Mont Blanc (dessert)

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Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Place of originFrance
Main ingredientsChestnuts, whipped cream

A Mont Blanc (or Mont-Blanc aux marrons) is a dessert of sweetened chestnut purée in the form of vermicelli, topped with whipped cream. It was created in nineteenth-century Paris. The name comes from Mont Blanc, as the dish resembles a snow-capped mountain.


Mont Blanc has been an autumn and winter favorite at Parisian pâtisseries, notably the Parisian tea shop Angelina. For a long time considered old-fashioned and heavy, it has become newly popular in the 2010s in a lighter form at trendy shops like Pierre Hermé, with many variations.[1][2]

Mont Blanc is popular in France, Italy, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Japan, Slovakia, Switzerland, Hungary, and northwestern Romania.


A dessert with three distinctive characteristics of typical Mont Blanc: sweet, made of chestnut purée in the form of vermicelli served as a mount or a ring, and heaped with whipped cream, existed by the mid-19th century.

Chestnut purées[edit]

Chestnut purées have a long history in Europe as a soup, porridge, or side dish for meats, especially in regions where chestnuts are a staple food.[3][4][5][6] However, these dishes are not desserts, and are not served with whipped cream.

Sweet puréed chestnuts[edit]

A manuscript from around 1460–1480 Libro de arte coquinaria, a cookbook authored by Martino da Como, has a recipe for chestnut pie (later called torta di castagne[7]). It is a pastry filled with a blend of chestnut puree, cheeses, fats, eggs, with optional spices and sugar.[8][7] An early printed cookbook De honesta voluptate et valetudine by Bartolomeo Platina, published around 1475, contains the same recipe under the title torta ex castaneís.[9] A similar recipe appears in Bartolomeo Scappi's cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare in 1570, as torta di castagne.[10][11] Sugar is a standard ingredient in this version. Another similar recipe is titled "chesnut pudding" [sic] in the 1747 English cookbook The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. [12]

Opera dell'arte del cucinare (1570) also contains another dish of chestnuts: minestra di farina di castagne, translated as "thick soup"[11]: 187  of chestnut flour, but stiff enough to be sliced and fried. This dish too can be seasoned either savory or sweet.[10]: f58v 

Some consider the recipes from 1475 and 1570 are Mont-Blanc,[13] but these are not served with whipped cream, and the pie differs from typical Mont-Blanc that it has more ingredients, is covered, and baked.

It is stated that a baker in Chamonix, France, claimed that he invented Mont-Blanc in 1620,[13] or that Mont-Blanc arrived in France from Italy in 1620,[2] but no evidence are given for these.

By the 18th century there was chestnut ice cream.[14] An elaborate form of chestnut-based ice cream is the Nesselrode Pudding, which was in vogue in the 19th century.[15]

Vermicelli of sweet puréed chestnuts[edit]

A sweet dessert of puréed chestnuts passed through a sieve to make vermicelli shapes—but without the characteristic whipped cream of the Mont Blanc—is referred to as (compote de) marrons en vermicelle in various French cookbooks starting in 1842.[16][17]

Sweet puréed chestnuts with whipped cream[edit]

A dish called entremets du Mont-Blanc or simply montblanc,[18] is said to have been invented by the Dessat(s) pastry-shop in Paris by 1847.[19] Advertorials describe it as a sweet combination of chestnut purée and snow-like cream,[18] but does not mention whether it had the vermicelli form.

An unambiguous reference to the Mont Blanc as vermicelli of sweet puréed chestnuts with whipped cream is documented in 1863, called nid de marrons (literally: "nest of chestnuts"). Here, the vermicelli are formed into a ring, and whipped cream is mounted in the center.[20]

Recipes of similar dishes appeared by numerous names. However, dishes sharing the same name may differ in forms: vermicelli versus bulk, or the layout.

