Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe
Jean de Sainte-Colombe (ca. 1640–1700) was a French composer and violist. Sainte-Colombe was a celebrated master of the viola da gamba. He is credited (by Jean Rousseau in his Traité de la viole (1687)[full citation needed]) with adding the seventh string (AA) on the bass viol.
Life and Works
Few details of his life are known; we know neither the names of his parents nor his precise dates of birth and death. Recent research has revealed that his first name was Jean (other sources[full citation needed] mention the name of Augustine of Autrecourt, Sieur de Sainte-Colombe) and also that he had as teacher the theorbo and viola player Nicolas Hotman.
Sainte-Colombe performed publicly in the Parisian Salons, as did most of his colleagues and Parisian music masters such as Le Sieur Dubuisson. According to Titon du Tillet,[full citation needed] he often performed in consort with his two daughters, and often with his own students, as attested by the copyist who wrote out his pieces for two viols as well as the solo-viol Tournus Manuscript. Sainte-Colombe's most notable student was Marin Marais, who wrote Tombeau pour Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe, in 1701, as a memorial to his instructor. Sainte-Colombe's students also included the Sieur de Danoville, Jean Desfontaines, Pierre Méliton, Jean Rousseau and two women known only as Mlle Rougevillle and Mlle Vignon.
Amongst the extant works of Sainte-Colombe are sixty-seven Concerts à deux violes esgales, and over 170 pieces for solo seven-string viol, making him perhaps the most prolific French viol composer before Marin Marais.
It is speculated by various scholars that Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe was of Lyonnais or Burgundian petty nobility; and also the selfsame 'Jean de Sainte-Colombe' noted as the father of 'Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe le fils.' This assumption was erroneous, according to subsequent research in Paris by American bass viol player and musicologist Jonathan Dunford. Dunford suggests he was probably from the Pau area in southernmost France and a Protestant, that his first name was "Jean" and that he had two daughters named Brigide and Françoise.
M. Sainte-Colombe may or may not be linked to the ancient family and last name "de Sancta Columba" (old form in Latin), name taken from the third-century Saint from Sens. There is a book written by Claude Le Laboureur in 1673 regarding the genealogy of the Sainte Colombe family in France. According to Le-Laboureur, the first member of the Sainte Colombe family in France was Guillaudum de Sancta Columba (1319). Although there was another important branch of the family in the Béarn region as mentioned above. This is confirmed by numerous archives in Pau, as well as a surviving castle in the Béarn region.
As for the Catholic branch – another important member of the Sancta Columba family was Bonafusus de Sancta Columba, the first to have a patent granted in the world, granted by Henry III, King of England.However, most likely, M. Sainte-Colombe was a member of the ancient family and last name "de Sancta Columba" (old form in Latin), from Catalan origin, as Guillem Bernat de Sancta Columba.
In 1991, Pascal Quignard published a novel giving a conjectural picture of the relationship between M. de Sainte-Colombe and Marin Marais, entitled Tous les matins du monde (All the World's Mornings). Alain Corneau directed a film based on it, with Jean-Pierre Marielle as Sainte-Colombe, Guillaume Depardieu as the young and Gérard Depardieu as the aged Marin Marais. The soundtrack of the film was realized by Jordi Savall.
- Dunford 2001.
- An article published on 18 January 1992 in the French newspaper Le Monde claims, based on the archives of the Hospice de la Charité in Lyons for the year 1657, that his real name was Augustin D'Autrecourt, dit Sainte Colombe. The name D’Autrecourt was a misreading of the cursive handwriting; rather, it was a Monsieur Dandricourt who used the pseudonym Sainte Colombe or Sainte Culumbe. Le Monde subsequently published a correction on 5 January 1996.
- Sainte Colombe's life and works Archived July 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Castell de Barberà (in Spanish)
- "Histoire genealogique de la maison de Sainte-Colombe, et autrer maisons alliees"
- "The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland During the Middle Ages" by Walter W. Shirley, Vol. II:10,1866 
- Castell de Barberà (in Spanish)
- Connelly, Patrice (n.d.). "Historical Treatises on Viola da Gamba" at the Wayback Machine (archived November 22, 2008). Archive from 22 November 2008, from http://www.violadagamba.org/html/treaties.html (accessed 28 April 2016).
- Dunford, Jonathan (2001), "Sainte-Colombe [Sainte Coulombe], Jean de", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Also in Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root (accessed November 1, 2011).
- Vaast, C., and F.P. Goy (1998), "Introduction", in Sainte-Colombe, Concerts à deux violes esgales (Ed. P. Hooreman, 2nd ed. revised by J. Dunford). Paris: Société Française de Musicologie.
- Free scores by Monsieur de Sainte-Colombe at the International Music Score Library Project
- Hoasm.org biography
- Mr. de Sainte Colombe, Concerts à deux violes esgales, Jordi Savall, Wieland Kuijken, Alia Vox AVSA 9885,
- Mr. de Sainte Colombe le Fils - Six Suittes pour Basse de Viole seule avec le Tombeau pour Mons. de Sainte-Colombe le père, - Jordi Savall, basse de viole, Jean-Pierre Marielle, narrator, (Le Parnasse de la Viole, vol. I), Alia Vox 9827 A+B
- Mr. de Sainte Colombe at medieval.org