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Classification and external resources
Specialty medical genetics
ICD-10 Q55.0
ICD-9-CM 752.89

Monorchism (also monorchidism) is the state of having only one testicle within the scrotum.


This can be due to:

  • One testicle not descending into the scrotum during normal embryonic or fetal development (3–4% of 'normal' live births), also known as undescended testis or cryptorchidism. In this case the testis is within the abdominal cavity, somewhere along the normal route of descent – most commonly, within the inguinal canal. Such a testis has an increased risk of malignancy.
  • One testicle may disappear during development (the so-called vanishing testis) due to some intrauterine insult. This is thought to be most likely vascular, such as testicular torsion.
  • One testicle may have been surgically removed through orchiectomy.
  • One testicle may be injured.

Notable cases[edit]

Due to testicular cancer[edit]

Due to injury[edit]

Due to cryptorchidism[17][better source needed][edit]


  • Adolf Hitler (Allegedly), Sources from historians vary on the topic of Hitler's monorchism. Sources vary from Hitler being shot in the groin by a French Soldier during the battle of the somme to it being a birth defect. The truth as to why Hitler may or may not have only had a singular testicle, will be unlikely known, due to the fact that he was cremated after his apparent suicide.

Monorchism in nonhuman animals[edit]

Although extremely rare, monorchism has been observed to be characteristic of some animal species, notably in beetles.[20]


An individual having monorchism can be referred to as monorchid.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ - Lance Armstrong
  2. ^ "1984-01-23 HOSPITALIZED. Frank Church, 59". TIME. 1984-01-23. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  3. ^ Urological Sciences Research Foundation page on Tom Green
  4. ^ ABC: Testicular Cancer and Mark Latham
  5. ^ Baggaley, Michael (July 22, 2009). "Port Vale: Horsfield hoping his luck can rub off on Valiants". The Sentinel. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  6. ^ "Nuggets: Nene's testicular tumor malignant, cancer isolated". USA Today. January 22, 2008. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  7. ^ "After surgery for cancer, wide receiver Kevin Curtis gets a chance with Miami Dolphins". Palm Beach Post. December 17, 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  8. ^ Farage, Nigel (13 March 2015). "Nigel Farage: Cancer, a lemon-sized testicle and how the NHS failed me". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  9. ^ "David Beckham is great, but Bobby Moore was one of a kind". Mirror. February 14, 2009. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
  10. ^ Chronicle of John Hardyng, ed. Ellis, H., p.381. London, 1812. [1]
  11. ^ "BBC News - Spain's Franco 'had one testicle'". Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  12. ^ "Hard Man Bayliss". Visordown. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  13. ^ "MMA cost Brian Foster a nut". Rebellion Media. April 13, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  14. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "Warrington Wolves: Paul Wood has testicle removed". BBC. 7 October 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  16. ^ Merry, Stephanie (2017-10-05). "The new Thurgood Marshall biopic is trying not to be a 'good for you' movie". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-06-21. 
  17. ^ "Cryptorchidism". 
  18. ^ Li Zhisui (2010). Private Life Of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician. Random House. p. 100. ISBN 9781407059228. 
  20. ^ Will KW, Liebherr JK, Maddison DR, Galián J (2005). "Absence asymmetry: the evolution of monorchid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)". J. Morphol. 264 (1): 75–93. doi:10.1002/jmor.10319. PMID 15732050.