Chestnut pureé with cream (1871 cookbook by Urbain Dubois)[21]

Urbain Dubois called the dish chestnut pureé with cream in 1871,[21] and purée de marrons à la crème in 1876.[22] Other names include montblanc (1885),[23] torche aux marrons, which was considered an Alsatian dish (1885,[24] 1892[25]), and marrons chantilly (1889,[26] 1901[27]).

An essay in 1889 recalls the trends on desserts of the past 60 years. It tells that once there was a patissier in Paris who created cakes called monts-blancs, made of chestnut purée and whipped cream; it came into fashion, but the fad soon went away.[28]

Mont Blanc made on a meringue base is described in an 1892 Swiss cookbook La cuisine des familles, as a kind of vacherin [fr] cake. The base of vacherins are made of almond paste with egg whites, formed into a cup and baked.[29]: 384  Vacherin aux marrons is filled with chestnut vermicelli alternating with whipped cream;[29] another version uses a baked meringue as the base.[29]

Mont-Blanc aux marrons in Escoffier's Guide Culinaire in 1903 is a typical nid de marrons-styled recipe, with the advice to pile the whipped cream up irregularly to imitate a rugged mountain.[30]

Mont Blanc's Italian name "montebianco" as a dessert (not the mountain), is a loan translation from the French term "mont-blanc".[31] The term was in use as early as 1900.[32]

The Swiss German word "Vermicelles" (de), a loanword from French, refers to a dessert of chestnut puree.[33] Terms "Vermicelles"[34] and "Vermicelles mit Schlagrahm"[35] referring to Mont Blanc were in use by the mid-20th century. There are earlier instances of the word from 1868 for some kind of confection,[36] but lack definition.

Rumpelmayer and Angelina[edit]

Angelina, a tea house at 226 rue de Rivoli of Paris, originally named "Rumpelmeyer" (IPA: [rœ̃'pɛlmajɛ:r][37]), opened in 1903.[38] Rumpelmayer's salons had already been established in Nice, Cannes, Monte Carlo and Aix-les-Bains,[39] and subsequently in London by 1907.[40]

In 1931, another salon named "Rumpelmayer" opened in Paris at rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré,[41] by owners different from the rue de Rivoli's.[42] Eventually, the rue de Rivoli shop renamed itself "Angelina" in 1948.[43]

An early record of Mont-Blanc sold by Rumpelmayers' can be found in a 1915 magazine article about their London's branch.[44]

For the rue de Rivoli branch (the future Angelina), an early record, a magazine review in 1903, does not mention Mont-Blanc among their specialties.[45] There are several Japanese accounts praising their Mont-Blanc since the 1920s,[46][47] and then an English advertisement in 1936.[48] In the 2010s, Angelina claimed they were marketing Mont-Blanc since 1903,[49] but later reworded it to "recipe was created at the beginning of the 20th century."[50]

Other Rumpelmayers known to have been selling Mont Blancs are the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré salon, mentioned in a 1958 travelogue,[51] and the Rumpelmayer's restaurant in New York, on their 1972 menu.[52]

At least by 1980, and as of 2015, Angelina's Mont Blanc consists of whipped cream on meringue base, then covered with layers of vermicelli of chestnut puree, and dusted with powdered sugar.[53][54][1]

Mont Blanc by Azabu Izumiya (1956)[55]

An identical product was also sold by a confectonery in Japan since 1956,[55] leaving an early photograph of Rumpelmayer-style Mont Blanc. Their chef studied at the Rumpelmayer at rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré from 1952 and returned to Japan in 1955.[56]: 1058 [57]

History in Japan[edit]

A typical Japanese-style Mont Blanc in the mid-20th century was a small individual cake, composed of a sponge cake covered with spiraling vermicelli of yellow chestnut puree, and topped with a yellow preserved chestnut.[58]: 56 [59]

Records from the 1930s prove that shops were offering similar cakes by 1934,[60] and cakes named Mont Blanc by 1935.[61][62]

Since the 1990s, the Mont-Blanc (Monburan (ja)), a pastry shop in Jiyūgaoka, Tokyo, claims they invented the Japanese version,[63][58]: 56  and a book citing them even stated that Mont Blanc was invented by them.[63] An early mention of the shop's Mont Blanc cake is on a 1960 book,[56] but their date of introduction is unclear. Sources written after the 1990s give dates ranging from 1933[64] to 1945,[58] neither with verifiable evidences.

