Monroe County, Indiana

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Monroe County
Monroe County courthouse in Bloomington, Indiana
Monroe County courthouse in Bloomington, Indiana
Official seal of Monroe County
Seal
Map of Indiana highlighting Monroe County
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 39°10′N 86°31′W / 39.16°N 86.52°W / 39.16; -86.52
Country United States
State Indiana
Founded14 January 1818
Named forJames Monroe
SeatBloomington
Largest cityBloomington
Area
 • Total411.32 sq mi (1,065.3 km2)
 • Land394.51 sq mi (1,021.8 km2)
 • Water16.81 sq mi (43.5 km2)  4.09%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2019)
148,431
 • Density372.4/sq mi (143.8/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district9th
Websitewww.co.monroe.in.us
Indiana county number 53

Monroe County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana. In 1910 the US Census Bureau calculated the nation's mean population center to lie in Monroe County.[1] The population was 137,974 at the 2010 United States Census.[2] The county seat is Bloomington.[3]

Monroe County is part of the Bloomington, Indiana, Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History[edit]

Monroe County was formed in 1818 from portions of Orange County. It was named for James Monroe,[4] fifth President of the United States, who was in that office from 1817 until 1825.

On July 4th, 2020, Monroe County was the scene of an attempted lynching of a black resident. Those responsible were never prosecuted.

Geography[edit]

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 411.32 square miles (1,065.3 km2), of which 394.51 square miles (1,021.8 km2) (or 95.91%) is land and 16.81 square miles (43.5 km2) (or 4.09%) is water.[5] The county terrain is low rolling hills, covered with vegetation and largely devoted to agricultural use or urban development. The eastern part is carved with drainages and gullies, leading to Griffy Lake.[6] The county's highest point is McGuire Benchmark, just NW of Bloomington, at 994' (303m) ASL.[7]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Bodies of water[edit]

Griffy Lake, seen from its dam

Monroe County is divided between the basins of the East Fork and West Fork of Indiana's White River.[8] The northern part drains to the West Fork; the southern part of the county drains to the East Fork, primarily via the Salt Creek and its tributaries, such as the Clear Creek (known as the "Jordan River" on Indiana University Bloomington campus).

Several artificial reservoirs have been constructed by damming the county's creeks. The largest is Lake Monroe, a large reservoir on the Salt Creek in the south-eastern part of the county. It is used both for recreational purposes and to supply the city with drinking water.[8] Until the late 1960s, the main source of water supply was the smaller Lake Lemon (constructed 1953), in the northeastern part of the county; it is now the backup water source, and is mainly used for recreation.[9]

The third largest is Griffy Lake, on the northern slope of the county. Constructed in 1924 by damming Griffy Creek, it was Bloomington's main water source until 1954; it is now used primarily for recreation although it also serves as an emergency water source.[8][10][11] In 2012–2013, the lake was drained, the dam repaired, and the lake was refilled.

A smaller lake, Weimer (Wapehani) in the Clear Creek basin, was constructed for water supply purposes, but during most of its history was used purely for recreation - mainly fishing.[12] In 2017 authorities revealed plans to drain this lake permanently, as it was considered to be unsafe.[13] This was carried out in the summer of 2018.

Limestone has been quarried in Monroe County since 1826.[14] A number of abandoned limestone quarries in the county are now cliff-surrounded lakes (as seen in the 1979 film Breaking Away), stable without ongoing human intervention.

