The existence of the town is documented since the 11th century. During Norman times it was attacked by Ruggiero and completely destroyed. Later it became a fiefdom of Raona of Fragneto. Other important feudal lords were the Caracciolo, the Della Leonessa and the Della Marra.
The economy depends on agriculture, notably vineyards. One of the more famous wineries of Montemarano and the surrounding region is the Aminea winery. Aminea wines can be found in some American wine shops.