|Directed by||Pete Docter|
|Produced by||Darla K. Anderson|
|Music by||Randy Newman|
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures Distribution|
|Box office||$577.4 million|
Monsters, Inc. (Monsters, Incorporated) is a 2001 American computer-animated monster comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. Featuring the voices of John Goodman, Billy Crystal, Steve Buscemi, James Coburn, Mary Gibbs and Jennifer Tilly, the film was directed by Pete Docter in his directorial debut, and executive produced by John Lasseter and Andrew Stanton. The film centers on two monsters, the hairy James P. "Sulley" Sullivan and his one-eyed partner and best friend Mike Wazowski, who are employed at the titular energy-producing factory Monsters, Inc., which generates power by scaring human children. However, the monster world believes that the children are toxic, and when a little human girl sneaks into the factory, she must be returned home before it is too late.
Docter began developing the film in 1996, and wrote the story with Jill Culton, Jeff Pidgeon and Ralph Eggleston. Stanton wrote the screenplay with screenwriter Daniel Gerson. The characters went through many incarnations over the film's five-year production process. The technical team and animators found new ways to simulate fur and cloth realistically for the film. Randy Newman, who composed the music for Pixar's three prior films, returned to compose for its fourth.
Upon its release on November 2, 2001, Monsters, Inc. received critical acclaim and was a commercial success, grossing over $577 million worldwide to become the third highest-grossing film of 2001. The film won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "If I Didn't Have You" and was nominated for the first Best Animated Feature, but lost to DreamWorks' Shrek, and was also nominated for Best Original Score and Best Sound Editing. Monsters, Inc. saw a 3D re-release in theaters on December 19, 2012. A prequel titled Monsters University, which was directed by Dan Scanlon, was released on June 21, 2013. A television series titled Monsters at Work premiered on Disney+ on July 7, 2021.
In a world inhabited by monsters, the city of Monstropolis harnesses the screams of human children for energy. At the Monsters, Incorporated factory, skilled monsters employed as "scarers" venture into the human world to scare children and harvest their screams, through doors that activate portals to children's bedroom closets. The field is considered dangerous, as human children are believed to be toxic. Energy production is falling because children are becoming less easily scared, and the company's CEO, Henry J. Waternoose III, is determined to keep the company from failing.
One evening after work, scarer James P. Sullivan, or Sulley for short, discovers that an active door has been left in the station of his rival, Randall Boggs. He inspects the door and accidentally lets a small toddler girl into the factory. A frightened Sulley unsuccessfully attempts to return the girl, who escapes into Monstropolis, interrupting Sulley's best friend and assistant Mike Wazowski on a date at a sushi restaurant. Chaos erupts when other monsters see the girl, Sulley and Mike manage to escape with her before the Child Detection Agency (CDA) arrives and quarantines the restaurant. Forced to keep the girl hidden in their apartment for the night, Sulley soon realizes that the girl is not toxic and her laughter is able to cause a power surge more powerful than screams.
The next day, Sulley and Mike sneak the girl back into the factory disguised as a monster and attempt to send her home. While Mike seeks out her door, Sulley grows attached to her and nicknames her "Boo". Randall, waiting in ambush for her, kidnaps Mike by accident and reveals his plan to revolutionize scaring: to kidnap children and extract screams from them, using a large vacuum-like machine of his invention called the Scream Extractor. Sulley rescues Mike and they go to tell Waternoose about Randall's plan, finding the boss in the middle of a scare demonstration, where he encourages Sulley to perform his roar in the company's simulator room. Sulley unknowingly scares Boo and realizes that scaring children to power the monster world is wrong. Boo inadvertently reveals herself in front of Waternoose, who is revealed to be in league with Randall, and they exile Mike and Sulley to the Himalayas while keeping Boo with them.
The pair are taken in by a yeti, another exiled monster, who tells them about a nearby village, which Sulley realizes he can use to return to the monster world, but Mike refuses to go with him, blaming Sulley for their situation. Sulley returns to the factory and saves Boo from the Scream Extractor, but Randall tries to kill Sulley. Mike returns to reconcile with Sulley, inadvertently saving him from Randall, and they go to return Boo home. Randall pursues them into the door vault, where Boo's laughter activates all the doors at once, allowing them to freely pass in and out of the human world as they attempt to escape. Randall eventually catches up to them and attempts to kill Sulley again, but Boo overcomes her fear of Randall and attacks him, enabling Sulley to catch him. Sulley and Mike hurl Randall through a door to a trailer, where two residents mistake him for an alligator and beat him with a shovel. Sulley and Mike then destroy the door to prevent Randall's return.
When Mike and Sulley locate Boo's door, Waternoose, accompanied by the CDA, bring it down to the scare floor with the intent of arresting Mike and Sulley. Mike distracts the CDA while Sulley and Boo escape with her door, leading Waternoose into the simulation room where he reveals his and Randall's plans of saving the company by kidnapping children to Sulley. Mike records the conversation, exposing him to the agents, and Waternoose is arrested by the CDA. The scare floor administrator Roz reveals herself to be the head of the CDA, working undercover to find the mastermind behind the company's internal actions. She thanks Mike and Sulley for their help and allows Sulley to return Boo home, but has the door demolished. Sulley's only memento of Boo is a shredded fragment of her door.
