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Order Mononegavirales
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales

The order Mononegavirales is the taxonomic home of numerous related viruses. Members of the order that are commonly known are, for instance, Ebola virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, measles virus, mumps virus, Nipah virus, and rabies virus. All of these viruses cause significant disease in humans. Many very important pathogens of nonhuman animals and plants are also members of this order.

Use of term[edit]

The order Mononegavirales is a virological taxon that was created in 1991[1][2] and emended in 1995,[3] 1997,[4] 2000,[5] 2005,[6] and 2011.[7] The name Mononegavirales is derived from the Greek adjective μóνος [monos] (alluding to the monopartite and single-stranded genomes of most mononegaviruses), the Latin verb negare (alluding to the negative polarity of these genomes), and the taxonomic suffix -virales (denoting a viral order).[8] The order currently includes the five virus families Bornaviridae, Filoviridae, Nyamiviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae.[7][8][9][10]


Mononegavirales is pronounced ˌmɒnəˌnɛgəviː’rɑ:lɨz (IPA) or mo-nuh-ne-guh-vee-rah-liz in English phonetic notation.[8] According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Mononegavirales is always to be capitalized, italicized, and never abbreviated.[7] The names of its physical members (mononegaviruses/mononegavirads) are to be written in lower case, are not italicized and used without articles.[7][8]

Order inclusion criteria[edit]

A virus is a member of the order Mononegavirales if[7][8]

Order organization[edit]

The order includes four accepted families that include numerous genera, consisting of many different species. Subfamilies have only been established for the mononegavirus family Paramyxoviridae. The order has expanded considerably during recent years due to the discovery of many novel agents that were found to be phylogenetically diverse from already known mononegaviruses. Novel taxa (genera and/or species) had to be proposed, some of which have by now been accepted by the ICTV, and others that are in various stages of the suggestion/proposal/consideration process. The table below provides an overview of the current composition of the order. Note that this table only lists taxa (concepts), but not their virus members (physical entities).