By the 21st century, the term "Mont Blanc" sometimes applies to cakes topped with any kind of cream formed into vermicelli.[65]


Mont Blanc may be made from chestnuts cooked in a light syrup or in milk, or they may be cooked in plain water, and the sugar added afterwards.[66] It may also be made with ready-made canned crème de marrons, a purée of the broken chestnuts left over from the manufacture of marrons glacés.[67]

The chestnut purée is generally formed into a ring or cone, with big dollops of whipped cream dropped irregularly into or onto the middle, to resemble snow.[66]


The chestnut purée may be formed in a mold rather than into vermicelli shapes, though this tends to make the dish heavier.[66]

The original version served multiple diners, but the pâtisserie version today is often an individual serving.[68]

In France, it is sometimes presented on a meringue or biscuit bottom.[68] It may be flavored or garnished with chocolate, rose syrup, berries, and so on.[68]

Variations include using chestnuts in the meringue or biscuit base, with no purée.

Escoffier also describes a Mont-Blanc aux fraises (Mont Blanc with strawberries), essentially whipped cream studded with wild strawberries, with no chestnuts at all, the name referring to its shape.[30]

A simplified version mixes crème de marrons with crème fraîche and serves it in a bowl, with no "mountain".[69]

Traditional patisseries in Shanghai often have chestnut vermicelli cut into short pieces, and laid atop a base of sponge cake, the thickness of which may vary. Shanghainese chestnut Mont Blanc also feature a heavy unwhipped cream topping and may be served in cups. Such style is said to have been created by a German pastry chef at the city's first European patisserie, Kaisiling, and over time it has become a Shanghainese staple under the name "li zi dan gao" or chestnut cake.[70]

