Mont Blanc massif
|Mont Blanc massif|
|Peak||Mont Blanc (Italian: Monte Bianco)|
|Elevation||4,810 m (15,780 ft)|
|Countries||France, Italy and Switzerland|
The Mont Blanc massif; Italian: Massiccio del Monte Bianco; French: Massif du Mont-Blanc) is a mountain range in the Alps, located mostly in France (Haute-Savoie and Savoie) and Italy (Aosta Valley), but also straddling Switzerland (western Valais) at its north-easterly end. It is named after Mont Blanc which, at 4,810 m, is regarded as the highest point in western Europe. Not only does the massif form a watershed between the vast catchment areas of the Rhône and Po rivers, but it also marks a border between two climate regions by separating the northern/western Alps from the southern Alps.:26
- 1 Topography and geography
- 2 Geology
- 3 Flora and fauna
- 4 Climate
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Environmental protection
- 7 Transport routes and mechanised access
- 8 Peaks
- 9 Glaciers
- 10 Mountain refuges and bivouac huts
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Topography and geography
|Main peaks and ridges of the Mont Blanc massif|
The Mont Blanc massif is 46 km long and lies in a south-west to north-easterly direction across the borders of France, Italy and Switzerland. At its widest point the massif is 20 km across. The northern side of the massif lies mostly within France, and is bounded by the valley of the River Arve, containing the towns of Argentiere, Chamonix and Les Houches. To the west it is bounded by the Val Montjoie, containing the town of Les Contamines-Montjoie and Le Bon Nant river which flows northwards to a confluence with the Arve near Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, and thence onwards to the Rhône. The southern side the massif lies within Italy and is bounded by the Val Veny and Val Ferret whose watercourses meet just above the town of Courmayeur and which separate the massif from the Graian Alps further south. From Courmayeur these waters flow southwards as the Dora Baltea towards Aosta, eventually joining the River Po. The north-eastern end of the massif falls within Switzerland, and is bounded by a separate valley, confusingly also called Val Ferret, and which separates it from the Pennine Alps further east. Its watercourse, la Dranse de Ferret, flows northwards to join the Rhône at Martigny.
The borders of all three countries converge at Mont Dolent (3,820 m). From here the French-Italian border runs south-westwards along a ridge of high summits on the southern side of the massif, many of which are over 4,000 m in height, including the Grandes Jorasses, Rochefort Ridge, Dent du Geant, Mont Maudit, Mont Blanc and its western satellite, the Aiguille de Bionnassay. North of Mont Dolent the French/Swiss border runs roughly north-north-west along a ridge-line of slightly lower peaks, including the Aiguille d'Argentiere, the Aiguille du Chardonnet and the Aiguille du Tour.
The massif contains 11 main summits over 4,000 metres in height. From the summit of Mont Blanc to the River Arve near Chamonix there is a 3,800 m drop over a distance of just 8 km.:23 Because of its great elevation, much of the massif is snow and ice-covered, and it has been deeply dissected by glaciers. The Mer de Glace is the longest glacier in the range as well the longest in France and the second longest glacier in the Alps. The debris-covered Miage Glacier to the south is the longest in Italy.:39 The summit of Mont Blanc is an ice cap whose thickness varies from year to year.
The entire massif can be circumnavigated by the Tour du Mont Blanc - a walking route of approximately 170 kilometres (110 mi), usually taking around 11 days to complete, but which is also used for an annual mountain marathon, with top competitors expected to complete the whole route in less than 21 hours.