Inspired by his experiences with Boo, Sulley concocts a plan to retool the company's power generation method to harvest children's laughter instead of screams, as laughter is ten times more powerful. With the energy crisis solved, the factory is now focused on making children laugh to collect energy; Mike becomes the company's top comedian and Sulley is named the new CEO. Mike reveals to Sulley he has rebuilt Boo's door, which only works with all the pieces. Sulley inserts his fragment, enters and is recognized by Boo.
- John Goodman as Sullivan, a huge, furry blue bear-like monster with horns, a tail, and purple spots. Even though he excels at scaring children, he is a gentle giant by nature. At the film's beginning, he has been the "Best Scarer" at Monsters, Inc. for several months running.
- Billy Crystal as Mike, a short, round green monster with a single big eyeball and skinny limbs who is Sulley's station runner and coach on the scare floor. The two are close friends and roommates. He is charming and generally the more organized of the two, but is prone to neurotics and his ego sometimes leads him astray. He is dating Celia Mae, who calls him "Googly-Bear".
- Mary Gibbs as Boo, a two-year-old human toddler girl who is unafraid of any monster except Randall, the scarer assigned to her door. She believes Sulley is a large cat and refers to him as "Kitty". In the film, one of Boo's drawings is covered with the name "Mary". The book based on the film gives Boo's "real" name as Mary Gibbs, the name of her voice actress, who is also the daughter of one of the film's story artists, Rob.
- Steve Buscemi as Randall, a purple, eight-legged lizard-like monster with a chameleon-like ability to change his skin color and blend in completely with his surroundings. He is a snide and preening character who makes himself a rival to Sulley and Mike in the scream collection.
- James Coburn as Waternoose, a spider-like monster with five eyes and a crab-like lower body. He is the CEO of Monsters, Inc., a job passed down through his family for three generations. He acts as a mentor to Sulley, holding great faith in him as a scarer. He is eventually revealed to be in league with Randall.
- Jennifer Tilly as Celia, a pink monster with one eye and tentacle-like legs. She is the receptionist for Monsters, Inc. and Mike's girlfriend.
- Bob Peterson as Roz, a snail-like monster with a raspy voice who administrates for Scare Floor F where Sulley, Mike, and Randall work.
- John Ratzenberger as Yeti a.k.a. The Abominable Snowman, a furry white monster who was banished to the Himalayas. He was inspired by the Abominable Snowman from the 1964 Rankin/Bass animated special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.
- Frank Oz as Fungus, Randall's red-skinned, three-eyed, beleaguered assistant.
- Daniel Gerson as Needleman and Smitty, two goofy monsters with cracking voices who work as janitors and operate the Door Shredder when required.
- Steve Susskind as Jerry, a red, seven-fingered monster who manages Scare Floor F and is a good friend of Waternoose.
- Bonnie Hunt as Flint, a female monster who trains new monsters to scare children.
- Jeff Pidgeon as Bile, a dinosaur-like monster who is a trainee scarer for Monsters, Inc.
- Sam Black as George Sanderson, a chubby, orange-furred monster with a sole horn on top of his head. In a running gag throughout the film, he repeatedly makes contact with objects from the human world, such as a sock adhering to his fur via static cling. These incidents result in CDA agents tackling George, shaving him bald, and sterilizing him. He is good friends with Pete "Claws" Ward.
The idea for Monsters, Inc., along with ideas that would eventually become A Bug's Life, Finding Nemo, and WALL-E was conceived in a lunch in 1994 attended by John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton and Joe Ranft during the near completion of Toy Story. One of the ideas that came out of the brainstorming session was a film about monsters. "When we were making Toy Story", Docter said, "everybody came up to me and said 'Hey, I totally believed that my toys came to life when I left the room.' So when Disney asked us to do some more films, I wanted to tap into a childlike notion that was similar to that. I knew monsters were coming out of my closet when I was a kid. So I said, 'Hey, let's do a film about monsters.'"
Docter began work on the film that was to become Monsters, Inc. in 1996 while others focused on A Bug's Life (1998) and Toy Story 2 (1999). Its code name was Hidden City, named for Docter's favorite restaurant in Point Richmond. By early-February 1997, Docter had drafted a treatment together with Harley Jessup, Jill Culton, and Jeff Pidgeon that bore some resemblance to the final film. Docter pitched the story to Disney with some initial artwork on February 4 that year. He and his story team left with some suggestions in hand and returned to pitch a refined version of the story on May 30. At this pitch meeting, longtime Disney animator Joe Grant – whose work stretched back to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) – suggested the title Monsters, Inc., a play on the title of a gangster film Murder, Inc., which stuck. The film marks the first Pixar feature to not be directed by Lasseter instead being helmed by Docter, as well as Lee Unkrich and David Silverman who served as co-directors. The early test of Monsters Inc was released on October 11, 1998.