In Japan, sometimes pumpkin, squash, and purple yam are used instead of chestnuts, and along with chestnuts, sometimes cocoa or matcha are added. There are also fruit Mont Blanc, with flavors such as mango and strawberry, though they have little in common with the original Mont Blanc besides being made of a purée formed into vermicelli shapes.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Escourrou, Lucile (2015-01-09). "Le Mont Blanc : ce grand classique gourmand de l'hiver". Madame Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 2015-01-14. Retrieved 2023-07-05.
  2. ^ a b Katia Fache-Cadoret, "L'histoire du Mont-Blanc, la pâtisserie hivernale par excellence", Marie-Claire, October 16, 2019
  3. ^ Gillian Riley, The Oxford Companion to Italian Food, 2007, ISBN 0198606176, s.v., p. 118
  4. ^ Giacomo Castelvetro, Gillian Riley, translator, The Fruit, Herbs, & Vegetables of Italy, 1989, ISBN 067082724X, p. 125
  5. ^ "Potage à la purée de marrons", recipe in André Viard, Le cuisinier impérial, Paris, 1806, p. 14
  6. ^ "Rump with Chestnuts", recipe in "A Lady", Domestic economy, and cookery, for rich and poor, London, 1827, p. 323
  7. ^ a b Transcription with missing letters interpolated: Romanelli, Valeria (2004-08-24). "Maestro Martino, Libro de arte coquinaria". University of Giessen (in Italian). [Torta di castagne]. Archived from the original on 2023-01-29. Retrieved 2023-10-20.
    • "Based on: Arte della cucina. Libri di ricette, testi sopra lo scalco, i trinciante e i vini. Dal XIV al XIX secolo. A cura di Emilio Faccioli. Vol. 1. Milano 1966, 115-204."
  8. ^ Manuscript. Maestro Martino (1460–1480). "Arai cocere le castagne". Libro de arte coquinaria (in Italian). folio 33v – 34r. hdl:loc.rbc/MedievalRen.60856.1. LCCN 2014660856. OCLC 1011550693.
    • folio 33r (Torta di farro): "[N]Etta molto bene il farre"...
    • folio 33v (Torta di castagne): "[F]Arai cocere le castagne"...
    • Notes not in the book: The recipe titles for torta di farro and torta di castagne are invisible in the original manuscript. These titles are interpolated in a later transcription.
  9. ^ Printed book. Platina, Bartolomeo (1475). "Torta ex castaneis". De honesta voluptate et valetudine (in Latin). folio 69v. OCLC 643766840. urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00059967-5.
  10. ^ a b Scappi, Bartolomeo (c. 1570). "120". Per fare torta di castagne fresche & secche. Opera di Bartolomeo Scappi (in Italian). folio 306v–307r. OCLC 166129690. urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb11122030-4.
    • folio 53r Per far minestra di bianco magnare. Cap.CLXII
    • folio 58v Per far minestra di farina di castagne. Cap.CLXXXVII
    • folio 306v Per fare torta di castagne fresche & secche. Cap.CXX
  11. ^ a b English translation: Scully, Terence (2011) [2008]. "120. To prepare a tourte of fresh or dried chestnuts". The Opera of Bartolomeo Scappi (1570). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. PR5-IA50–PR5-IA51. ISBN 9781442692176 – via Google Books.
    • [1] 162. To prepare a thick soup of whitedish.
    • [2] 187. To prepare a thick soup of chestnut flour.
    • [3] 120. To prepare a tourte of fresh or dried chestnuts.
  12. ^ A lady (1747). "To make a Chesnut Pudding". The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy. London, England: the author. p. 109. hdl:2027/gri.ark:/13960/t3wt6h27q. OCLC 225522237.
  13. ^ a b Rogov, Daniel; Hershberg, Yael (2007). Rogues, writers & whores : dining with the rich & infamous. Toby Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-1592641727 – via Google Books (snippet).