The main mountain passes, or cols, that connect different valleys and towns around the Mont Blanc Massif are:
- Col du Bonhomme 2,329m (bridle path, links Contamines to Beaufort/Les Chapieux)
- Col de la Seigne 2,490m (bridle path, links Beaufort/Les Chapieux to Courmayeur)
- Col Ferret 2,490m (bridle path, links Courmayeur to Orsières/Champex/Trient Valley)
- Col de Balme 2,191m (bridle path, links Trient Valley to Chamonix)
- Col de la Forclaz 1,520m (major road, links Argentière to Martigny)
The Mont Blanc massif consists predominantly of ancient granitic rocks of Variscan age. Both it, and the Aiguilles Rouges range to its north, form part of the external zone of the Alps, effectively being the outermost layers of rock. The massif is formed from crystallised rocks, mostly granite, gneiss and schist. The gneisses and schists formed from sedimentary rocks which became metamorphosed by heat from granitic magmas. The central granites make up Mont Blanc, the steep slopes of the Drus, the Grandes Jorasses and the Dent du Geant, and at the highest points are topped by schists, which are visible in places such as Grand Montets and near Mont Blanc's summit.:25
The granite rocks around Mont Blanc have been eroded into steep 'needles' or 'aiguilles', whose impressive nature were remarked upon by Goethe who visited Chamonix in autumn 1779. Known locally as protogine, they are lower in biotite mica and richer in quartz than the granites of the nearby Aiguilles Rouges range.:25
A large part of the massif is covered by icefields, and is cut by numerous glaciers, mostly flowing north-westwards into France, or south-eastwards into Italy, and is itself defined by valleys which formed along fault lines and have subsequently been shaped by ice during the last glacial period of the Ice Age. With much steeper slopes on the Italian side, glaciers drop sharply and those such as the Miage Glacier and the Glacier de la Brenva are very heavily covered in rock debris.:25
During the mid-nineteenth century the granite rocks of the Mont Blanc massif were an important source of building stone. One hundred Italian stonemasons were brought to the Chamonix valley by Charles Albert of Sardinia for the reconstructing the towns of Sallanches and Cluses which had at that time recently been destroyed by fires.
Flora and fauna
The massif contains a rich variety of biodiversity as a result of the huge height range from the valleys to the highest summits, with mild temperatures at altitudes around 600 m to 1000 m and arctic conditions between 2500 to 4800 metres.
Whilst the Mont Blanc massif does not contain any species that are endemic to just that mountain range, there are many rare and legally protected species found within the four major habitat zones that occur. These are the: mountain, sub-alpine, alpine and niveal zones. The major habitats are coniferous forests, moors, rock and talus slopes, plus glacial moraines. The richness is further influenced by the different aspects of the faces, by the geology, as well as by the influence of man on the lower and middle slopes, where forest clearance has created open grassland. The native forest habitats are essential for the survival of many species, with the key conifer species include larch, pine, stone pine and red pine.
Over a thousand plant species have been recorded across the Massif, from the valley bottoms at 500m up to 3,800m where the Alpine Chrysanthemum (Leucanthemopsis alpina) can be found at a record-breaking height of 3,800m :13
Saussurea Alpine Botanical Garden
Opened in 1987, the Saussurea Alpine Botanical Garden was originally created purely as a tourist attraction but, with the designation of the Pavillon du Mont Frety protected area, totalling 7,000m², it has increased in scientific importance. Located at 2,173 m above sea level, it is the highest botanical garden in Europe, and contains around 800 species. It can be reached either from the mid-way station of the Skyway Monte Bianco, or on foot within 2 hours and an 800 metre ascent from La Palud. The botanical garden derives its name from the genus of mountain flowers, Saussurea (Saw-worts) which itself was named after Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, whose enthusiasm for scientific research in the mountains led to the first ascent of Mont Blanc in 1786.
The mountains around Mont Blanc are home to many species of mammals such as ibex, chamois, deer, hares and marmots (including a small population of albinos within Val Ferret.
