Monterey County, California

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Monterey County, California
County of Monterey
Monterey Bay Aquarium.jpg
Main Street, Salinas.jpg
Pebble Beach Golf Links, hole 7.jpg
Nuestra Senora del la Soledad chapel.JPG
Big Sur June 2008.jpg
Images, from top down, left to right: Monterey Bay Aquarium, Main Street in Salinas, the seventh hole at Pebble Beach Golf Links, Mission Soledad, Big Sur Coastline
Official seal of Monterey County, California
Interactive map of Monterey County
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
IncorporatedFebruary 18, 1850[1]
Named forMonterey Bay
County seatSalinas
Largest citySalinas
Government
 • TypeCouncil–CAO
 • BodyBoard of Supervisors
 • ChairMary L. Adams
 • Vice ChairLuis A. Alejo
 • Board of Supervisors[2]
Supervisors
  • Luis A. Alejo
  • John M. Phillips
  • Chris Lopez
  • Wendy Root Askew
  • Mary L. Adams
 • County Administrative OfficeClaudia Escalante
Area
 • Total3,771 sq mi (9,770 km2)
 • Land3,281 sq mi (8,500 km2)
 • Water491 sq mi (1,270 km2)
Highest elevation5,865 ft (1,788 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total439,035
 • Density134/sq mi (52/km2)
Time zoneUTC-8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Area codes805, 831
Websitewww.co.monterey.ca.us

Monterey County (/ˌmɒntəˈr/ (listen) MON-tə-RAY), officially the County of Monterey, is a county located on the Pacific coast in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 census, its population was 439,035.[4] The county's largest city and county seat is Salinas.[5]

Monterey County comprises the Salinas, California, Metropolitan Statistical Area. It borders on the southern part of Monterey Bay, after which it is named. (The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County.) Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency: the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments.

Scenic features along the coastline - including Carmel-by-the-Sea, Big Sur, State Route 1, and the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula - have made the county famous around the world. Back when California was under Spanish and Mexican rule, the city of Monterey was its capital. Today, the economy of the county is mostly based on tourism in its coastal regions, and on agriculture in the region of the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's inhabitants live near the northern coast or in Salinas Valley; the southern coast and inland mountainous regions are sparsely populated.

History[edit]

Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, namesake of Monterey Bay and thus the city and the county.

Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874. The area was originally populated by Ohlone, Salinan and the Esselen tribes.

The county derives its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey (or Count of Monterrey), then the Viceroy of New Spain.[6] Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father (the Fourth Count of Monterrei) were from.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,771 square miles (9,770 km2), of which 3,281 square miles (8,500 km2) is land and 491 square miles (1,270 km2) (13%) is water.[7] The county is roughly 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware, and roughly similar in population and the size to Santa Barbara County.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Counties and bodies of water adjacent to Monterey County, California

Santa Cruz County to the north, San Benito County, Fresno County, and Kings County to the east as well as San Luis Obispo County to the south.

National protected areas[edit]

In October 2019, the Bureau of Land Management ended a five-year moratorium on leasing federal land in California to fossil fuel companies, opening 725,000 acres (1100 sq. miles; 29,000 ha) to drilling in San Benito, Monterey, and Fresno counties.[8]

Marine protected areas[edit]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Monterey County has habitat to support the following endangered species:

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18501,872
18604,739153.2%
18709,876108.4%
188011,30214.4%
189018,63764.9%
190019,3804.0%
191024,14624.6%
192027,98015.9%
193053,70591.9%
194073,03236.0%
1950130,49878.7%
1960198,35152.0%
1970250,07126.1%
1980290,44416.1%
1990355,66022.5%
2000401,76213.0%
2010415,0573.3%
2020439,0355.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790–1960[10] 1900–1990[better source needed][11]
1990–2000[12] 2010[13] 2020[14]

2020 census[edit]

Monterey County, California - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[13] Pop 2020[14] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 136,435 120,077 32.87% 27.35%
Black or African American alone (NH) 11,300 9,051 2.72% 2.06%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 1,361 1,314 0.33% 0.30%
Asian alone (NH) 23,777 25,123 5.73% 5.72%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 1,868 1,859 0.45% 0.42%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 741 2,170 0.18% 0.49%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 9,572 14,120 2.31% 3.22%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 230,003 265,321 55.41% 60.43%
Total 415,057 439,035 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Income, education and poverty 2013[edit]