  14. ^ Gilliers, Joseph (1751). "NEIGE de marrons". Le Cannameliste français (in French). Nancy, France: Joseph Gilliers. p. 158. BnF 352850170 – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  15. ^ "Pass The Dessert: America's Thanksgiving Recipes – transcript". NPR. 2009-11-24. Archived from the original on 2019-11-24. Retrieved 2023-07-28. It was one of the most popular desserts of the 19th century
  16. ^ A. Chevrier, Nouveau manuel complet du maître-d'hôtel, 1842, p. 17
  17. ^ M. Étienne, Traité de l'office, 1845, p. 101
  18. ^ a b A. Le Clerc. (1847-06-06). "Bulletin des modes". La Mode (in French). 18 (7). Paris, France: 476. ISSN 2017-571X. BnF 32817434b – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  19. ^ Comtesse E. de Ch[ambord], "Modes", La Sylphide : journal de modes, de littérature, de théâtres et de musique II:5, January 3, 1847, p. 35
  20. ^ Raymond, Emmeline (1863-08-31). "La bonne ménagère. IX". La Mode illustrée (in French). 35. Paris, France: 277 (M5053JP_LMI_1863_035_F005_V). ISSN 1161-5583 – via Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris. Nid de marronspdf
  21. ^ a b Dubois, Urbain (1871). "980. Chestnut pureé, with cream". The household cookery-book. London, UK: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 453. OCLC 17497231 – via Wellcome Trust.
  22. ^ Dubois, Urbain (1876). "1074. Purée de marrons à la crème". École des cuisinières, méthodes élémentaires, économiques (in French) (2 ed.). Paris, France: Dentu. p. 493. BnF 30359537t – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  23. ^ Schéfer, Georgette; Amis, Sophie (1885). "Montblanc ou nid de marrons". Travaux manuels et économie domestique à l'usage des jeunes filles (in French). Paris, France: Ch. Delagrave. p. 221. BnF 31311707t – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
    • p221: Montblanc ou nid de marrons
    • p221: Vermicellerie de marrons au sirop
  24. ^ Jean de Paris, "Un conseil par jour", Le Figaro, December 15, 1885, p. 3
  25. ^ "Coin des ménagères", La Femme 14:5, March 1, 1892, p. 37
    • Explains that torche aux marrons is the Alsatian name for what is called Mont Blanc in southern France.
  26. ^ Jenny Touzin, François-Victor Foveau de Courmelles, La sauce, la cuisine chez soi, 1889, p. 411
  27. ^ Knoxville Woman's Building Association, ed. (1901). "Marrons á la chantilly". Knoxville cook book. Knoxville, Tennessee, US: Bean, Warters & Co. p. 159. hdl:2027/mdp.39015093195934. OCLC 780348 – via HathiTrust.
  28. ^ de Verdilhac, A. (1889). "La cuisine a la mode". Bibliothèque universelle et Revue suisse [fr] (in French). Periode 3 Tome 42. Lausanne, Switzerland: 324–325. hdl:2027/pst.000060065698 – via HathiTrust.
  29. ^ a b c Maillard, Louis (1892). "765. Vacherin aux amandes, à la crème". La cuisine des familles: pâtisserie, conserves, glaces (in French) (2 ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: H. Georg. pp. 384–385. OCLC 603666903 – via Google Books. Remarque. On fait le vacherin aux marrons...
    • p384: 785. Vacherin aux amandes, à la crème.
    • p385: Remarque. On fait le vacherin aux marrons...
  30. ^ a b A. Escoffier, Le Guide Culinaire, 1903, p. 726
  31. ^ Sabatini, Francesco; Coletti, Vittorio (2018). "montebianco". Dizionario di Italiano il Sabatini Coletti (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. Archived from the original on 2023-02-07. Retrieved 2023-06-05.
  32. ^ Ferraris Tamburini, Giulia (1900). "Castagne al Monte Bianco". Come posso mangiar bene? (in Italian). Milano, Italy: Ulrico Hoepli. p. 124 – via Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Roma.
  33. ^ "Vermicelles, die". Duden (in German). Cornelsen Verlag. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  34. ^ Example: "(advertisement for Bäckerei-Konditorei-Cafe Schönholzer)". Oberländer Tagblatt (in German). Vol. 75, no. 236. Thun, Switzerland. 1951-10-09. p. 6 – via Swiss National Library. Vermicelles (Kastanien mit Schlagrahm)
