Monroe County, Tennessee
Monroe County Courthouse in Madisonville
Location within the U.S. state of Tennessee
Tennessee's location within the U.S.
|Founded||November 13, 1819|
|Named for||James Monroe|
|• Total||653 sq mi (1,690 km2)|
|• Land||636 sq mi (1,650 km2)|
|• Water||17 sq mi (40 km2) 2.6%%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||70/sq mi (30/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Education
- 5 Parks, forests, and natural features
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Communities
- 8 Notable residents
- 9 Politics
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
During the 18th century, towns and villages of the Overhill Cherokee were scattered along the Little Tennessee River and Tellico River throughout Monroe County. These included Chota, Tanasi (the name source of "Tennessee") and Great Tellico, which at various times were Cherokee principal towns, as well as Citico, Toqua, Tomotley, Mialoquo, Chilhowee and Tallassee. Archaeological excavations at the Citico site suggest the area was inhabited for thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers. Artifacts uncovered from the Icehouse Bottom site near Vonore date to as early as 7500 B.C., during the Archaic period.
Fort Loudoun was built by the British in 1756 as part of an agreement with the Cherokee. After relations soured between the British and Cherokee in 1760, the Cherokee laid siege to the fort, and killed most of its garrison.
Monroe County was established in 1819 after the signing of the Calhoun Treaty, in which the Cherokee relinquished claims to lands stretching from the Little Tennessee River south to the Hiwassee River. The county was named for President James Monroe.
Monroe County was one of the few East Tennessee counties to support secession at the outbreak of the Civil War. On June 8, 1861, the county voted in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession by a margin of 1,096 to 774.
In the early 20th century, the Babcock Lumber Company conducted extensive logging operations in the Tellico Plains area. During the same period, the Aluminum Company of America began building a string of dams along the Little Tennessee, among them Calderwood, Santeetlah and Cheoah, to power its aluminum smelting operations in nearby Alcoa. The construction of Tellico Dam by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1970s, although staunchly opposed by many Monroe Countians, provided a number of new economic and recreational opportunities.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 653 square miles (1,690 km2), of which 636 square miles (1,650 km2) is land and 17 square miles (44 km2) (2.6%) is water. The Unicoi Mountains, part of the greater Blue Ridge chain, dominate the southeastern part of the county. The crest of this range marks Monroe's boundaries with the North Carolina counties, Graham and Cherokee.
The Little Tennessee River flows along Monroe County's border with Blount County to the northeast. Three artificial lakes— Tellico Lake, Chilhowee Lake and Calderwood Lake— occupy this section of the river. The Tellico River, a tributary of the Little Tennessee, drains much of the southwestern part of the county. The Bald River, noted for the scenic Bald River Falls, is a tributary of the Tellico River. Sweetwater Creek, a tributary of the Tennessee River, drains a portion of northern Monroe County.
- Loudon County (north)
- Blount County (northeast)
- Graham County, North Carolina (east)
- Cherokee County, North Carolina (southeast)
- Polk County (southwest)
- McMinn County (west)
National protected areas
- Bald River Gorge Wilderness
- Cherohala Skyway (part)
- Cherokee National Forest (part)
- Citico Creek Wilderness
State protected areas
- Fort Loudoun State Park
- Tellico Blockhouse State Historic Site
- Tellico Lake Wildlife Management Area (part)
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 38,961 people, 15,329 households, and 11,236 families residing in the county. The population density was 61 people per square mile (24/km²). There were 17,287 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile (11/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.87% White, 2.27% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, and 1.26% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,329 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.40% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.70% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,337, and the median income for a family was $34,902. Males had a median income of $29,621 versus $21,064 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,951. 15.50% of the population and 12.00% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 19.40% of those under the age of 18 and 17.70% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Parks, forests, and natural features
A portion of the county is included in the Cherokee National Forest. The Monroe section of the forest includes two federally designated wilderness areas— Citico Creek and Bald River Gorge. The Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest is located just across the North Carolina border to the east. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is located just across the Blount County border to the northeast.
Fort Loudoun State Park is located near Vonore, and includes a replica of the 18th-century colonial Fort Loudoun. The Tellico Blockhouse site lies opposite the river from Fort Loudoun, and includes a layout of the 1790s-era blockhouse (marked by stones and posts). The Sequoyah Museum, dedicated to the Cherokee scholar, is located near Fort Loudoun.
The Lost Sea is a commercial cave located 7 miles southeast of Sweetwater in Monroe County. The underground lake for which it is named is the largest in North America. The cave tour features a ride on the lake in boats with electric motors. The lake was discovered by Ben Sands in 1905 when he was only 13 years old. In 1940, the skeletons and footprints of two Pleistocene jaguars (Panthera onca augusta) were discovered in the cave. They were excavated by George Gaylord Simpson of the American Museum.
- William Heiskell - post-Civil War Speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives
- Sue K. Hicks - Scopes Trial attorney and later judge; believed to be the inspiration for the song, "A Boy Named Sue"
- Ray Jenkins - defense attorney and Senate counsel during the Army-McCarthy Hearings
- Estes Kefauver - U.S. Senator
- Sharon Gail Lee - Tennessee Supreme Court Justice
- Charles McClung McGhee - late 19th-century railroad tycoon
- Sequoyah - Cherokee scholar born in Tuskegee Village (near Vonore); created the Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible.
- John C. Vaughn - Confederate brigadier general; sheriff; California Gold Rush prospector
- Carroll Van West, "Monroe County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 11 March 2013.
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Gerald F. Schroedl, "Overhill Cherokees," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 24 October 2013.
- Jefferson Chapman, Tellico Archaeology: 12,000 Years of Native American History (Knoxville, Tenn.: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1985).
- Carroll Van West, "Fort Loudoun," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 24 October 2013.
- Oliver Perry Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War (R. Clarke Company, 1899), p. 199.
- "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Based on 2000 census data
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- DiPane, Melissa. "Tennessee Meiji Gakuin School holds last graduation Archived 2013-07-06 at Archive.today." WATE. March 9, 2007. Retrieved on January 11, 2012.
- Larry E. Matthews, "Caves of Knoxville and the Great Smoky Mountains", National Speleological Society, 2008, 296 pages, ISBN 978-1-879961-30-2
- FAA Airport Master Record for MNV ( PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective 8 April 2010.
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
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