Located on the watershed between the Rhône and the Po, the Mont Blanc massif is also situated between two different climatic regions of the northern/western Alps and the southern Alps. Climatic conditions on the Mer de Glace are similar to those found on the northern side of the Swiss Alps.:26
Precipitation within the French Alps (be it as rain or snow) is distributed fairly evenly over all months of the year. But there is significant variation with elevation and aspect. Chamonix, with an elevation of 1,030 m receives c. 1,020 mm of annual precipitation. The Col du Midi, which is at 3,500 metres above sea level, receives 3,100 mm, but near the summit of Mont Blanc, measurements at an altitude around 4,300 m have revealed that annual precipitation is lower, reaching only 1,100 mm.:23 In the mountains further south, annual precipitation at an equivalent altitude is significantly lower. For example, valleys around 1,000 m in the Massif du Pelvoux, receive only around 600 to 700mm of precipitation per year. Precipitation in the Franch Alps is mostly due to a flow of maritime air from the west (i.e. the Atlantic Ocean), whereas circulation from the southeast (i.e. the Mediterranean Sea) is more uncommon. In some years, however, changes to the more normal paths of low-pressure systems can further highlight the north-south differences of the mountains.:23
The Mont Blanc massif is a significant tourist destination. The region attracts over 6 million people per annum, with around one in five gaining access to its slopes by means of mechanical infrastructure (cable cars or railways). Surveys have shown that tourists mostly come to the Mont Bland massif and its environs for winter sports and other outdoor, nature-related activities such as hiking and cycling. Recent enhancements to tourist infrastructure across the massif have included:
- upgrading of facilities at the Aiguille du Midu cable car terminus, including a viewing platform with a glass floor where visitors stand over a 1,000m precipice, and 'Le Pipe' - a tubular walkway that will circle the summit
- complete rebuilding of the Point Helbronner terminus for the new Skyway Monte Bianco cable car from Courmayeur at a cost of 110 million Euros;
- construction of a new, and ultra-modern-looking Goûter Hut to accommodate the increasing numbers of mountaineers attempting the Goûter Route to the summit of Mont Blanc.
- 1/2 billion euro investment in Les Grands Montets and other ski areas over a six-year period from 2014 onwards.
The Chamonix cable car in France attracts 500,000 people per annum, with an annual turnover of 16 million euros, whilst the building of the new Skyway Monte Bianco on the Italian side is expected to increase visitor numbers to Courmayeur from 100,000 per annum to 300,000 following its complete replacement in 2015. Costing 138 million euros (when all the extra infrastructure is included), the Skyway Monte Bianco is regarded as the world's most expensive cable car installation.
Increasing numbers of mountain tourists, together with enhanced access and quick communications with mountain rescue services have led to an increase in mountain accidents and inappropriate demands to be rescued, as well as stunts, some of which the local authorities have decried as 'reckless and stupid'. In one instance an American man attempted to break the record for the youngest person to summit Mont Blanc. He posted footage online of his nine and eleven-year old children on the dangerous section of the Goûter route to the summit as they were nearly swept to their deaths in a snow-slide. In recent years guards have been placed on this route at peak periods to ensure that those entering the mountain environment are adequately equipped and skilled. Increasing numbers have also led to calls to limit access to the most popular mountains, both for pollution-reduction and accident-reduction reasons. Deaths from mountaineering related accidents across the Mont Blanc massif averages almost 100 a year.:208
Weather records made in the massif show that since the 1960s there has been a trend of less snow at lower altitudes, whilst since the 1990s average mountain temperatures have increased more than at lower levels . Temperatures in Chamonix have risen by 1.5C over the last 75 years, and fresh snow build-up has halved in the last 40 years, and there has been an increase in the melting and retreat of the massif's glaciers.
To help counter these effects, in 2012 the Chamonix-Mont-Blanc Valley authorities introduced a 'climate and energy action plan', committing the region to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22% by 2020. The plan included proposals to improve air quality by banning those lorries from using the Tunnel du Mont Blanc which were deemed to be the most polluting, and which at times had reduced air quality to levels more usually associated with Paris.
Concerns over the state of the environment around the most popular parts of the Mont Blanc massif, and the need for visitors to better respect it, were reflected in a statement in 2014 by the Jean-Marc Peillex, the mayor of Saint-Gervais who said: "Mont Blanc is a heap of garbage . . . a mountain covered with the crap, urine and detritus of the last 50 years. The problems are covered up by a nice, white blanket of snow. But I want to confront people with the reality and to reach those people who abuse the mountain." Following the construction of the new Goûter Hut on the 'voie normale' used by most climbers ascending Mont Blanc, the authorities now strictly enforce a 'no wild camping' ban above the level of Tete Rousses Hut, and no-one is allowed into the new Goûter Hut unless they have previously reserved a place.