National protected areas[edit]

The defunct Leonard Springs Reservoir, now taken over by beavers

Natural wonders[edit]

  • Buckner Cave
  • Leonard Springs Nature Park, where the water of Sinking Creek reappears in springs[15]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated places[edit]

Townships[edit]

Climate and weather[edit]

Bloomington, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
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67
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54
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3.4
 
 
41
24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[16]

In recent years, average temperatures in Bloomington have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −21 °F (−29 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 110 °F (43 °C) was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.66 inches (68 mm) in January to 5.12 inches (130 mm) in May.[16]

Government and politics[edit]

Sheriff's office and jail

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The fiscal body of the county government; controls spending and revenue collection in the county. There are four elected members representing districts and three members elected at-large. The council members serve staggered four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[17][18]

Board of Commissioners: A three-member board serving as the executive and legislative body of the county. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered four-year terms. The president of this board is the county's principal executive officer. The commissioners are charged with setting policy and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.[17][18]

Court: The county maintains a unified circuit court with nine divisions and a court commissioner who handles civil cases. Judges must be members of the Indiana Bar Association; they are elected to six-year terms. Some court decisions can be appealed to the state level (appeals court, state supreme court).

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, assessor, and circuit court clerk. They are elected county-wide to four-year terms. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[18]

Monroe County is part of Indiana's 9th congressional district and is represented in Congress Republican Trey Hollingsworth.[19] It is part of Indiana Senate districts 37, 40 and 44;[20] and Indiana House of Representatives districts 46, 60 and 61.[21]

Courthouse[edit]

The Monroe County Courthouse is the seat of government for Monroe County and is the traditional center of Bloomington. The third courthouse to stand on the Downtown Square, the current courthouse was built in 1907 during a time of great prosperity. Wing & Mahurin designed the building.[22]

Politics[edit]

Monroe County formerly leaned Republican, however in recent decades it has trended Democratic, voting for the Democratic nominee in 6 out of the last 7 presidential elections.

Presidential election results
Presidential election results[23]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 35.2% 20,592 58.5% 34,216 6.2% 3,646
2012 39.3% 22,481 58.4% 33,436 2.3% 1,306
2008 33.3% 21,118 65.4% 41,450 1.3% 819
2004 45.3% 22,834 53.4% 26,965 1.3% 668
2000 47.6% 19,147 43.6% 17,523 8.8% 3,550
1996 42.3% 16,744 46.8% 18,531 11.0% 4,334
1992 38.2% 16,661 45.2% 19,712 16.6% 7,214
1988 56.0% 20,756 42.8% 15,855 1.2% 427
1984 59.1% 21,772 40.0% 14,719 0.9% 335
1980 49.4% 18,233 36.1% 13,316 14.5% 5,345
1976 53.1% 18,938 46.5% 16,609 0.4% 148
1972 56.1% 19,953 42.8% 15,241 1.1% 402
1968 50.8% 13,752 39.8% 10,789 9.4% 2,539
1964 46.1% 10,309 53.3% 11,918 0.7% 145
1960 65.4% 14,513 34.0% 7,535 0.6% 136
1956 62.9% 13,223 36.8% 7,732 0.3% 60
1952 60.6% 12,072 38.9% 7,745 0.5% 108
1948 54.6% 9,579 42.1% 7,375 3.3% 578
1944 55.8% 8,993 42.2% 6,809 2.0% 323
1940 55.7% 10,311 43.9% 8,117 0.4% 71
1936 48.8% 8,842 50.9% 9,220 0.3% 48
1932 47.0% 7,759 51.4% 8,478 1.6% 260
1928 67.0% 8,883 32.6% 4,317 0.4% 59
1924 55.2% 6,247 41.5% 4,689 3.3% 376
1920 53.7% 5,633 45.3% 4,751 1.1% 116
1916 50.3% 3,033 46.4% 2,796 3.3% 200
1912 25.2% 1,388 43.5% 2,396 31.3% 1,727
1908 51.5% 3,051 46.9% 2,780 1.6% 95
1904 55.8% 3,042 41.9% 2,286 2.3% 123
1900 52.7% 2,788 45.3% 2,397 2.0% 107
1896 50.2% 2,510 48.4% 2,422 1.4% 68
1892 45.9% 2,017 44.1% 1,937 10.1% 442
1888 51.5% 2,054 45.5% 1,815 3.0% 119

Education[edit]

Monroe County Public Library operates branches at Bloomington and Ellettsville.[24]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

For many years Monroe County was one of the most populous counties in the USA which did not contain any US highways or Interstate highways. However, in December 2015 the I-69 extension was completed into the county and this distinction disappeared. The highway was further extended north into Morgan County in 2018.