  35. ^ Example: "(advertisement for Mitteilungen der Milchwirtschaft) Vermicelles mit Schlagrahm!". Freiburger Nachrichten (in German). No. 266. Fribourg, Switzerland. 1962-11-16. p. 11 – via Swiss National Library.
  36. ^ Example: "(advertisement for J. Schweizer, Confiseur)". Tagblatt der Stadt Biel (in German). Vol. 6, no. 255. Biel, Switzerland. 1868-10-24. p. 2 – via Swiss National Library. Vermicelles
  37. ^ Guibillon, Georges (c. 1917). La France; French life and ways (in French). New York, US: E. P. Dutton & Co. p. 267. hdl:2027/iau.31858006797926. OCLC 31175288 – via HathiTrust.
  38. ^ "Paris Society Divers - L'ouverture, rue de Rivoli, du Rumpelmayer". New York Herald Paris edition (in French). 1903-04-28. p. f4 – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  39. ^ "PARIS SOCIETY – Divers". New York Herald Paris edition (in French). 1903-03-27. p. f4 column 6 – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  40. ^ "The lounger". Putnam's Monthly. Vol. 2, no. August 1907. New Rochelle, New York, US: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1907. p. 629. OCLC 7250497. hdl:2027/hvd.32044094114220 – via Hathitrust.
  41. ^ "News of Americans in Europe". New York Herald Paris edition. 1931-10-21. p4, column 3, middle rows. available at Gallica – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  42. ^ "Les transformations de la rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré : Béchoff sera remplacé par une maison de thé". Les Echos (France). 1930-05-07. p. 2. available at Gallica – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  43. ^ Hyman, Susan (1992-01-12). "The Elegant Tearooms of Paris". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2023-06-29.
  44. ^ Arnold, Frank R. (1915). "Three English tea rooms". Table Talk. 30 (6). New York, US: The Arthur H. Crist Co.: 308. hdl:2027/mdp.39015093189184. LCCN ca09000284 – via HathiTrust.
  45. ^ "Autour du Grand Prix – 5 heures du soir". Le Figaro-Modes (in French). Paris, France: 15. 1903-06-15. available at Gallica – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  46. ^ Ejiri, Shoichi (1927-04-25). Nan'ō henro : Ningyo no fun 南欧遍路 人魚の糞 (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 福永書店 (Fukunaga Shoten). p. 165. doi:10.11501/1191503. OCLC 673946387. NCID BB24570762. ル・ド・リヴオリの「ランプルメーエ」の菓子「モン・ブラン」を味はへ [Try the confection "Mont-Blanc" from "Ranpurumē'e" at rue de Rivoli!]
  47. ^ Kinoshita, Mokutaro (1934-12-24) [1929]. Setsuroshū 雪櫚集 (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 書物展望社 (Shomotsu Tenbōsha). pp. 291–292. doi:10.11501/1174955. OCLC 673737492. NCID BN11156528. 巴里で一番繁昌する菓子屋はリュ・ド・リヺリのリュンペルマイエといふ店であつた。[......] 我我はその家のモン・ブランといふ菓子を好んだ。[......](『スヰート』昭和四年四月十五日) [The most popular confectionery in Paris was "Ryunperumaie" at rue de Rivoli. [...]. We loved their confection called Mont-Blanc. [...] ([Reprint from] magazine Sweet, April 15, 1929 issue)]
  48. ^ "Dining and shopping in Paris". New York Herald Tribune#European edition. Paris, France. 1936-09-13. p5, column 5, middle rows. available at Gallica – via Bibliothèque nationale de France#Gallica.
  49. ^ Homepage archived on 2014: "La maison Angelina et son Histoire - Le Mont-Blanc". Angelina Paris (in French). Archived from the original on 2014-12-21. Retrieved 2023-06-29.
  50. ^ Homepage archived on 2020: "Mont-Blanc". Angelina Paris. Archived from the original on 2020-09-19. Retrieved 2023-06-29.
  51. ^ Hinata, Soro (1958-07-25). 私たちの音楽旅行記 [Travelogue on our music-themed trip] (in Japanese). 音楽之友社. pp. 39–40. doi:10.11501/1623284. OCLC 703723872. JPNO 45013937, NCID BN15926762.