In 1951 the French section of The Mont-Blanc massif was classified as a Site classé (or 'listed site') and the scheduled area was extended in 1976 to now cover 253.54 square kilometres. However, it is neither a national park, nor does it yet have UNESCO World Heritage Site status. In June 2000 France did add the Mont Blanc Massif to UNESCO's 'Tentative List', which is the first step to a state or states making a formal nomination. This was followed in January 2008 by a cross-border submission from Italy, which included France and Switzerland. By 1989 there had been calls for the creation of an 'International Park for Mont Blanc, but these came to nothing. As a result of long delays, many environmental groups from France, Italy and Switzerland, working under the umbrella group, 'proMontBlanc', continue to raise their concerns and to put pressure on national governments and the European Union to support and make quicker progress with World Heritage classification. In 2012, as a result of little forward movement towards inscription, ProMontBlanc published a condensed version of a detailed assessment and supportive rationale made the previous year into the state of the Mont Blanc application to be a World Heritage Site. ProMontBlanc also undertakes a regular review of a suite of 24 environmental, 24 economic and 10 social indicators across 15 towns around the massif (7 French, 5 Italian and 3 Swiss). Known as the 'Mont Blanc Thermometer, it aims to record, monitor and report on the effectiveness of measures intended to deliver sustainable development across the region. Since 2009 data reporting is included within the on-line Mont Blanc 'observatory'.
All the French parts of the Mont Blanc massif, plus the neighbouring Aiguille Rouges range, have been listed as a Zone naturelle d'intérêt écologique, faunistique et floristique (ZNIEFF). This does not give regulatory protection, but is a recognition of the outstanding biodiversity of the area, and of its landscape, geomorphological, geological, historical and scientific importance. The 2011 schedule documents list over 130 critical species of animals and plants for which the massif is important.
The Mont Blanc massif is regarded by conservationists as representing an important missing link in the wider protected areas network of the western Alps, both in the south and the north.
Espace Mont Blanc
In 1991 the environment ministers for France, Italy and Switzerland came together to agree the forming of Espace Mont Blanc - a partnership of local and national organisations and communes to plan for the future development and protection of the Mont Blanc region. In 1998 the group was charged with creating a 'sustainable development scheme' for the region (finally launched in 2005), and in 2003 it adopted a plan for safeguarding sensitive environments and landscapes. In 2007 it produced its position statement regarding the classification of Mont Blanc as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and in 2009 a Transboundary Integrated Plan (PIT) was announced, with the implementation of six regional projects running until 2013; and in 2014 the group launched 'Strategy for the Future' - a strategic tool for ensuring consistency in public policies across the different territories around Mont Blanc.
Transport routes and mechanised access
The Mont Blanc massif is accessible by road from within France via the A40-E25, or from Switzerland via Martigny and the Forclaz pass (1,527 m), or via Orsières to reach the Swiss Val Ferret. From within Italy the A40 from Aosta leads to Courmayeur, as does the higher mountain route from Bourg-Saint-Maurice via the Col du Petit St. Bernard (2,188 m).
The massif can be quickly crossed in a north-south direction by one of two transport routes, one aimed at through-traffic, the other intended solely for tourists:
- The 11.6 km (7.2 mi) long Tunnel du Mont Blanc connects Chamonix and Courmayeur and permits cars and lorries to quickly reach the opposite valley. It took twenty years to complete and opened to vehicle traffic in 1965. The tunnel is infamous for an incident in March 1999, when a lorry caught fire inside. The resulting fire lasted 53 hours and killed 39 people. The tunnel was renovated in the aftermath, reopening 3 years later. By 2008, some 1,600 trucks and 3,200 cars were using the tunnel every day (totalling 1.8 million vehicles per year) - a little less than before the 1999 fire.