Order Mononegavirales: families, genera, and species
Family name Subfamily name Genus name Species name
Bornaviridae Bornavirus Mammalian 1 bornavirus*
Psittaciform 1 bornavirus
Passeriform 1 bornavirus
Waterbird 1 bornavirus
Passeriform 2 bornavirus
Unnamed "Elapid 1 bornavirus" (suggested)[11]
Filoviridae Cuevavirus Lloviu cuevavirus*
Ebolavirus Bundibugyo ebolavirus
Reston ebolavirus
Sudan ebolavirus
Taï Forest ebolavirus
Zaire ebolavirus*
Marburgvirus Marburg marburgvirus*
Nyamiviridae Nyavirus Midway nyavirus
Nyamanini nyavirus*
Sierra Nevada nyavirus
Unnamed Soybean cyst nematode virus*
Paramyxoviridae Paramyxovirinae Aquaparamyxovirus Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus*
"Pacific salmon paramyxovirus" (suggested)[12]
Avulavirus Avian paramyxovirus 2
Avian paramyxovirus 3
Avian paramyxovirus 4
Avian paramyxovirus 5
Avian paramyxovirus 6
Avian paramyxovirus 7
Avian paramyxovirus 8
Avian paramyxovirus 9
"Avian paramyxovirus 10" (suggested)[13]
Newcastle disease virus*
Ferlavirus Fer-de-Lance paramyxovirus*
Henipavirus "Cedar virus" (suggested)
Hendra virus*
Nipah virus
"Jeilongvirus" (suggested)[14] "Beilong virus" (suggested)[14]
"J virus"* (suggested)[14]
"Tailam virus" (suggested)[15]
Morbillivirus Canine distemper virus
Cetacean morbillivirus
Measles virus*
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus
Phocine distemper virus
Rinderpest virus
Respirovirus Bovine parainfluenza virus 3
Human parainfluenza virus 1
Human parainfluenza virus 3
Sendai virus*
Simian virus 10
Rubulavirus Human parainfluenza virus 2
Human parainfluenza virus 4
Mapuera virus
"Menangle virus" (suggested)
Mumps virus*
Parainfluenza virus 5
Porcine rubulavirus
Simian virus 41
"Tioman virus" (suggested)
"Tuhoko paramyxovirus 1" (suggested)[16]
"Tuhoko paramyxovirus 2" (suggested)[16]
"Tuhoko paramyxovirus 3" (suggested)[16]
Unassigned "Mossman virus" (suggested)[17]
"Nariva virus" (suggested)[18]
"Tupaia paramyxovirus"* (suggested)[19]
"Salem virus" (suggested)[20]
Pneumovirinae Pneumovirus Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Human respiratory syncytial virus*
Murine pneumonia virus
Metapneumovirus Avian metapneumovirus*
Human metapneumovirus
No name suggested yet No name suggested yet "Sunshine virus"* (suggested)[21]
Rhabdoviridae "Almendravirus" (suggested)[22] "Arboretum virus" (suggested)[22]
"Puerto Almendras virus" (suggested)[22]
"Bahiavirus" (suggested)[22] "Bahia Grande virus" (suggested)[22]
"Muir Spring virus" (suggested)[22]
"Curiovirus" (suggested)[22] "Aruac virus" (suggested)[22]
"Curionopolis virus" (suggested)[22]
"Inhangapi virus" (suggested)[22]
"Irini virus" (suggested)[22]
"Itaciaunas virus" (suggested)[22]
"Rochambeau virus" (suggested)[22]
Cytorhabdovirus Barley yellow striate mosaic virus
Broccoli necrotic yellows virus
Festuca leaf streak virus
"Ivy vein banding virus" (suggested)
Lettuce necrotic yellows virus*
Lettuce yellow mottle virus
Northern cereal mosaic virus
Sonchus virus
"Soybean blotchy mosaic virus" (suggested)
Strawberry crinkle virus
Wheat American striate mosaic virus
"Wheat rosette stunt virus" (suggested)
"Dichorhavirus" (proposed)[23] "Orchid fleck dichorhavirus"* (proposed)[23]
"Citrus necrotic spot dichorhavirus " (suggested)[24]
"Coffee ringspot dichorhavirus" (proposed)[23]
Ephemerovirus Adelaide River virus
Berrimah virus
Bovine ephemeral fever virus*
"Kimberley virus" (suggested)
"Koolpinyah virus" (suggested)[22]
Kotonkan virus
"Malakal virus" (suggested)
Obodhiang virus
"Puchong virus" (suggested)
"Yata virus virus" (suggested)[22]
"Hapavirus" (suggested)[22] Flanders virus
"Grey Lodge virus" (suggested)[22]
"Hart Park virus" (suggested)[22]
"Joinjakaka virus" (suggested)[22]
"Kamese virus" (suggested)[22]
"La Joya virus" (suggested)[22]
"Landjia virus" (suggested)[22]
"Mannitoba virus" (suggested)[22]
"Marco virus" (suggested)[22]
"Mosquiero virus" (suggested)[22]
"Mossuril virus" (suggested)[22]
Ngaingan virus
"Ord River virus" (suggested)[22]
"Perry Creek virus" (suggested)[22]
Wongabel virus
"Ledantevirus" (suggested)[25] "Barur virus" (suggested)[25]
"Fikirini virus" (suggested)[25]
"Fukuoka virus" (suggested)[25]
"Kern Canyon virus" (suggested)[25]
"Keuraliba virus" (suggested)[25]
"Kolente virus" (suggested)[25]
"Le Dantec virus" (suggested)[25]
"Mount Elgon bat virus" (suggested)[25]
"Nkolbisson virus" (suggested)[25]
"Nishimuro virus" (suggested)[25]
"Oita virus" (suggested)[25]
Lyssavirus Aravan virus
Australian bat lyssavirus
Bokeloh bat lyssavirus
Duvenhage virus
European bat lyssavirus 1
European bat lyssavirus 2
"Ikoma lyssavirus"
Irkut virus
Khujand virus
Lagos bat virus
Mokola virus
Rabies virus*
Shimoni bat virus
West Caucasian bat virus
Novirhabdovirus "Eel virus B12" (suggested)
"Eel virus C26" (suggested)
Hirame rhabdovirus
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus*
Snakehead virus
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus
Nucleorhabdovirus "Cereal chlorotic mottle virus" (suggested)
"Cynodon rhabdovirus" (suggested)
Datura yellow vein virus
Eggplant mottled dwarf virus
Maize fine streak virus
Maize Iranian mosaic virus
Maize mosaic virus
Potato yellow dwarf virus*
Rice yellow stunt virus
Sonchus yellow net virus
"Sorghum stunt mosaic virus" (suggested)
Sowthistle yellow vein virus
Taro vein chlorosis virus
Perhabdovirus Anguillid rhabdovirus
Perch rhabdovirus*
Sea trout rhabdovirus
"Sawgravirus" (suggested)[22] "Connecticut virus" (suggested)[22]
"New Minto virus" (suggested)[22]
"Sawgrass virus" (suggested)[22]
Sigmavirus "Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus" (suggested)[26]
Drosophila affinis sigmavirus
Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus
Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus
Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus*
Drosophila obscura sigmavirus
Drosophila tristis sigmavirus
Muscina stabulans sigmavirus
"Sinistar-like viruses" (suggested)[27] "Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus"* (suggested)[27]
Sprivivirus Pike fry rhabdovirus*
Spring viremia of carp virus*
"Sripuvirus" (suggested)[22] "Chaco virus" (suggested)[22]
"Niakha virus" (suggested)[22]
"Sena Madueira virus" (suggested)[22]
"Sripur virus" (suggested)[22]
Tibrovirus "Bas Congo virus" (suggested)[22]
Coastal Plains virus*
"Sweetwater Branch virus" (suggested)[22]
Tibrogargan virus
Tupavirus Durham virus*
Tupaia virus
"Klamath virus" (suggested)[22]
Vesiculovirus "BeAn 157575 virus"" (suggested)
"Boteke virus" (suggested)
"Calchaqui virus" (suggested)
Carajas virus
Chandipura virus
Cocal virus
"Eel virus American" (suggested)
"Eel virus European X" (suggested)
"Grass carp rhabdovirus" (suggested)
"Gray Lodge virus" (suggested)
Isfahan virus*
"Jurona virus" (suggested)
"Klamath virus" (suggested)
"Kwatta virus" (suggested)
"La Joya virus" (suggested)
"Lake trout rhabdovirus" (suggested)
"Malpais Spring virus" (suggested)
Maraba virus
"Perinet virus" (suggested)
Piry virus
"Porton virus" (suggested)
"Radi virus" (suggested)
"Sea trout rhabdovirus" (suggested)
"Tench rhabdovirus" (suggested)
"Ulcerative disease rhabdovirus" (suggested)
Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus*
Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus
"Yug Bogdanovac virus" (suggested)
Unassigned "Garba virus" (suggested)[22]
"Kwatta virus" (suggested)[22]
Moussa virus
"Oak Vale rhabdovirus" (suggested)[22]
"Sunguru virus" (suggested)[22]