The storyline took on many forms during production. Docter's original idea featured a 30-year-old man dealing with monsters that he drew in a book as a child coming back to bother him as an adult. Each monster represented a fear he had, and conquering those fears caused the monsters to eventually disappear.
After Docter scrapped the initial concept of a 30-year-old terrified of monsters, he decided on a buddy story between a monster and a child titled simply Monsters, in which the monster character of Sulley (known at this stage as Johnson) was an up-and-comer at his workplace, where the company's purpose was to scare children. Sulley's eventual sidekick, Mike Wazowski, had not yet been added.
Between 1996 and 2000, the lead monster and child went through radical changes as the story evolved. As the story continued to develop, the child varied in age and gender. Ultimately, the story team decided that a girl would be the best counterpart for a furry, 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) co-star. After a girl was settled upon, the character continued to undergo changes, at one point being from Ireland and at another time being an African-American character. Originally, the character of the little girl, known as Mary, became a fearless seven-year-old who has been toughened by years of teasing and pranks from four older brothers. In stark contrast, Johnson is nervous about the possibility of losing his job after the boss at Monsters, Inc. announces a downsizing is on the way. He feels envious because another scarer, Ned (who later became Randall), is the company's top performer. Through various drafts, Johnson's occupation went back-and-forth from being a scarer and from working in another area of the company such as a janitor or a refinery worker, until his final incarnation as the best scarer at Monsters, Inc. Throughout development, Pixar worried that having a main character whose main goal was to scare children would alienate audiences and make them not empathize with him. Docter would later describe that the team "bent over backwards trying to create a story that still had monsters" while still attempting to solve the problem. A key moment came when the team decided "Okay, he's the BEST scarer there. He's the star quarterback" with Docter noting that before that moment "design after design, we really didn't know what he was about." Disney noted to Pixar early on that they did not want the character to "look like a guy in a suit". To this end, Johnson was originally planned to have tentacles for feet; however, this caused many problems in early animation tests. The idea was later largely rejected, as it was thought that audiences would be distracted by the tentacles. Mary's age also differed from draft to draft until the writers settled on the age of 3. "We found that the younger she was, the more dependent she was on Sulley", Docter said.
Eventually, Johnson was renamed Sullivan. Sullivan was also planned to wear glasses throughout the film. However, the creators found it a dangerous idea because the eyes were a perfectly readable and clear way of expressing a character's personality; thus, this idea was also rejected.
The idea of a monster buddy for the lead monster emerged at an April 6, 1998 "story summit" in Burbank with employees from Disney and Pixar. A term coined by Lasseter, a "story summit" was a crash exercise that would yield a finished story in only two days. Such a character, the group agreed, would give the lead monster someone to talk to about his predicament. Development artist Ricky Nierva drew a concept sketch of a rounded, one-eyed monster as a concept for the character, and everyone was generally receptive to it. Docter named the character Mike for the father of his friend Frank Oz, a director and Muppet performer. Jeff Pidgeon and Jason Katz story-boarded a test in which Mike helps Sulley choose a tie for work, and Mike Wazowski soon became a vital character in the film. Originally, Mike had no arms and had to use his legs as appendages; however, due to some technical difficulties, arms were soon added to him.
Screenwriter Daniel Gerson joined Pixar in 1999 and worked on the film with the filmmakers on a daily basis for almost two years. He considered it his first experience in writing a feature film. He explained, "I would sit with Pete [Docter] and David Silverman and we would talk about a scene and they would tell me what they were looking for. I would make some suggestions and then go off and write the sequence. We'd get together again and review it and then hand it off to a story artist. Here's where the collaborative process really kicked in. The board artist was not beholden to my work and could take liberties here and there. Sometimes, I would suggest an idea about making the joke work better visually. Once the scene moved on to animation, the animators would plus the material even further."
Docter has cited the 1973 film Paper Moon as inspiration for the concept of someone experiencing getting stuck with a kid who turns out to be the real expert, and he credits Lasseter for coming up with the “laughter is ten times more powerful than fear” concept.
Bill Murray was considered for the voice role of James P. "Sulley" Sullivan. He screen tested for the role and was interested, but when Pete Docter was unable to make contact with him, he took it as a "no". The voice role of Sulley went to John Goodman, the longtime co-star of the comedy series Roseanne and a regular in the films of the Coen brothers. Goodman interpreted the character to himself as the monster equivalent of a National Football League player. "He's like a seasoned lineman in the tenth year of his career," he said at the time. "He is totally dedicated and a total pro." Billy Crystal, having regretted turning down the part of Buzz Lightyear years prior, accepted that of Mike Wazowski, Sulley's one-eyed best friend and scare assistant.
In November 2000, early in the production of Monsters, Inc., Pixar packed up and moved for the second time since its Lucasfilm Ltd. years. The company's approximately 500 employees had become spread among three buildings, separated by a busy highway. The company moved from Point Richmond to a much bigger campus in Emeryville, co-designed by Lasseter and Steve Jobs.