- The Vallée Blanche Cable Car is normally used by visitors travelling from one or other of the tourist centres of Chamonix or Courmayeur and gives views over, or direct access for skiers and mountaineers to, the glaciated regions of the massif. It crosses the massif in a roughly north-south direction and connects the Aiguille du Midi with the Point Helbronner, each of which can themselves be reached by telepherique from Chamonix and Courmayeur respectively.
From Chamonix the Aiguille du Midi Cable Car rises to the 3,842m summit of the Auiguile du Midi, and holds the world record for the highest vertical ascent of any cable car (2,807m). It gives views over much of the massif, and up towards Mont Blanc itself. On the Italian side a cable car service (Skyway Monte Bianco) from near Courmayeur rises up from La Palud to Pointe Helbronner.
Elsewhere in the massif, the Montenvers Railway connects Chamonix to Montenvers near the foot of the Mer de Glace, whilst the Telepherique du Lognan connects Argentiere with Aiguille des Grands Montets where 'Les Grand Montets' is an important winter skiing area in the region. At 3,300m, the summit station also provides relatively easy access for climbers to the north eastern peaks of the range, including short introductory rock scrambles and a simple ice-face route on the NW face of the Petite Aiguille Verte.
Mont Blanc Tramway takes tourists and hikers from Saint-Gervais-les-Bains to the Nid d'Aigle, near the Glacier de Bionnassay. It provides mechanised access to the first stage of the Goûter Route for mountaineers attempting the 'voie normale' to the summit of Mont Blanc.
From Les Houches, one of two cable cars links to Bellevue plateau (1,800m) giving access to walking paths, mountain bike trails and winter ski-runs as well as to a halt on the Mont Blanc Tramway, whilst a second links the town to the adjacent Prarion plateau (1900m).
Heli-skiing gives ready access to many remote or off-piste ski routes in the Mont Blanc massif. Because heli-skiing is banned across France for environmental reasons, companies offering this service only operate on the Swiss and Italian sides of the range.
The Mont Blanc massif contains 11 major independent summits over 4,000 metres in height (shown emboldened) plus a number of other tops over that altitude.
List of main peaks
The main peaks within the Mont Blanc massif are:
|Name||Height (metres)||Height (feet)|
|Mont Blanc de Courmayeur||4,748||15,577|
|Picco Luigi Amedeo||4,460||14,633|
|Dôme du Goûter||4,304||14,121|
|Mont Blanc du Tacul||4,248||13,937|
|Grand Pilier d'Angle||4,243||13,921|
|Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey||4,112||13,491|
|Aiguille de Bionnassay||4,066||13,341|
|Dôme de Rochefort||4,015||13,173|
|Dent du Géant||4,013||13,166|
|Aiguille de Rochefort||4,001||13,127|
|Aiguille de Tré la Tête||3,930||12,894|
|Aiguille de Triolet||3,870||12,697|
|Aiguille du Midi||3,843||12,609|
|Name||Height (metres)||Height (feet)|
|Aiguille des Glaciers||3,834||12,579|
|Aiguille du Chardonnet||3,822||12,540|
|Aiguille Noire de Peuterey||3,773||12,379|
|Aiguille du Dru||3,754||12,316|
|Dômes de Miage||3,688||12,100|
|Aiguille du Plan||3,673||12,051|
|Aiguille du Tour||3,540||11,615|
|Aiguille du Grépon||3,502||11,489|
|Aiguille des Grands Charmoz||3,445||11,302|
|Grande Pointe des Planereuses||3,151||10,338|
|Pointe des Plines||3,052||10,030|
Glaciers cover 110 square kilometers of the Mont Blanc massif.:26 The Mer de Glace has a total length of 12 km from highest snowfield to terminus and an area of between 35-40 square kilometers. It is the largest glacier in the Western Alps, and the second largest in Europe. At around 10 km (6.2 mi) in length, the Miage Glacier is Italy's longest glacier and also the largest debris-covered glacier in Europe. Other large glaciers include the Argentière Glacier (9 km), the Saleina Glacier (6 km), Trient Glacier (4 km), and the Bossons Glacier (c.4 km) and Brenva Glacier. Whilst the glaciers appear to show similar fluctuations in length, research has revealed that each glacier of the Mont Blanc massif has its own individual and distinctive response time to changes in snowfall and climate. The Bossons Glacier is known to respond first, then the Argentière and the Trient Glaciers respond some four to seven years later, with the Mer de Glace reacting last, and between eleven to fifteen years after the Bossons Glacier.:23
The glaciers of the Mont Blanc massif are listed here by country, and from north to south. The larger glaciers are indicated in bold.