Railways[edit]

A trestle on an abandoned railway line (the former Monon Railway mainline) in Perry Township

Although Monroe County has a rich railway history, currently its only railway is the Indiana Rail Road, whose mainline crosses the county from the north-east to the south-west, with branches to a few industrial facilities.[25][26][27] There is no passenger service.

Between 1854 and 2004, an important north–south line connecting the Ohio River with Lake Michigan crossed Monroe County as well, serving Stinesville, Elletsville, Bloomington, Smithville, and Harrodsburg. It was operated by the Monon Railroad throughout much of the 20th century, and later by CSX. The last passenger service operating on this line was Amtrak's Floridian Chicago-Miami service, during 1972–1979. With the termination of this service in 1979, Monroe County lost passenger railway service. CSX continued to use this line for freight for another quarter of a century, but in 2004, it stopped using this line. Large parts of it have since been converted to trails. [14] [28]

Air transport[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18202,679
18306,577145.5%
184010,14354.2%
185011,28611.3%
186012,84713.8%
187014,16810.3%
188015,87512.0%
189017,67311.3%
190020,87318.1%
191023,42612.2%
192024,5194.7%
193035,97446.7%
194036,5341.6%
195050,08037.1%
196059,22518.3%
197084,84943.3%
198098,78516.4%
1990108,97810.3%
2000120,56310.6%
2010137,97414.4%
Est. 2019148,431[29]7.6%
US Decennial Census[30]
1790–1960[31] 1900–1990[32]
1990–2000[33] 2010–2019[2]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 137,974 people, 54,864 households, and 27,315 families in the county.[34] The population density was 349.7 inhabitants per square mile (135.0/km2). There were 59,107 housing units at an average density of 149.8 per square mile (57.8/km2).[5] The racial makeup of the county was 87.8% white, 5.2% Asian, 3.3% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 1.0% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population.[34] In terms of ancestry, 24.8% were German, 13.5% were Irish, 11.8% were English, and 8.1% were American.[35]

Of the 54,864 households, 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.2% were non-families, and 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 27.7 years.[34]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $60,845. Males had a median income of $43,439 versus $33,547 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,882. About 10.6% of families and 25.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mean Center of Population for the United States: 1790 to 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Monroe County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. US Government Printing Office. p. 212.
  5. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  6. ^ Monroe County IN (google maps, accessed 20 December 2019)
  7. ^ Monroe County IN (peakbagger.com, accessed 20 December 2019)
  8. ^ a b c Water Basics: Stream Archived September 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (City of Bloomington)
  9. ^ Lake Lemon Conservancy District (LLCD)
  10. ^ Griffy Lake Nature Preserve
  11. ^ Abandoned Water Sanitation Station, Water Pump; Bloomington IN Archived December 25, 2012, at Archive.today, "The Other Side of Indiana"
  12. ^ City of Bloomington Environmental Resource Inventory (COBERI) Archived June 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ City plans to remove most of dam, lake in Wapehani bike park
  14. ^ a b Limestone Industry TIMELINE
  15. ^ Leonard Springs Nature Park Archived September 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Bloomington IN". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  17. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  18. ^ a b c Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  19. ^ Congressional Districts (NationalAtlas.Gov, accessed 21 May 2015)
  20. ^ "Indiana Senate Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  21. ^ "Indiana House Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Monroe County Courthouse – Bloomingpedia". www.bloomingpedia.org. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  23. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Hours & Locations". Monroe County Public Library. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  25. ^ Indiana Railroad map
  26. ^ State of Indiana 2012 railway system map (The branch to Elletsville, labeled "CSX", is presently abandoned.)
  27. ^ Rail Density)
  28. ^ Site Highlight: B-Line Trail in Bloomington
  29. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  30. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  31. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  32. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  33. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  34. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  35. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  36. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2015.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°10′N 86°31′W / 39.16°N 86.52°W / 39.16; -86.52