Monoethnicity is the existence of a single ethnic group in a given region or country. It is the opposite of polyethnicity. The use of the concept of monoethnicity has been criticized for being discriminatory and preventing diversity from being recognized.
It is a common belief in Japan that the entire country is monoethnic, but there are many ethnic minorities in Japan (e.g. Koreans, Ainus, and Ryukyuans). They represent around 1% of the whole population 
South Koreans regard themselves as a monoethnic society, although there are small ethnic minorities that exist in South Korea, where they account for around 1% of the South Korean population. These include around 650,000 Chinese immigrants 
Most Sub-Saharan African countries have mono-racial societies (>0.1%), but it's common to find several ethnic groups within the same country. The number of immigrants from these African countries has grown substantially since 1990, but they receive virtually almost zero immigration.
- Deirdre Martin (2009). Language Disabilities in Cultural and Linguistic Diversity. Multilingual Matters. p. 29. ISBN 1847691595.
- Osamu Arakaki (2008). Refugee Law and Practice in Japan. Ashgate Publishing. p. 36. ISBN 0754670090.
- (Japanese)  平成２４年末現在における外国人登録者統計について].
- "Trying to teach South Korea about discrimination", The Los Angeles Times, 2009-02-24.
- Gary Dempsey (2002). Exiting the Balkan Thicket. Cato Institute. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-930865-17-4.
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