    • rough translation: "So we went to a confectionery named Ryunperumeie, at a street Faubourg Saint-Honoré. They sell many chic foods and drinks, but their specialty is what is called Mont-Blanc. [...] Hiroko told me 'Daddy, this is like a Japanese sweets.'"
  52. ^ (menu) Rumpelmayer's - Desserts and cheeses. New York, US: Hotel St. Moritz. 1972. p. 2. Retrieved 2023-07-14 – via New York Public Library. (bibliography)
  53. ^ Yamamoto, Masuhiro (1980-06-09). "ANGELINA アンジェリーナ". パリのお菓子屋さん - そのエスプリとアールを訪ねて [Le Patisseries de Paris] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 文化出版局. pp. 13–20. OCLC 673272772. JPNO 80030643, NCID BN12207431.
    • p13: Photograph of the facade: "MAISON DE L'AFRIQUE SALONS ANGELINA"; "ANCIENNE MAISO..."; "RENE RU..."; "FONDEE EN 1903"
    • pp19-20: Explanation of preparation process of Mont-Blanc: meringue base, lay whipped cream, covered with layers of vermicelli of chestnut puree, and dust with powdered sugar.
    • p18: Photographs of the process
    • p19: Photographs of the end product
  54. ^ Simon, François (2020-09-15). "Le secret des grandes griffes Angelina, sur la cime pâtissière". Madame Figaro (in French). Retrieved 2023-08-22.
    • Publié le 08/08/2008 à 15:00, Mis à jour le 15/09/2020 à 07:38
    • Clicking "Voir le diaporama" will display a photogallery of the manufacturing process of mont-blancs.
  55. ^ a b Hasebe, 新三 (Shinzō ?) (February 1956). 原色版解説 [Description of color pages]. 製菓製パン [The journal of baking and confection] (in Japanese). 22 (2). Tokyo, Japan: Seika Jikken Publication (製菓実験社). Color pages (unnumbered), p126. JPNO 00012901.
    • Color page (p1): photograph; rough translation: "Authentic chic French confections by Mr. Hasebe, who had recently returned to Japan from Paris."
    • p126: 4.MONT-BLANC: Bake meringue, place whipped cream. Sieve cooked chestnuts and add sugar, kirsch, egg yolk and vanilla. Squeeze it in thin strings to form layers. Dust with powdered sugar.
  56. ^ a b 池田文痴菴 (Ikeda, Bunchian) (1960-09-01). 日本洋菓子史 [History of Western-style sweets in Japan] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 日本洋菓子協会 (Japan Confectionery Association). p. 941. doi:10.11501/2500175. OCLC 674463095. JPNO 63007929.
  57. ^ 製菓盛談第12回 トップと語る 今月のお客様 ランペルマイエ社長 長谷部新三 [Confectioners forum part 12. Interviewing presidents – This month's guest: Shinzō Hasebe, president of Ranperumaie (Rumpelmayer)]. 製菓製パン [The journal of baking and confection] (in Japanese). 47 (8). Tokyo, Japan: Seika Jikken Publication (製菓実験社): 162. August 1981. JPNO 00012901.
    • p162: Hasebe, a son of the owner of Azabu Izumiya studied in several locations in Europe during 1952–1955, including the Rumpelmayer at rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. After returning to Japan, he operated the brand "Rumpelmayer Izumiya", adopted from the Rumpelmayer in Paris. It later spun off from Izumiya as Ranperumaie (Rumpelmayer).
    • p162: Hasebe visited Europe in 1952–1955, 1978, 1979 and 1981.
    • p164: Hasebe's Mont Blanc consist of meringue, un-sugared whipped cream, and imported chestnuts. The difference with "Rumpelmayer in France" (branch not specified) is that the latter adds sugar to their whipped cream.
    • p164: For any confectioner in Japan, Mont Blanc is their third or fourth most important item, but in Paris, Hasebe could find only two shops offering it: Angelina, and Carette in Trocadéro. He also managed to find another shop in Rome selling it.
    • p165: Hasebe had been trained at Rumpelmayer at rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. As of 1981, it is defunct. The ownership of "Angelina's Rumpelmayer" had changed hand sometime after the 1950s, now owned by monsieur Gauthier, a hotel owner. The Baden-Baden branch now has no connection with the Paris branch.