Median Household Income across the populated northern half of Monterey County, as of 2014.
Percent of affluent households (i.e. $150k annual income or higher) across census tracts in most populated area of the county.[15]

Generally, the western/southern parts of the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel Valley, Creekbridge (Salinas), and eastern parts of Prundale were the county's most affluent and educated (see dark blue on map). These areas had a median household income significantly above that of the California or the U.S. overall (typically above $95,000 vs. $60,000 for California and $52,000 for the U.S.)[16] and comprised roughly 8%-10% of neighborhoods (as defined by Census Block Groups).[17] Educational attainment was at least on part with, or above, state and national levels,[18] in these areas while the percentage of people living in poverty was typically a third or less than national and statewide average (with the exception of South Salinas).[19]

Social deprivation (poverty and low levels of educational attainment) was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, and central areas of Monterey, Seaside, Marina, Soledad and King City. In central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents.[18][19] Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated urban areas in the nation.

Most affluent neighborhoods[edit]

Roughly 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income above $100,000 per year, about 60% above the national median. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below.[16][17]

Most affluent neighborhoods (Median Household Income above $100k/yr.)[17][20]

Rank neighborhood Census Reference/Geo-Unit Median Household Income
1 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 1, Census Tract 116.02 $152,411
2 Mount Toro Foothills, Salinas Valley Block Group 3, Census Tract 107.01 $143,508
3 Jacks Peak, Monterey Block Group 1, Census Tract 132 $142,143
4 Mount Toro Foothills, Salinas Valley Block Group 2, Census Tract 107.02 $141,364
5 Skyline Forest, Monterey Block Group 3, Census Tract 128 $130,221
6 Yankee Point, Carmel Block Group 3, Census Tract 117 $126,389
7 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 3, Census Tract 116.02 $122,056
8 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 4, Census Tract 116.02 $118,159
9 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 2, Census Tract 110 $118,125
10 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 4, Census Tract 110 $115,667
11 Carmel (East, outside of city limits) Block Group 2, Census Tract 117 $115,357
12 Jacks Peak, Monterey Block Group 2, Census Tract 132 $113,750
13 Skyline Forest, Monterey Block Group 5, Census Tract 128 $111,500
14 City of Carmel (Southern half) Block Group 1, Census Tract 118.02 $110,962
15 Las Palmas, Salinas Valley Block Group 2, Census Tract 107.01 $110,918
16 Pebble Beach, Monterey Peninsula Country Club Block Group 4, Census Tract 119 $107,500
17 Mount Toro Foothills, Salinas Valley Block Group 1, Census Tract 107.02 $105,511
18 Carmel Valley (North-West) Block Group 1, Census Tract 116.04 $104,902
19 City of Carmel (Northern half) Block Group 2, Census Tract 118.01 $101,984
20 Creekbridge (incl. Falcon Meadows), Salinas Block Group 2, Census Tract 106.03 $100,673
141* United States N/A $53,046
104* California N/A $61,094
154* City of Salinas N/A $49,264

* Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups (e.g. if the U.S. overall was a Census Block Group in Monterey County, it would be the 141st most affluent of 226).

Least affluent neighborhoods[edit]

About 4.5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income below $30,000 per year, about 60% below the national median. This coincided with the 10 poorest of the 20 lowest income neighborhoods listed in the table below.[16][17]

Least affluent neighborhoods (Median Household Income of $34.1k or less)[17][20]

Rank neighborhood Census Reference/Geo-Unit Median Household Income
1 Downtown Salinas Block Group 1, Census Tract 13 $21,411
2 Central Seaside Block Group 3, Census Tract 137 $22,994
3 East Salinas (Del Monte Ave.) Block Group 1, Census Tract 7.01 $23,250
4 Downtown Monterey Block Group 1, Census Tract 127 $24,911
5 Central Marina (Del Monte Blvd.) Block Group 3, Census Tract 142.01 $25,464
6 Hebbron Heights, East Salinas Block Group 2, Census Tract 5.01 $26,211
7 East Salinas (Del Monte Ave.) Block Group 3, Census Tract 7.01 $26,771
8 East Salinas (Del Monte Ave.) Block Group 2, Census Tract 7.02 $26,875
9 Hebbron Heights, East Salinas Block Group 1, Census Tract 5.01 $28,750
10 Downtown Monterey Block Group 2, Census Tract 127 $29,070
11 West Santa Rita, Salinas Block Group 1, Census Tract 105.06 $30,250
12 North-Central Salinas/Chinatown Block Group 2, Census Tract 18.02 $30,625
13 Central King City Block Group 2, Census Tract 113.02 $31,579
14 Central King City Block Group 1, Census Tract 113.02 $33,043
15 Central Soledad Block Group 3, Census Tract 111.01 $33,110
16 East Seaside Block Group 1, Census Tract 135 $33,242
17 East Salinas (Del Monte Ave.) Block Group 3, Census Tract 7.02 $33,244
18 East Soledad Block Group 1, Census Tract 111.02 $33,616
19 East Salinas Block Group 3, Census Tract 8 $33,938
20 North Salinas (E. Bernal Drive./Natividad Rd.) Block Group 3, Census Tract 4 $34,057
86* United States N/A $53,046
118* California N/A $61,094
73* City of Salinas N/A $49,264

* Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups (e.g. if the U.S. overall was a Census Block Group in Monterey County, it would be the 86th poorest of 226).

2011[edit]

Thematic map showing percentage of households speaking only English at home.

Places by population, race, and income[edit]

2010[edit]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Monterey County had a population of 415,057. The racial makeup of Monterey County was 230,717 (55.6%) White, 12,785 (3.1%) African American, 5,464 (1.3%) Native American, 25,258 (6.1%) Asian (2.8% Filipino, 0.7% Korean, 0.6% Chinese, 0.6% Japanese, 0.4% Vietnamese, 0.4% Indian), 2,071 (0.5%) Pacific Islander, 117,405 (28.3%) from other races, and 21,357 (5.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 230,003 persons (55.4%); 50.2% of Monterey County is Mexican, 0.8% Salvadoran, and 0.5% Puerto Rican.[28]

2000[edit]

As of the census[29] of 2000, there were 401,762 people, 121,236 households, and 87,896 families residing in the county. The population density was 121 people per square mile (47/km2). There were 131,708 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile (15/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 55.9% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 6.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 27.8% from other races, and 5.0% from two or more races. 46.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.3% were of German and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 52.9% spoke English, 39.6% Spanish and 1.6% Tagalog as their first language.

There were 121,236 households, out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.5% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size was 3.65.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 28.4% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 female residents there were 107.3 male residents. For every 100 female residents age 18 and over, there were 107.7 male residents.

The median income for a household in the county was $48,305, and the median income for a family was $51,169. Men had a median income of $38,444 versus $30,036 for the women. The per capita income for the county was $20,165. About 9.7% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

At the local level, Monterey County is governed by the Monterey County Board of Supervisors. Like all governing bodies in California, the Monterey County Board of Supervisors is empowered with both legislative and executive authority over the entirety of Monterey County and is the primary governing body for all unincorporated areas within the County boundaries. The Board has five elected members, each of whom represents one of five districts. Taken together, the five districts comprise the entirety of the county.[30]

Current board members:

  • Luis Alejo - 1st District
  • John Phillips - 2nd District
  • Chris Lopez - 3rd District
  • Wendy Root Askew - 4th District (current board chair)
  • Mary Adams - 5th District

The Board conducts its meetings in the county seat, Salinas, and is a member of the regional governmental agency, the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments.[31][32]

Supervisorial Districts[edit]

Supervisorial district boundaries are divided roughly equally according to population, using data from the most recent census.[33] In addition, any redistricting changes should approximately comply with both California law as well as the federal Voting Rights Act.[33] Boundaries are adjusted decennially based on data reported by the United States Census Bureau for the most recent census.[33] The next supervisorial election will be held on March 8, 2022.[34]

District 1[edit]

The 1st District is geographically the smallest supervisorial district in Monterey County and is entirely within the city limits of the city of Salinas.[30][35]

Luis Alejo represents the 1st District on the Board of Supervisors.[36] His current term expires in December 2020.[37]

District 2[edit]

As the northernmost supervisorial district in Monterey County, the 2nd District includes the communities of Boronda, Castroville, Las Lomas, Moss Landing, Pajaro, Prunedale, Royal Oaks, the northern neighborhoods of the city of Salinas, and those portions of the community of Aromas that are located within Monterey County.[30][38]

John Phillips is currently the Supervisor for the 2nd District.[39] His current term expires in December 2022.[37]

District 3[edit]

The 3rd District covers the majority of the Salinas Valley and southern Monterey County, extending to its border with San Luis Obispo County. The district includes the unincorporated communities of Spreckels, Chualar, and Jolon; the eastern portion of the city of Salinas; the cities of Gonzales, Greenfield, Soledad, and King City; the military installations at Fort Hunter Liggett and Camp Roberts; and portions of the Los Padres National Forest.[30][40]