Table legend: "*" denotes type species; "suggested" refers to taxa that have been suggested by individual researchers but that have not been formally proposed to the ICTV; "proposed" refers to taxa that have been formally proposed; and "accepted" refers to taxa that have been accepted by the Executive Committee of the ICTV but that have yet to be ratified. Only accepted and ratified taxa are italicized, whereas suggested and proposed taxa are not and placed in quotation marks.

Life cycle[edit]

The mononegavirus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into the cytosol. The virus RdRp partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-stranded mRNAs, which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. Mononegavirus RdRps bind to a single promoter located at the 3' end of the genome. Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3' end of the genome are transcribed in the greatest abundance, whereas those toward the 5' end are least likely to be transcribed. The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when the RdRp switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication results in full-length, positive-stranded antigenomes that are in turn transcribed into negative-stranded virus progeny genome copies. Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane they bud from. The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle.[6]


Mononegaviruses have a history that dates back several tens of million of years. Mononegavirus "fossils" have been discovered in the form of mononegavirus genes or gene fragments integrated into mammalian genomes. For instance, bornavirus gene "fossils" have been detected in the genomes of bats, fish, hyraxes, marsupials, primates, rodents, ruminants, and elephants.[28][29][30] Filovirus gene "fossils" have been detected in the genomes of bats, rodents, shrews, tenrecs, and marsupials.[29][30][31] A Midway virus "fossil" was found in the genome of zebrafish.[29] Finally, rhabdovirus "fossils" were found in the genomes of mosquitoes, ticks, and plants.[30][32][33]


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External links[edit]