  58. ^ a b c Ako, Mari (2011-10-18). 02 定番ケーキの元祖はここ モンブラン [02 Mont-Blanc: the originator of the everyone's favorite is them]. 自由が丘スイーツ物語: ケーキで人を幸せにする街 [The Jiyūgaoka sucrées tales – the town that makes people happy with cakes] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: NTT出版. p. 57. ISBN 9784757150799 – via Google books.
  59. ^ file257 「モンブラン」 [file 257 Mont-Blanc]. NHK NHK鑑賞マニュアル・美の壷. Retrieved 2023-04-09.
  60. ^ 鹽澤芳郎 (1934-12-05). 洋生とチョコレートキャンデー [Western cakes and chocolate candies]. 製菓実験 [Practical Confectionery] (in Japanese). 5 (12). Tokyo, Japan: Seika Jikken Publication (製菓実験社). p48(text), p49(photograph). JPNO 00012899.
    • p48: author: 鹽澤芳郎 (Shiozawa / Shiosawa, Yoshirō / Yoshio) from confectionery Beniya in Hongō, Tokyo
    • p48: item Chrysanthe-flavor – Baked biscuit dough, stuffed with chopped pineapples and currants. Strings of marron cream in a circular manner, piling them high. Topped with a piece of mandarin orange, dots of buttercream and a fragment of candied cherry.
  61. ^ Ichishima, Kenkichi (1935-08-19). 文墨余談 (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 翰墨同好会、南有書院. p. 391. doi:10.11501/1236048. OCLC 674138556. NCID BN15089025.
    • 「銀座の喫茶店コロンバンで西洋菓子を漁ると、日本の蕎麦をグルグル捲いたやうなものを出した。味は蕎麦とは異なつて、寧ろ栗の味であつた。聞けば瑞西の菓子で、名も同所の名山モン、ブランと云うて、その山容を形どつたものらしい、」
    • rough translation: "At Columbin, a cafe in Ginza, I browsed their Western confections. They were serving something that resembled coiled up soba noodles. Unlike soba though, it tasted rather like chestnuts. They told me it is a Swiss confection called Mont-Blanc, named from their famous mountain, and imitating its figure,"
  62. ^ 鹽澤芳朗 (1935-06-05). 洋菓子 - 店頭から撰んで [Western confections from our showcase]. 製菓実験 [Practical Confectionery] (in Japanese). 6 (6). Tokyo, Japan: Seika Jikken Publication (製菓実験社). p56(text), p57(photograph). JPNO 00012899.
    • author: 鹽澤芳朗 (Shiosawa / Shiozawa, Yoshirō / Yoshio) from confectionery Beniya in Hongō, Tokyo
    • item 3. Mont-Blanc: Plain buttercream on sponge cake. Puree of marrons blended with butter cream, squeezed in circles like a bird's nest. Topped with sugar and a fragment of candied cherry.
  63. ^ a b Hayakawa, Hikari (1996-11-20). 元祖モンブラン モンブラン目黒区自由ヶ丘 [The original Mont-Blanc, by Monburan at Jiyugaoka]. 東京名物 [Tokyo specialties] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Shinchosha. pp. 76–77. ISBN 4103989033. OCLC 674802288.
    • rough translation: "The Western-style confection Mont Blanc has in fact originated in Tokyo.[...] So the shop opened in 1933, in Jiyūgaoka, Tokyo. [...][The founder], inspired by a dessert served at Hotel Mont-Blanc in Chamonix, arranged it to the Japanese-style[...]. But, [Monburan at Jiyugaoka] boasts we definitely are the originator."
  64. ^ Hayakawa, Hikari (2000-11-03). 23区名物図鑑 [Specialties of the 23 wards, illustrated]. Tokyojin 東京人 (in Japanese). 15 (11). Tokyo, Japan: 都市出版: 37. ISSN 0912-0173.
  65. ^ Nekoi, Noboru (2008-09-20). お菓子の由来物語 [Book of the origins of sweets]. Gentosha. p. 17. ISBN 978-4779003165.
  66. ^ a b c Saint-Ange, Madame E. (1958). La cuisine de Madame Saint-Ange: recettes et méthodes de la bonne cuisine française. 1300 recettes, 110 dessins in texte (in French). Larousse. p. 934. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  67. ^ Gourmet 54:7-12:226
  68. ^ a b c Lucile Escourrou, "Le Mont Blanc : ce grand classique gourmand de l'hiver", Le Figaro Madame Cuisine January 9, 2015
  69. ^ "Mont-blanc", Elle, no date
  70. ^ 西坡 (2011-05-05). 凯司令. 上海: 新民晚报. p. 好吃周刊. Archived from the original on 2011-08-20.