Glaciers in France (listed N to S)
- Glacier du Tour
- Glacier du Chardonnet, Glacier du Milieu, Glacier des Améthistes, Glacier du Tour Noir, Glacier des Rognons (all flowing into the Glacier d'Argentière)
- Glacier d'Argentière (2nd longest glacier in the massif)
- Glacier des Grands Montets, Glacier de la Pendent, Glacier de Lognan (all from Aiguille des Grands Montets)
- Glacier du Nant Blanc
- Glacier des Drus
- Glacier de la Charpoua
- Mer de Glace (longest glacier in the massif)
- Glacier des Courtes
- Glacier de Talèfre
- Glacier de Leschaux (merges with Glacier du Tacul to form Mer de Glace, and also fed Glacier du Mont Mallet and Glacier de Pierre Joseph
- Glacier du Capucin
- Glacier du Tacul (from Plateau du Géant; merges with Glacier de Leschaux
- Glacier des Périades (feeds into Glacier du Tacul)
- Glacier la Noire (feeds into G des Périades)
- Glacier de la Thendia
- Glacier de Trelaporte
- Glacier des Nantillons (sous l'aiguille des Grands Charmoz)
- Glacier de Blaitière (sous l'Aiguille de Blaitière|aiguille du même nom)
- Glacier de Envers de Blaitière
- Glacier de Envers du Plan
- Glacier des Pèlerins (between Aiguille du Midi and Aiguille du Plan)
- Glacier Rond
- Bossons Glacier (effectively descends from summit of Mont Blanc)
- Glacier du Gèant (feeds into la Vallee Blanche and then Glacier du Tacul)
- Glacier de Taconnaz
- Glacier du Bourgeat
- Glacier de la Griaz
- Glacier de Tête Rousse
- Glacier de Bionnassay
- Glacier de Tricot
- Glacier de Miage (not to be confused with Glacier du Miage on Italian side)
- Glacier de Covagnet
- Glacier de Tré la Tête
- Glacier du Mont Tondu
- Glacier des Lanchettes
- Glacier d'Enclave
- Glacier des Glaciers
Glaciers in Italy (listed N to S)
- Glacier de Pré de Bar / Ghiacciaio di Pré de Bar
- Glacier de Triolet / Ghiacciaio del Triolet
- Glacier de Gruetta / Ghiacciaio di Gruevetta
- Glacier de Frébouze / Ghiacciaio di Frèbouze
- Glacier de Tronchey
- Glacier de Pra Sec
- Glacier des Grandes Jorasses
- Glacier de Planpincieux / Ghiacciaio di
- Glacier de Mt Frety / Ghiacciaio di Crety
- Glacier de Toule / Ghiacciaio di Toula
- Glacier de Entreves
- Glacier de la Brenva / Ghiacciaio della Brenva
- Glacier de Freiney/Ghiacciaio di Freiney'
- Glacier du Chatelet
- Glacier du Brouillard
- Glaciers du Mont-Blanc, du Dôme and de Bionnassay Italien (feeding the Glacier du Miage)
- Glacier du Miage/Ghiacciaio del Miage' (the largest glacier within Italy)
- Glacier de Petit Mont Blanc
- Glacier de la Lée Blanche
- Glacier d'Estelette / Ghiacciaio d'Estelette
Glaciers in Switzerland (listed N to S)
- Glacier des Grands
- Glacier du Trient
- Glacier d'Orny
- Glacier des Ravines Rousses
- Glacier des Plines
- Glacier de Saleina
- Glacier des Planereuses
- Glacier du Darrey
- Glacier de Treutse Bô
- Glacier de l'A Neuve
- Glacier du Dolent
Mountain refuges and bivouac huts
