Montenegrin coup plot

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A coup d'état plot in the capital of Montenegro, Podgorica, was planned and prepared for 16 October 2016, the day of the parliamentary election, according to Montenegro's special prosecutor.[1] In September 2017, the trial of those indicted in connection with the plot began in the High Court in Podgorica, the indictees including leaders of the Montenegrin opposition and two Russian nationals, Eduard Shishmakov and Vladimir Popov. The Russian government denies any involvement.

Background[edit]

It is believed that the plot was designed as a last-ditch attempt by the Montenegrin pro-Russian opposition to prevent Montenegro′s accession to NATO, a move stridently opposed by Russia′s government that had issued direct threats to Montenegro concerning such eventuality.[2][3][4][5][6] Speaking in the UK′s House of Commons Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson on 6 March 2018 stated: "The UK has been instrumental in supporting Montenegro’s accession to NATO and in helping that country to identify the perpetrators of the Russian-backed attempted coup."[7]

Arrests and alleged plot[edit]

16 October 2016 arrests
Planned by Ministry of Interior Affairs
Objective Capture alleged coup conspirators
Date 16 October 2016
Executed by Law enforcement
Outcome 20 arrests
Casualties none

On the eve of 16 October 2016, the day of the parliamentary election in Montenegro, a group of 20 Serbian and Montenegrin citizens, including the former head of Serbian Gendarmery Bratislav Dikić, were arrested;[8][9] some of them, along with other persons, including two Russian citizens, were later formally charged by the authorities of Montenegro with an attempted coup d'état. In early November 2016, Montenegro′s special prosecutor for organised crime and corruption, Milivoje Katnić, alleged that "a powerful organisation" that comprised about 500 people from Russia, Serbia and Montenegro was behind the coup plot.[10] In February 2017, Montenegrin officials accused the Russian ″state structures″ of being behind the attempted coup, which allegedly envisaged an attack on the country's parliament and assassination of prime minister Milo Đukanović.[11][12]

The details about the coup plot were first made public at the end of October 2016 by Serbia′s prime minister Aleksandar Vučić, whose public statement on the matter stressed the role of Serbia′s law enforcers, especially the Serbian Security Intelligence Agency, in thwarting it.[13][14] The statement was immediately followed by an unscheduled visit to Belgrade by Nikolai Patrushev, secretary of Russia′s Security Council.[13]

According to the prime minister Duško Marković′s statements made in February 2017, the government received definitive information about the coup being prepared on 12 October 2016, when a person involved in the plot gave away the fallback scenario of his Russian minders; this information was also corroborated by the security services of NATO member countries, who helped the Montenegrin government to investigate the plot.[15] One of the charged, Predrag Bogićević from Kragujevac, a veteran and leader of the Ravna Gora Movement, said that Saša Sinđelić informed him on a possible attack on Serbs who participated in the October 16th protest. Bogićević, in Serbian detention, said through his lawyer that there was no talks whatsoever on a coup and no mentions of Đukanović.[16]

The Moscow–based Russian Institute for Strategic Studies (RISS), which has close ties to Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), was mentioned by mass media as one of the organisations involved in devising the coup plot; in early November 2017, Russian president Vladimir Putin sacked the RISS director, Leonid P. Reshetnikov, a ranking veteran officer of the SVR.[17][18]

Persons alleged to be involved[edit]

Criminal prosecution and trial[edit]

In early June 2017, the High Court in Podgorica confirmed the indictment of 14 people, including two Russians and two pro-Russia Montenegrin opposition leaders, Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević (the Democratic Front), who had been charged with "preparing a conspiracy against the constitutional order and the security of Montenegro" and an "attempted terrorist act."[19] Officials alleged that the plotters had conspired to take over parliament during the October 2016 parliamentary election, assassinate then-prime minister Milo Djukanovic, and install a pro-Russian government in order to halt Montenegro's bid to join NATO.[20][19] According to the prosecution, the relevant orders had been received by Saša Sinđelić, an Austria-born Serbian citizen previously convicted of murder in Croatia and now acting as a witness for the prosecution,[21][22][23] from Eduard Shishmakov (at first referred to by media as Shirokov),[24][20] who had earlier been expelled from Poland as an exposed officer of the Russian military intelligence.[25][20]

