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Monoethnicity is the existence of a single ethnic group in a given region or country. It is the opposite of polyethnicity. The use of the concept of monoethnicity has been criticized for being discriminatory and preventing diversity from being recognized.[1]

It is a common belief in Japan that the entire country is monoethnic, but there are many ethnic minorities in Japan (e.g. Koreans, Ainus, and Ryukyuans).[2] They represent around 1% of the whole population [3]

South Koreans regard themselves as a monoethnic society, although there are small ethnic minorities that exist in South Korea, where they account for around 1% of the South Korean population. These include around 650,000 Chinese immigrants [4]

Most Sub-Saharan African countries have mono-racial societies (>0.1%), but it's common to find several ethnic groups within the same country. The number of emigrants from these African countries has grown substantially since 1990, but they receive virtually almost zero immigration.

The Yugoslav Wars are noted as having made territories "de facto and de jure monoethnic nation-states".[5]

Monoethnic countries[edit]

Country Population Dominant group  % Ref
 Japan[6] 126,702,133 Japanese 98.5% [7]
 Poland[8] 38,523,261 Poles 96.9% [9]
 Hungary 9,937,628 Hungarians 98% [10]
 Armenia[11] 3,018,854 Armenians 98.1% [12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Deirdre Martin (2009). Language Disabilities in Cultural and Linguistic Diversity. Multilingual Matters. p. 29. ISBN 1847691595. 
  2. ^ Osamu Arakaki (2008). Refugee Law and Practice in Japan. Ashgate Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 0754670090. 
  3. ^ (in Japanese) [1] 平成24年末現在における外国人登録者統計について].
  4. ^ "Trying to teach South Korea about discrimination", The Los Angeles Times, 2009-02-24 .
  5. ^ Gary Dempsey (2002). Exiting the Balkan Thicket. Cato Institute. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-930865-17-4. 
  6. ^ Haarmann, Harald (1986). Language in Ethnicity: A View of Basic Ecological Relations. Walter de Gruyter. p. 209. ISBN 9783110862805. Japan is widely believed to be a monolingual country with a monoethnic population... 
  7. ^ "Japan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 
  8. ^ Fishman, Joshua A. (1993). The Earliest Stage of Language Planning: The "first Congress" Phenomenon. Walter de Gruyter. p. 219. ISBN 9783110135305. After World War II Poland has become a primarily monoethnic... 
  9. ^ "Poland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 
  10. ^ "Hungarian census 2011 - final data and methodology" (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 
  11. ^ Abrahamian, Levon (2006). Armenian identity in a changing world. Mazda Publishers. p. 19. ISBN 9781568591858. ...the practically monoethnic Armenian Republic... 
    • Department of International Relations Association (1997). Gotchev, Atanas, ed. The New European security architecture and issues of early warning and conflict prevention. Albatros. p. 110. Thus Armenia became the most mono-ethnic country in the CIS and the Middle East. 
    • Cornell, Svante (2005). Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781135796693. Whereas Armenia is now basically a mono- ethnic state... 
  12. ^ "2011թ. հոկտեմբերի 12-21-ը Հայաստանի Հանրապետությունում անցկացված մարդահամարի արդյունքները [Results of the 2011 October 12-21 census in the Republic of Armenia]" (PDF). (in Armenian). National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia. p. 144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 March 2016.