In production, the film differed from earlier Pixar features, as every main character in this movie had its own lead animator – John Kahrs on Sulley, Andrew Gordon on Mike, and Dave DeVan on Boo. Kahrs found that the "bearlike quality" of Goodman's voice provided an exceptionally good fit with the character. He faced a difficult challenge, however, in dealing with Sulley's sheer mass; traditionally, animators conveyed a figure's heaviness by giving it a slower, more belabored movement, but Kahrs was concerned that such an approach to a central character would give the film a "sluggish" feel. Like Goodman, Kahrs came to think of Sulley as a football player, one whose athleticism enabled him to move quickly in spite of his size. To help the animators with Sulley and other large monsters, Pixar arranged for Rodger Kram, a University of California, Berkeley expert on the locomotion of heavy mammals, to lecture on the subject.
Adding to Sulley's lifelike appearance was an intense effort by the technical team to refine the rendering of fur. Other production houses had tackled realistic fur, most notably Rhythm & Hues in its 1993 polar bear commercials for Coca-Cola and in its talking animals' faces in the 1995 film Babe. This film, however, required fur on a much larger scale. From the standpoint of Pixar's engineers, the quest for fur posed several significant challenges; one was to figure out how to animate a large number of hairs – 2,320,413 of them on Sulley – in a reasonably efficient way, and another was to make sure that the hairs cast shadows on other ones. Without self-shadowing, either fur or hair takes on an unrealistic flat-colored look (e.g., in Toy Story, the hair on Andy's toddler sister, as seen in that movie's opening sequence, is hair without self-shadowing).
The first fur test allowed Sulley to run an obstacle course. Results were not satisfactory, as such objects caught and stretched out the fur due to the extreme amount of motion. Another similar test was also unsuccessful, because, this time, the fur went through the objects.
Pixar then set up a Simulation department and created a new fur simulation program called Fizt (short for "physics tool"). After a shot with Sulley in it had been animated, this department took the data for that shot and added Sulley's fur. Fizt allowed the fur to react in a more natural way. Every time when Sulley had to move, his fur (automatically) reacted to his movements, thus taking the effects of wind and gravity into account as well. The Fizt program also controlled the movement of Boo's clothes, which provided another "breakthrough". The deceptively simple-sounding task of animating cloth was also a challenge to animate thanks to those hundreds of creases and wrinkles that automatically occurred in the clothing when the wearer moved. Also, this meant they had to solve the complex problem of how to keep cloth untangled – in other words, to keep it from passing through itself when parts of it intersect. Fizt applied the same system to Boo's clothes as to Sulley's fur. First of all, Boo was animated shirtless; the Simulation department then used Fizt to apply the shirt over Boo's body, and every time she moved, her clothes also reacted to her movements in a more natural manner.
To solve the problem of cloth-to-cloth collisions, Michael Kass, Pixar's senior scientist, was joined on Monsters, Inc. by David Baraff and Andrew Witkin and developed an algorithm they called "global intersection analysis" to handle the problem. The complexity of the shots in the film, including elaborate sets such as the door vault, required more computing power to render than any of Pixar's earlier efforts combined. The render farm in place for Monsters, Inc. was made up of 3500 Sun Microsystems processors, compared with 1400 for Toy Story 2 and only 200 for Toy Story, both built on Sun's own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture.
The scene in which the Harryhausen's restaurant was decontaminated was originally going to feature the restaurant being blown up. Due to the September 11 attacks, the explosion was replaced by a plasma dome.[better source needed]
In October 2000, a teaser trailer of Monsters, Inc. was unveiled, which could not only be found online, but was also attached to the home video releases of Toy Story 2. This trailer would even appear in theaters attached to 102 Dalmatians and on the DVD release of The Emperor's New Groove, which was released on May 1, 2001. Another Monsters, Inc. trailer premiered in theaters in June 2001 with the release of Atlantis: The Lost Empire.
The film premiered on October 28, 2001, at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California. It was theatrically released on November 2, 2001 in the United States, in Australia on December 26, 2001, and in the United Kingdom on February 8, 2002. The theatrical release was accompanied by the Pixar short animated film For the Birds.
As with A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2, a montage of "outtakes" and a performance of a play based on a line from the film were made and included in the end credits of the film starting on December 7, 2001.
Monsters, Inc. was released on VHS and DVD on September 17, 2002. Both releases are THX certified and feature the animated shorts Mike's New Car and For the Birds. The DVD release gives the viewer the option of viewing the film either in widescreen (1.85:1 aspect ratio) or fullscreen (family-friendly 1.33:1 aspect ratio without pan and scan). On the second disc, there are a variety of bonus features including animated shorts, outtakes, the "If I Didn't Have You" music video, and more. This release set records for the highest single-day DVD sales with 5 million copies being sold on its first day. Although this record was surpassed by Spider-Man two months later, the film continued to hold the highest single-day record for an animated movie until 2003 when Finding Nemo took it. The film was then released on Blu-ray on November 10, 2009, and on Blu-ray 3D on February 19, 2013. Monsters, Inc. was released on 4K Blu-ray on March 3, 2020.