The 3rd District is represented by Chris Lopez.[41] His current term expires in December 2022.[37]

District 4[edit]

The 4th District includes the southwest portion of the city of Salinas, the cities of Del Rey Oaks, Marina, Seaside, Sand City, and the former military installation at Fort Ord.[30][42]

Wendy Root Askew currently holds the seat for 4th District Supervisor.[43] Her current term expires in December 2024.[37]

District 5[edit]

The 5th District is geographically the largest of the five supervisorial districts, and covers most of the Monterey Peninsula and southern coastline of Monterey County down to the southern county border with San Luis Obispo County. The 5th District includes the cities of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey, and Pacific Grove; the unincorporated communities of Carmel Valley, Big Sur, Pebble Beach, San Benancio, Corral de Tierra, and Jamesburg; military installations at the Presidio of Monterey, the Defense Language Institute, and the Naval Postgraduate School; and the Ventana Wilderness area of the Los Padres National Forest.[30][44][45]

Mary L. Adams is currently the 5th District Supervisor.[30] Her current term expires in December 2020.[37]

State and federal Representatives[edit]

In the United States House of Representatives, Monterey County is part of California's 20th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jimmy Panetta.[46]

In the California State Assembly, Monterey County is split between the 29th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Mark Stone, and the 30th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Robert Rivas.[47]

In the California State Senate, Monterey County is split between the 12th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anna Caballero, and the 17th Senate District, represented by Democrat John Laird.[48]

Policing[edit]

The Monterey County Sheriff provides court protection, jail management, and coroner service for the entire county. It provides patrol and detective services for the unincorporated areas of the county. Incorporated municipalities within the county that have their own municipal police departments are: Monterey, Pacific Grove, Salinas, King City, Marina, Seaside, Sand City, and Gonzales.

Politics[edit]

Voter registration[edit]

Cities by population and voter registration[edit]

Overview[edit]

For most of the 20th century, Monterey County was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections. From 1900 until 1992, the only Democrats to carry the county were Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt, and Lyndon Johnson. Since 1992, the county has become a Democratic stronghold in Presidential and congressional elections, with George H. W. Bush in 1988 being the last Republican to win Monterey County.

United States presidential election results for Monterey County, California[50]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 46,299 28.24% 113,953 69.52% 3,671 2.24%
2016 34,895 26.16% 89,088 66.78% 9,425 7.06%
2012 37,390 30.27% 82,920 67.13% 3,208 2.60%
2008 38,797 29.89% 88,453 68.15% 2,533 1.95%
2004 47,838 38.38% 75,241 60.36% 1,574 1.26%
2000 43,761 37.23% 67,618 57.53% 6,155 5.24%
1996 39,794 36.66% 57,700 53.15% 11,064 10.19%
1992 36,461 31.25% 54,861 47.01% 25,367 21.74%
1988 50,022 49.83% 48,998 48.81% 1,361 1.36%
1984 55,710 57.16% 40,733 41.79% 1,027 1.05%
1980 47,452 54.67% 29,086 33.51% 10,256 11.82%
1976 40,896 51.02% 36,849 45.97% 2,408 3.00%
1972 47,004 57.04% 32,545 39.49% 2,859 3.47%
1968 33,670 50.16% 28,261 42.10% 5,193 7.74%
1964 24,579 37.90% 40,093 61.83% 172 0.27%
1960 33,428 56.26% 25,805 43.43% 180 0.30%
1956 29,514 59.54% 19,932 40.21% 127 0.26%
1952 30,578 62.51% 18,051 36.90% 286 0.58%
1948 17,233 50.59% 15,704 46.10% 1,126 3.31%
1944 12,246 45.82% 14,342 53.66% 140 0.52%
1940 11,810 44.01% 14,758 55.00% 265 0.99%
1936 7,565 37.70% 12,267 61.13% 235 1.17%
1932 6,200 39.37% 8,942 56.77% 608 3.86%
1928 7,228 63.12% 4,138 36.13% 86 0.75%
1924 4,744 61.07% 886 11.41% 2,138 27.52%
1920 4,817 67.76% 1,771 24.91% 521 7.33%
1916 3,599 44.81% 3,878 48.28% 555 6.91%
1912 1 0.01% 3,392 46.26% 3,939 53.72%
1908 2,486 53.64% 1,616 34.87% 533 11.50%
1904 2,453 59.17% 1,415 34.13% 278 6.71%
1900 1,964 50.10% 1,825 46.56% 131 3.34%
1896 1,878 45.82% 2,149 52.43% 72 1.76%
1892 1,709 41.65% 1,606 39.14% 788 19.21%
1888 1,875 48.55% 1,866 48.32% 121 3.13%
1884 1,476 50.72% 1,381 47.46% 53 1.82%
1880 1,260 50.36% 1,205 48.16% 37 1.48%