On 6 September 2017, the trial of those indicted began in the High Court in Podgorica, the two Russian nationals, Eduard Shishmakov and Vladimir Popov, being tried in absentia.[26] In a separate case, on 18 October 2017 Milan Knežević was convicted of assaulting a policeman on 17 October 2015 and sentenced to 7 months in prison.[27]

At the end of October 2017, the court heard evidence from Saša Sinđelić,[28][29] who, among other things, reportedly told the court he had learned from Eduard Shishmakov of Ramzan Kadyrov, the Head of the Chechen Republic, being involved in the coup plot.[30] At the end of November 2017, the Russian daily broadsheet Izvestia reported that Andrija Mandić and Milan Knežević had sent a letter to Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov, saying Kadyrov had figured in the indictment starting from the previous week and requesting Russia′s support.[31][32][30] The defence sought to question the credibility and psychiatric competence of the prosecutor's witness.[33]

In early June 2018, the court in Podgorica heard evidence from Brian Scott, a former CIA operative and the chief executive officer of a U.S. risk-management company: he was questioned by prosecutors about the role of another former CIA operative and Scott′s colleague, Joseph Assad, a naturalised U.S. citizen, who stayed on Montenegro in the autumn of 2017 and made a request to provide assistance to the Democratic Front political party on security matters and evacuation. Scott stated that his company, Strategic Risk Management, refused the request due to reports of a connection between Democratic Front and Russian intelligence officers.[34] In July 2018, the Montenegrin prosecutors launched a formal investigation into Joseph Assad′s alleged role in the coup plot.[35]

Aftermath[edit]