On opening day, Monsters, Inc. earned $17.8 million, then generated $26.9 million the following day, making it the second-highest Saturday gross of all time, behind The Mummy Returns. It ranked number one at the box office, taking the spot off of K-PAX and putting it into fourth place. The film's debut led to audience declines of Thirteen Ghosts, From Hell, Riding in Cars with Boys and other films. Monsters, Inc. held the record for having the biggest opening weekend of an animated film, making $62,577,067 and surpassing the previous record held by Toy Story 2. The film was ranked as the biggest three-day opening weekend for a Disney film, dethroning Pearl Harbor. It was even the fourth film of the year to reach $60 million in its first three days, just after The Mummy Returns, Planet of the Apes and Rush Hour 2. The film had a small drop-off of 27.2% over its second weekend, earning another $45,551,028. In its third weekend, the film experienced a larger decline of 50.1%, placing itself in the second position just after Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. In its fourth weekend, however, there was an increase of 5.9%, making $24,055,001 that weekend for a combined $528 million. As of May 2013, it is the eighth-biggest fourth weekend ever for a film.
The film made $289,916,256 in North America, and $287,509,478 in other territories, for a worldwide $577,425,734. The film is Pixar's ninth highest-grossing film worldwide and sixth in North America. For a time, the film surpassed Aladdin as the second highest-grossing animated film of all time, only behind 1994's The Lion King.
In the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Malta, it earned £37,264,502 ($53,335,579), marking the sixth highest-grossing animated film of all time in the country and the thirty-second highest-grossing film of all time. In Japan, although earning $4,471,902 during its opening and ranking second behind The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring for the weekend, it moved to first place on subsequent weekends due to exceptionally small decreases or even increases and dominated for six weeks at the box office. It finally reached $74,437,612, standing as 2001's third highest-grossing film and the third largest U.S. animated feature of all time in the country behind Toy Story 3 and Finding Nemo.
Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a score of 96% based on 198 reviews, with an average score of 8/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Clever, funny, and delightful to look at, Monsters, Inc. delivers another resounding example of how Pixar elevated the bar for modern all-ages animation." Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 79 based on 35 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore, gave the film a rare "A+" grade, becoming the second Pixar film to gain an "A+" grade, after Toy Story 2.
Charles Taylor of Salon magazine stated, "[i]t's agreeable and often funny, and adults who take their kids to see it might be surprised to find themselves having a pretty good time." Elvis Mitchell of The New York Times gave it a positive review, praising the film's usage of "creative energy", saying "There hasn't been a film in years to use creative energy as efficiently as Monsters, Inc." Although Mike Clark of USA Today thought the comedy was sometimes "more frenetic than inspired and viewer emotions are rarely touched to any notable degree", he also viewed the film as "visually inventive as its Pixar predecessors".
ReelViews film critic James Berardinelli gave the film 31⁄2 stars out of 4 and wrote that the film was "one of those rare family films that parents can enjoy (rather than endure) along with their kids". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 3 out of 4 stars, calling it "cheerful, high-energy fun, and like the other Pixar movies, has a running supply of gags and references aimed at grownups". Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a "B+" grade and praised the its animation, stating "Everything from Pixar Animation Studios – the snazzy, cutting-edge computer animation outfit – looks really, really terrific and unspools with a liberated, heppest-moms-and-dads-on-the-block iconoclasm."
Monsters, Inc. won the Academy Award for Best Original Song (Randy Newman, after fifteen previous nominations, for "If I Didn't Have You"). It was one of the first animated films to be nominated for Best Animated Feature (lost to Shrek). It was also nominated for Best Original Score (lost to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring) and Best Sound Editing (lost to Pearl Harbor). At the Kid's Choice Awards in 2002, it was nominated for "Favorite Voice in an Animated Movie" for Billy Crystal (who lost to Eddie Murphy in Shrek).
|Soundtrack album by|
|Released||October 23, 2001|
|Randy Newman chronology|
|Pixar soundtrack chronology|
The album was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score and a Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media. The score lost both these awards to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, but after sixteen nominations, the song "If I Didn't Have You" finally won Newman his first Academy Award for Best Original Song. It also won a Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media.
All tracks are written by Randy Newman.
|1.||"If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Billy Crystal and John Goodman)||3:41|
|4.||"Walk to Work"||3:29|
|5.||"Sulley and Mike"||1:57|
|7.||"Enter the Heroes"||1:03|
|8.||"The Scare Floor"||2:41|
|10.||"Boo's Adventures in Monstropolis"||6:23|
|12.||"Putting Boo Back"||2:22|
|15.||"Boo Is a Cube"||2:19|
|16.||"Mike's in Trouble"||2:19|
|17.||"The Scream Extractor"||2:12|
|18.||"Sulley Scares Boo"||1:10|
|21.||"The Ride of the Doors"||5:08|
|22.||"Waternoose is Waiting"||3:14|
|23.||"Boo's Going Home"||3:34|
|25.||"If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Newman)||3:38|
|US Top Soundtracks (Billboard)||25|
Shortly before the film's release, Pixar was sued by children's songwriter Lori Madrid of Wyoming, stating that the company had stolen her ideas from her 1997 poem "There's a Boy in My Closet".