According to the California Secretary of State, as of April 2008, Monterey County has 147,066 registered voters.[citation needed] Of those voters, 72,550 (49.3%) are registered Democratic, 42,744 (29.1%) are registered Republican, 5,488 (3.7%) are registered with other political parties, and 26,284 (17.9%) declined to state a political party. Except for Sand City, all of the other cities, towns, and the unincorporated area of Monterey County have more individuals registered with the Democratic Party than the Republican Party. In Sand City, the Republicans have the advantage by 1 voter.

In August 2018, it adopted a flag designed by a Nob Hill resident.[51]

Crime[edit]

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Cities by population and crime rates[edit]

Media[edit]

Television service for the community comes from the Monterey-Salinas-Santa Cruz designated market area (DMA). Radio stations Monterey-Salinas-Santa Cruz area of dominant influence (ADI) or continuous measurement market (CMM). Local newspapers include the Monterey County Herald, Monterey County Weekly, Salinas Californian and the Carmel Pine Cone.

Home prices[edit]

As of December 2005, Monterey County ranked among America's ten most expensive counties, with Santa Barbara County topping the list with a median home price of $753,790. In Monterey County, the median home price was $699,900. In the northern, more densely populated part in the county, the median home price was even higher, at $712,500, making it the fourth most expensive housing market in California. The disparity between the median household income of roughly $48,305 and the median home price of $700k has been cause for recent concern over excluding potential home buyers from the market. The end of the United States housing bubble has caused prices to drop substantially, with median home prices having fallen to $280,000 as at September 2008.[55]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

Monterey County is served by Amtrak trains and Greyhound Lines buses. Monterey-Salinas Transit provides transit service throughout most of Monterey County, with buses to Big Sur and King City as well as in Monterey, Salinas and Carmel. MST also runs service to San Jose, California in Santa Clara County

Airports[edit]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Other places[edit]

Population ranking[edit]

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2020 census of Monterey County.[56]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2020 Census)
1 Salinas City 163,542
2 Seaside City 32,366
3 Monterey City 30,218
4 Soledad City 24,925
5 Marina City 22,359
6 Greenfield City 18,937
7 Prunedale CDP 18,885
8 Pacific Grove City 15,090
9 King City City 13,332
10 Gonzales City 8,647
11 Castroville CDP 7,515
12 Carmel Valley CDP 6,189
13 Del Monte Forest CDP 4,204
14 Carmel-by-the-Sea City 3,220
15 Las Lomas CDP 3,046
16 Pajaro CDP 2,882
17 Aromas (partially in San Benito County) CDP 2,708
18 Pine Canyon CDP 1,871
19 Boronda CDP 1,760
20 Del Rey Oaks City 1,592
21 Elkhorn CDP 1,588
22 Chualar CDP 1,185
23 Spreckels CDP 692
24 San Ardo CDP 392
25 Lockwood CDP 368
26 Sand City City 325
27 San Lucas CDP 324
28 Moss Landing CDP 237
29 Bradley CDP 69

Education[edit]

School districts include:[57]

Unified:

Secondary:

Elementary:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. ^ a b Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chronology". California State Association of Counties. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  2. ^ "Board of Supervisors | Monterey County, CA".
  3. ^ "Junipero Serra Peak". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  4. ^ "Monterey County, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  6. ^ Gudde, Erwin G. (1949). California Place Names. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. p. 222. ASIN B000FMOPP4.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  8. ^ Jake Johnson (October 5, 2019), "Merging 'Loyalty to the Oil Industry' and 'Grudge Against California,' Trump Opens 725,000 Acres to Fossil Fuel Drilling", Common Dreams, retrieved October 5, 2019
  9. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  11. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  13. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Monterey County, California". United States Census Bureau.
  14. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Monterey County, California". United States Census Bureau.
  15. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  16. ^ a b c "MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2013 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS)". American Fact Finder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 26, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°14′N 121°19′W / 36.24°N 121.31°W / 36.24; -121.31