On 28 April 2017, Montenegro’s parliament voted 46-0 to join NATO, while the majority of opposition parties kept boycotting parliament sessions and protesters burned NATO flags outside.[20] Tensions between Montenegro and Russia continued to escalate thereafter.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bajrović, Reuf; Garčević, Vesko; Kramer, Richard. "Hanging by a Thread: Russia's Policy of Destabilization in Montenegro" (PDF). Foreign Policy Research Institute. Retrieved 11 July 2018. 
  2. ^ Montenegro finds itself at heart of tensions with Russia as it joins Nato: Alliance that bombed country only 18 years ago welcomes it as 29th member in move that has left its citizens divided The Guardian, 25 May 2017.
  3. ^ В Брюсселе подписан протокол о вступлении Черногории в НАТО Парламентская газета, 19 May 2016.
  4. ^ "Об обращении Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации "К парламентариям государств - членов Организации Североатлантического договора, Парламентской ассамблеи Организации по безопасности и сотрудничеству в Европе, Народной скупщины Республики Сербии, Скупщины Черногории, Парламентской Ассамблеи Боснии и Герцеговины, Собрания Республики Македонии", Постановление Государственной Думы от 22 июня 2016 года №9407-6 ГД, Обращение Государственной Думы от 22 июня 2016 года №9407-6 ГД". docs.cntd.ru. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  5. ^ John McCain: Russia threat is dead serious. Montenegro coup and murder plot proves it. USA Today, 29 June 2017.
  6. ^ Former Montenegrin PM Says Russia Wants To Destroy EU Radio Liberty, 14 March 2017.
  7. ^ Government Policy on Russia House of Commons Hansard, 6 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Slučaj "državni udar" i Đukanovićev "stari recept"". 
  9. ^ "Montenegrin prosecutor says Russian nationalists behind alleged coup plot". 
  10. ^ Montenegro PM Accuses Opposition Over 'Plot to Kill Him' Balkan Insight, 10 November 2016.
  11. ^ Farmer, Ben (19 February 2017). "Russia plotted to overthrow Montenegro's government by assassinating Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic last year, according to senior Whitehall sources". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  12. ^ "Kremlin rejects claims Russia had role in Montenegro coup plot". The Guardian. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Совбезными усилиями: Осложнение российско-сербских отношений потребовало вмешательства Николая Патрушева КоммерсантЪ, 28 October 2016.
  14. ^ "Crnu Goru trese suluda priča o puču, ruskim špijunima, četnicima, Putinu i Vučiću. Naš reporter analizira sve". 27 November 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  15. ^ Q&A: Duško Marković, the Prime Minister Stuck Between Putin and Trump in the Balkans Time, 16 February 2017.
  16. ^ "Predrag Bogićević o puču u Crnoj Gori: Išao da štiti Srbe, ne da ruši režim". www.novosti.rs. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  17. ^ Кремлевский спрут. Часть 2. Как ГРУ пыталось организовать переворот в Черногории theins.ru, 24 March 2017.
  18. ^ Организаторы переворота в Черногории участвовали в аннексии Крыма – СМИ Корреспондент.net, 21 November 2016.
  19. ^ a b Montenegrin Court Confirms Charges Against Alleged Coup Plotters Radio Liberty, 8 June 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d Indictment tells murky Montenegrin coup tale: Trial will hear claims of Russian involvement in plans to assassinate prime minister and stop Balkan country’s NATO membership. Politico, 23 May 2017.
  21. ^ UREDNIK, HOP. "Crnogorska oporba optužuje Hrvatsku i NATO da je uz vladu ubojicu iskoristila kao svjedoka državnog udara u Crnoj Gori - HOP PORTAL". www.hop.com.hr. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  22. ^ "SASLUŠAN SINĐELIĆ: Bezbednjacima otkrio sve nakon što je neko pokušao da ga ubije". www.novosti.rs. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  23. ^ "OPERACIJA DRŽAVNI UDAR: Kako je hladnokrvni ubojica i bjegunac koji je osuđen na 21 godinu zatvora u Crnoj Gori postao svjedok pokajnik". Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  24. ^ Прокурор Черногории подтверил российский след в попытке переворота Radio Liberty, 20 February 2017.
  25. ^ Russia 'linked' to election-day coup plot in Montenegro Sky News, 21 February 2017.
  26. ^ PORTAL, Oslobođenje. "Oslobođenje - U Podgorici počelo suđenje za pokušaj državnog udara". Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  27. ^ Milan Knežević osuđen na sedam mjeseci zatvora: Ukoliko ova presuda postane pravosnažna, Knežević više neće moći da bude poslanik u Skupštini Crne Gore
  28. ^ U "procesu stoljeća" za pokušaj udara u Podgorici saslušan krunski svjedok HINA, 26 October 2017.
  29. ^ Svjedok Sinđelić: Govorilo se o ubistvu Đukanovića Radio Liberty, 7 October 2017.
  30. ^ a b Chechnya leader accused of involvement in Montenegro coup The Telegraph, 29 November 2017.
  31. ^ Кадырова включили в дело о госперевороте в Черногории: Имя главы Чеченской Республики появилось в обвинительных актах прокуратуры на судебном процессе в Подгорице Izvestia, 29 November 2017.
  32. ^ Lideri DF pisali Lavrovu i traže pomoć: Pominju Kadirova oko "državnog udara": Ruska "Izvestia" objavila je danas da su optuženi ideri crnogorske opozicije Milan Knežević i Andrija Mandić poslali pismo Lavrovu vijesti.me, 29 November 2017.
  33. ^ "Sinđelić: Izdali su nas oni koji su nas angažovali". Radio Slobodna Evropa. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  34. ^ U.S. Executive Testifies In Montenegro Trial Of Attempted Coup Suspects Radio Liberty, 6 June 2018.
  35. ^ Amerikanac deo grupe koja je planirala državni udar u Crnoj Gori? Osumnjičeni Džozef Asad, rođeni Libanac sa američkim pasošem, ima prijavljeno prebivalište u SAD i nije dostupan crnogorskim organima gonjenja Politika, 23 July 2018.
  36. ^ "Montenegro protests after senior politician held while changing planes at a Moscow airport". AP. 29 May 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 

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