Madrid mailed her poem to six publishers in October 1999, notably Chronicle Books, before turning it into a local stage musical in August 2001. After seeing the trailer for Monsters, Inc., Madrid concluded that Chronicle Books had passed her work to Pixar and that the film was based on her work. In October 2001, she filed the suit against Chronicle Books, Pixar, and Disney in a federal court in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Her lawyer asked the court to issue a preliminary injunction, that would forbid Pixar and Disney from releasing the film while the suit was pending.
In a hearing on November 1, 2001, the day before the film's scheduled release, the judge refused to issue the injunction. On June 26, 2002, he ruled that the film had nothing in common with the poem.
In November 2002, Stanley Mouse filed a lawsuit in which he alleged that the characters of Mike and Sulley were based on drawings of Excuse My Dust, a film that he had tried to sell to Hollywood in 1998. The lawsuit also stated that a story artist from Pixar visited Mouse in 2000 and discussed Mouse's work with him. A Disney spokeswoman responded, saying that the characters in Monsters, Inc. were "developed independently by the Pixar and Walt Disney Pictures creative teams, and do not infringe on anyone's copyrights". The case was ultimately settled under undisclosed terms.[unreliable source]
A prequel, titled Monsters University, was released on June 21, 2013. John Goodman, Billy Crystal, and Steve Buscemi reprised their roles of Sulley, Mike, and Randall, while Dan Scanlon directed the film. The prequel's plot focuses on Sulley and Mike's studies at Monsters University, where they start off as rivals but soon become best friends.
An animated short, Mike's New Car, was made by Pixar in 2002 in which the two main characters have assorted misadventures with a car Mike has just bought. This film was not screened in theaters, but is included with all home video releases of Monsters, Inc., and on Pixar's Dedicated Shorts DVD. In August 2002, a manga version of Monsters, Inc. was made by Hiromi Yamafuji and distributed in Kodansha's Comic Bon Bon magazine in Japan; the manga was published in English by Tokyopop until it went out of print. A series of video games, including a multi-platform video game were created based on the film. The video games included Monsters, Inc., Monsters, Inc. Scream Team and Monsters, Inc. Scream Arena. A game titled Monsters, Inc. Run was released on the App Store for iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad on December 13, 2012.
Feld Entertainment toured a Monsters, Inc. edition of their Walt Disney's World on Ice skating tour from 2003 to 2007. Monsters, Inc. has inspired three attractions at Disney theme parks around the world. In 2006 Monsters, Inc. Mike & Sulley to the Rescue! opened at Disneyland Resort's Disney California Adventure in Anaheim, California. In 2007, Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor opened at Walt Disney World Resort's Magic Kingdom in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, replacing The Timekeeper. The show is improvisational in nature, and features the opportunity for Guests to interact with the monster comedians and submit jokes of their own via text message. In 2009 Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek opened at Tokyo Disney Resort's Tokyo Disneyland in Chiba, Japan.
In 2009, Boom! Studios produced a Monsters Inc. comic book mini-series that ran for four issues. The storyline takes place after the movie and focuses on Sulley and Mike's daily struggles to operate Monsters Inc. on its new laughter-focused company policy. At the same time, their work is impeded by the revenge schemes of Randall and Waternoose, as well as a human child (indirectly revealed to be Sid Phillips from the Toy Story franchise) who has hijacked the company's closet door technology to commit a string of toy thefts throughout the human world.
A world based on the film made its debut appearance in the Kingdom Hearts series in Kingdom Hearts III, making it the second Disney-Pixar movie featured in the series after Toy Story. The world takes place after the events of the first film.
In November 2017, Disney CEO Bob Iger spoke about plans to develop a television series spin-off of Monsters, Inc. among other properties owned by the company. By November of the following year the series was confirmed for Disney+, and would continue the story of the previous films. On April 9, 2019, it was announced that Goodman, Crystal, and Tilly would return as Mike, Sulley, and Celia, respectively for the series. Peterson returns as Roz and also voices her twin sister Roze. Additional cast members include Ben Feldman as Tylor Tuskmon, Mindy Kaling as Val, Henry Winkler as Fritz, Lucas Neff as Duncan, Alanna Ubach as Cutter, Stephen Stanton as Needleman and Smitty (replacing Gerson), and Aisha Tyler as Tylor's mother Millie. In addition, Ratzenberger returns as Yeti and also voices Tylor's father Bernard. It was released on Disney+ on July 7, 2021. The series begins the day after Waternoose's arrest and follows Tylor who hopes to be promoted to the Laugh Floor.
