerine[10] 73.2 79.2 4.3 DRI Stimulant
Venlafaxine*[14] 145 1,420 3,070 SNRI SNRI
Vilazodone*[21] 0.2 ~60 ND SRI SMS
Viloxazine 17,300 155 >100,000 NRI Stimulant
Vortioxetine*[22] 5.4 890 (rat) 140 (rat) SRI SMS
Zimelidine 152 9,400 11,700 SRI SSRI
Values are Ki (nM) or, in some cases (*), IC50 (nM). The smaller the value, the more strongly the
drug binds to or inhibits the transporter.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]