A number of high-altitude mountain refuges are positioned strategically across the massif, the majority owned by their respective national mountaineering clubs. Many are wardened during the summer months, though bivouac huts are not and these have very limited facilities. Reductions in hut fees are usually available to members of other national mountaineering clubs. The two most popular huts (Goûter and Tetes Rousse) now require all climbers to pre-book, or they will be turned away. Wild camping at high altitude is prohibited, and especially enforced on popular routes. Some tiny bivouac huts, such as the Eccles Hut can be extremely crowded in good conditions, and some mountaineers prefer to bivouac outside. Each high altitude hut faces its own individual challenges, often relating to water and energy supply or waste management. The provision of services to visitors can sometimes conflict with environmental protection. A range of individual solutions for a selection of huts within the massif and elsewhere in the Alps was identified by a project run by Espace Mont Blanc
List of mountain huts above 2,500 m
All mountaineering refuges above an altitude of 2,500 m are listed by height within country. Where a hut is located on a country border, it is listed by the nationality of its owning organisation.
- Vallot Emergency Hut 4,362m (CAF)
- Goûter Hut 3,817m (CAF)
- Cosmiques Hut 3,613m (CAF)
- Abri Simond Bivouac 3,600m(winter use only)
- Periades Bivouac Hut 3,450m
- Tete Rousse Hut 3,170m (CAF)
- Grandes Mulet Hut 3,051m (CAF)
- Durier Bivouac Hut 3,358m
- Charpoua Hut 2,841m
- Argentiere Hut 2,771m
- Albert Premier Hut 2,702m
- Couvercle Hut 2687m
- Plan Glacier Hut 2,680m
- Conscrits Hut 2,602m
- Requin Hut 2,516m
- Leschaux Hut 2,431m
- Eccles Bivouac Hut 3,850m
- Canzio Bivouac Hut 3,825m
- Dames Anglaises (Craveri) Bivouac Hut 3,490m
- Jacchia Bivouac Hut 3,258m
- Ghiglione Bivouac 3,690m (removed in 1999)
- Col de la Fourche Bivouac Hut 3,680m (CAI)
- Quintino Sella Bivouac Hut 3,396m
- Torino Hut 3,375m (CAI)
- Brenva Bivouac Hut 3,140m
- Gonella Hut 3,071m
- Petit Mont Blanc Bivouac Hut /Refuge Rainetto 3047m
- Estelette Bivouac Hut 2,958m
- Gervasutti Bivouac Hut 2833m
- Boccalette Hut / Refuge des Grandes Jorasses 2,804m
- Robert Blanc Hut 2,750m (Private Mont Tondu. Aig des Glaciers)
- Dolent Bivouac Hut / Fiorio Bivouac 2,724m
- Triolet Hut / Refugio Dalmazzi 2,599m
- Monzino Hut 2,590m (Private)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mont Blanc massif.|
- Mont Blanc shrinks by 45cm in two years
- Nussbaumer, S.U.; Zumbuhl, H.J.; Steiner, D. (2007). "Fluctuations of the “Mer de Glace” (Mont Blanc area, France) AD 1500–2050:" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie (Innsbruck). BAND 40 (2005/2006): 1–137. ISSN 0044-2836. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- measured from valley bottom to valley bottom, from French IGN online map.
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- Barbero, Rossana Serandrei; Zanon, Giorgio (1993). Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G., eds. "The Italian Alps (in Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World" (PDF). Professional Paper 1386. U.S.Geological Survey. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
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- Chamonix Guides’ Company
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