- "Monsters, Inc. (2001) – Box Office Mojo". Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- Taylor, Drew (December 21, 2012). "Review: 'Monsters, Inc.' In 3D Is Just As Much Fun As It Was The First Time Around". IndieWire. Archived from the original on August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
- "Detail view of Movies Page". afi.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- Corliss, Richard (June 13, 2013). "Pixar's Monsters University: When Hairy Met Scary". Time. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Veltman, Chloe (December 31, 2001). "Fun factory". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Cohen, Karl (October 26, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.: The Secret Behind Why Pixar Is So Good". Animated World Network. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Goldberg, Haley (November 4, 2016). "Boo From 'Monsters, Inc.' Is A Grown-Up Yoga Master Now". Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- "Monsters, Inc. (2001)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on August 4, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Nusair, David. "Top 5 John Ratzenberger Roles in Pixar Films". About.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
Abominable. Can you believe that? Do I look abominable to you? Why can't they call me the Adorable Snowman, or the Agreeable Snowman, for crying out loud? I'm a nice guy.
- Brown, Scott (November 9, 2001). "The moments you missed in Monsters, Inc.". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Price, p. 157
- Monsters Inc., 2002 DVD, commentary
- Price, p. 195
- Ziebarth, Christian (July 1, 2005). "Joe Grant Life Celebration". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- Price, p. 197
- Snetiker, Marc. "Pete Docter dives deep into Monsters, Inc. legacy and creation, 15 years later". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Monsters Inc: Production Notes". Culture.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- Davis, Erik (November 13, 2009). "The Original Pitch for 'Monsters, Inc.'". Cinematical. Archived from the original on August 8, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- Price, p. 196
- Early Tests. Commentary by Thomas Porter, Steve May and Michael Fong, Monsters Inc. 2002 DVD.
- Price, p. 180
- "21. Pete Docter: "What If Monsters Really Do Exist?"". March 27, 2021. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
- Farr, John (September 19, 2014). "Bill Murray and the Roles That Got Away". HuffPost. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Evans, Bradford (February 17, 2011). "The Lost Roles of Bill Murray". Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Price, p. 198
- Fischer, Paul. "Billy Crystal – Cranky Critic StarTalk". Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Pearlman, Cindy (October 28, 2001). "Crystal clear on 'Monsters'" (Fee required). Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- Price, p. 199
- Price, p. 200
- 2002, Monsters Inc, DVD-Behind the Scenes
- Price, p. 201
- "The Most Creative And Controversial Ways Movies And Shows Dealt With 9/11".
- "13 movies and TV shows that were altered in the wake of 9/11". Insider.com.
- Animated Antic [@Animated_Antic] (November 5, 2018). "In the original version of Monsters Inc, Harryhausen's actually wasn't simply put under quarantine but was rather destroyed. This had to be changed due to fear of upsetting audiences because of recent events at the time" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Linder, Brian (October 10, 2000). "Monsters, Inc. Trailer Debuts Online". IGN. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "The Emperor's New Groove DVD Review - DVDizzy.com".
- Linder, Brian (June 8, 2001). "Friday Fright-Day: Monsters, Inc. Trailer Bows Tomorrow". IGN. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "Disney a happy meal ticket for McDonald's". Chicago Tribune.
- Keier, Helen (February 13, 2001). "Toy Fair Day 2: Monsters, Inc., Star Wars, JP3, Tomb Raider, and More!". IGN. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
- "World Premiere of Disney/Pixar's MONSTERS, INC". The Free Library. October 28, 2001. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Monsters, Inc. | UK Cinema Release Date". Filmdates.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Linder, Brian (February 13, 2002). "Oscar Spotlight: Animated Short Film". IGN. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "Animated 'Outtakes' Show Life 'Behind The Screams' With Disney/Pixar's 'Monsters, Inc.'". PR Newswire. December 4, 2001. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- Smith, Grady (October 4, 2011). "'Beauty and the Beast,' 'The Little Mermaid,' 'Finding Nemo,' 'Monsters, Inc.' get 3-D re-releases". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Disney Moves Up 'Monsters Inc 3D' To December". Deadline. July 24, 2012. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "The Most Anticipated Monster Movie Hit Comes to DVD and VHS". Pixar. March 1, 2002. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Bennett, Dan (June 6, 2002). "Creating a Monster of a DVD". hive4media.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2002. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- "Monsters, Inc. DVD Review - DVDizzy.com".
- "Monsters Inc. DVD sets sales record - Macworld".
- "'Nemo' breaks sales records - TODAY".
- McCutcheon, David (August 10, 2009). "Monsters, Inc. Founded". IGN. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Monsters, Inc. - 3D: Ultimate Collector's Edition". High-Def Digest. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Heller, Emily (March 3, 2020). "A bunch of Pixar movies, including Up and A Bug's Life, come to 4K Blu-ray". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- "'Monsters' Scares Up Some Big Business". Los Angeles Times. November 5, 2001. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
- "'Monsters, Inc.' mashes its competition with record opening". November 8, 2001.
- "'Monsters' scares up win at box office". United Press International. November 4, 2001. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- "Monsters, Inc. – Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 24, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Top Weekends: 2nd – 12th – Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Pixar Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "United Kingdom and Ireland and Malta Box Office Index". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 10, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- "Japan Yearly Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- "Monsters, Inc.". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on September 20, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- "Monsters, Inc.". Metacritic. Red Ventures. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Geier, Thom (January 12, 2020). "53 Movies With A+ CinemaScore Since 2000, From 'Remember the Titans' to 'Just Mercy' (Photos)". TheWrap. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
- Taylor, Charles (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc: The new animated feature from Pixar has too much Disney pap and not enough Gothic". Salon. Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Mitchell, Elvis (November 2, 2001). "Monsters of Childhood With Feelings and Agendas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Clark, Mike (November 5, 2001). "'Monsters, Inc.' yields dividends". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 25, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Berardinelli, James. "Monsters, Inc. – A movie review by James Berardinelli". Reelviews.net. Archived from the original on September 5, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Ebert, Roger (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Lisa Schwarzbaum (November 9, 2001). "Monsters, Inc". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "Monsters-Inc- - Cast, Crew, Director and Awards". The New York Times. 2013. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Phares, Heather.Monsters, Inc. (An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack) Archived May 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. AllMusic.
- Freer, Ian. Monsters, Inc. Soundtrack review Archived November 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Empire.
- Monsters, Inc. (Randy Newman) Archived November 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Filmtracks.com. October 30, 2001.
- Southall, James (2002). Monsters, Inc. Archived June 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Movie Wave.
- Goldwasser, Dan (October 21, 2001). Monsters, Inc. (2001) Soundtrack Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Soundtrack.net Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Monsters, Inc. (An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack) - Randy Newman Awards Archived August 5, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Alicia Gaura, Maria (November 9, 2002). "Sonoma artist claims 'Monsters, Inc.' a rip-off". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Price. 2008. pp. 187-188.
- Price. 2008. p. 189-193.
- Shiels, Maggie (November 14, 2002). "Monsters Inc faces 'copying' lawsuit". BBC News. Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- S.M. Oliva (January 22, 2009). "Animation is Built on Plagiarism..." Archive.mises.org. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Mike's New Car - Pixar Short: Pete Docter, Roger Gould, Gale Gortney: Amazon Video". Amazon. Archived from the original on April 14, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Tokyopop licensed Monsters Inc. Manga Archived May 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine August 20, 2002 by Anime News Network. Retrieved January 2013
- "Monsters, Inc. - Used for PlayStation 2". GameStop. January 16, 2012. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "'Monsters Inc. Run' by Disney Mobile Now Available for Apple iDevices". Stitch Kingdom. December 13, 2012. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Paul de Barros (October 29, 2004). "Entertainment & the Arts | Fur and flips: "Monsters, Inc." on ice | Seattle Times Newspaper". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc: Mike and Sulley to the Rescue at Disney's California Adventure". Themeparkinsider.com. June 9, 2012. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor | Walt Disney World Resort". Disney. March 28, 2013. Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek! | Tokyo Disneyland". Tokyodisneyresort.co.jp. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "Monsters, Inc.: Laugh Factory (Volume)". Comicvine.com. January 1, 2010. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Pereira, Chris (February 10, 2018). "New Kingdom Hearts 3 Trailer Shows Monsters Inc. World, New Gameplay Details Revealed". GameSpot. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Nunneley, Stephany (February 10, 2018). "Kingdom Hearts 3 release date coming at E3 2018, new trailer shows Monsters, Inc. characters". vg247. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- Fingas, Jon (July 15, 2017). "The world of 'Toy Story' is coming to 'Kingdom Hearts 3'". Engadget. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- Young, Rory (July 2017). "Kingdom Hearts 3 New Trailer Confirms Toy Story World". Game Rant. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
- Guardian Staff (November 9, 2017). "Disney reveals plan for new Star Wars trilogy and live-action TV series". Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Monsters Inc is getting a spin-off TV show". Digital Spy. November 10, 2017. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- Chmielewski, Dawn C. (November 9, 2017). "Disney Developing 'Star Wars', 'Monsters Inc.' TV Series For Streaming Service". Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
- "New Star Wars and Marvel Series Announced for Disney+ Streaming Service". The Walt Disney Company. November 8, 2018. Archived from the original on November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Clark, Caren (June 4, 2021). "Monsters At Work – release date, cast, plot and everything you need to know". whattowatch.com. Retrieved December 1, 2021.
John Ratzenberger (Cheers) returns as Yeti and also voices Tylor's dad, Bernard.
- Gelfand, Ilana (April 9, 2019). "HERE'S EVERYTHING WE KNOW ABOUT MONSTERS AT WORK, THE MONSTERS, INC.-INSPIRED ANIMATED SERIES COMING TO DISNEY+". Oh My Disney. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Monsters at Work Disney+ Gets New Release Date, Episodes to Release on Wednesdays". TV Shows. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
- Paz, Maggie (June 10, 2021). "Monsters at Work Trailer Previews Pixar's New Disney+ Series". comingsoon.net. Retrieved December 1, 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Monsters, Inc..|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to Monsters, Inc..|