|Ville de Montréal|
Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
|Founded||May 17, 1642|
|Constituted||January 1, 2002|
|Named for||Mount Royal|
|• Type||Montreal City Council|
|• Mayor||Valérie Plante|
|• Federal riding|
|• Provincial riding|
|• City||431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)|
|• Land||365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,293.99 km2 (499.61 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,604.26 km2 (1,777.71 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||233 m (764 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|• City||1,762,949 (2nd)|
|• Density||4,828.3/km2 (12,505/sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,291,732 (2nd)|
|• Metro density||919/km2 (2,380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||514 and 438 and 263|
|GDP (Montreal CMA)||C$221.9 billion (2018)|
|GDP per capita (Montreal CMA)||C$48,289 (2022)|
Montreal (// ⓘ MUN-tree-AWL; French: Montréal [mɔ̃ʁeal] ⓘ) is the second most populous city in Canada, the tenth most populous city in North America, and the most populous city in the province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie was built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.
As of 2021,[update] the city has a population of 1,762,949, and a metropolitan population of 4,291,732, making it the second-largest city, and second-largest metropolitan area in Canada. French is the city's official language. In 2021, 85.7% of the population of the city of Montreal considered themselves fluent in French while 90.2% could speak it in the metropolitan area. Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 58.5% of the population able to speak both English and French.
Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. Montreal remains an important centre of art, culture, literature, film and television, music, commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, and world affairs. Montreal is the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, although it slipped to rank 40 in the 2021 index, primarily due to stress on the healthcare system from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is regularly ranked as a top ten city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.
Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as a global city. The city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One; the Montreal International Jazz Festival, the largest jazz festival in the world; the Just for Laughs festival, the largest comedy festival in the world; and Les Francos de Montréal, the largest French-language music festival in the world. In sports, it is home to the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League, who have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other team.
Etymology and original names
The current form of the name, Montréal, is generally thought to be derived from Mount Royal (Mont Royal in French), the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. There are multiple explanations for how Mont Royal became Montréal. In 16th century French, the forms réal and royal were used interchangeably, so Montréal could simply be a variant of Mont Royal. In the second explanation, the name came from an Italian translation. Venetian geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio used the name Monte Real to designate Mount Royal in his 1556 map of the region. However, the Commission de toponymie du Québec disputes this explanation.
Historiographer François de Belleforest was the first to use the form Montréal with reference to the entire region in 1575.
Archaeological evidence in the region indicate that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages. The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee (then based in present-day New York), established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century. The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have effectively been removed.
Early European settlement (1600–1760)
In 1603, French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611, Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal on a site initially named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary who was seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639, Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives.
Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, then age 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec and arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of Jeanne Mance. By 1643, Ville-Marie had come under Iroquois raids. In 1652, Maisonneuve returned to France to raise 100 volunteers to bolster the colonial population. If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to Quebec City. Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people.
By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Ville-Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further exploration. In 1689, the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France. By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. To encourage French settlement, it wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. It had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became Kanesatake. In 1745, several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as Akwesasne. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when Montreal fell to a British offensive during the Seven Years' War. The colony then surrendered to Great Britain.
Ville-Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then.
American occupation (1775–1776)
As part of the American Revolution, the invasion of Quebec resulted after Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga in present-day upstate New York in May 1775 as a launching point to Arnold's invasion of Quebec in September. While Arnold approached the Plains of Abraham, Montreal fell to American forces led by Richard Montgomery on November 13, 1775, after it was abandoned by Guy Carleton. After Arnold withdrew from Quebec City to Pointe-aux-Trembles on November 19, Montgomery's forces left Montreal on December 1 and arrived there on December 3 to plot to attack Quebec City, with Montgomery leaving David Wooster in charge of the city. Montgomery was killed in the failed attack and Arnold, who had taken command, sent Brigadier General Moses Hazen to inform Wooster of the defeat.
Wooster left Hazen in command on March 20, 1776, as he left to replace Arnold in leading further attacks on Quebec City. On April 19, Arnold arrived in Montreal to take over command from Hazen, who remained as his second-in-command. Hazen sent Colonel Timothy Bedel to form a garrison of 390 men 40 miles upriver in a garrison at Les Cèdres, Quebec, to defend Montreal against the British army. In the Battle of the Cedars, Bedel's lieutenant Isaac Butterfield surrendered to George Forster.
Forster advanced to Fort Senneville on May 23. By May 24, Arnold was entrenched in Montreal's borough of Lachine. Forster initially approached Lachine, then withdrew to Quinze-Chênes. Arnold's forces then abandoned Lachine to chase Forster. The Americans burned Senneville on May 26. After Arnold crossed the Ottawa River in pursuit of Forster, Forster's cannons repelled Arnold's forces. Forster negotiated a prisoner exchange with Henry Sherburne and Isaac Butterfield, resulting in a May 27 boating of their deputy Lieutenant Park being returned to the Americans. Arnold and Forster negotiated further and more American prisoners were returned to Arnold at Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, ("Fort Anne") on May 30 (delayed two days by wind).
Arnold eventually withdrew his forces back to the New York fort of Ticonderoga by the summer. On June 15, Arnold's messenger approaching Sorel spotted Carleton returning with a fleet of ships and notified him. Arnold's forces abandoned Montreal (attempting to burn it down in the process) prior to the June 17 arrival of Carleton's fleet.
The Americans did not return British prisoners in exchange, as previously agreed, due to accusations of abuse, with Congress repudiating the agreement at the protest of George Washington. Arnold blamed Colonel Timothy Bedel for the defeat, removing him and Lieutenant Butterfield from command and sending them to Sorel for court-martial. The retreat of the American army delayed their court martial until August 1, 1776, when they were convicted and cashiered at Ticonderoga. Bedel was given a new commission by Congress in October 1777 after Arnold was assigned to defend Rhode Island in July 1777.
Modern history as city (1832–present)
Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832. The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids, while the construction of the Victoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the Golden Square Mile from about 1850. By 1860, it was the largest municipality in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada.
In the 19th century, maintaining Montreal's drinking water became increasingly difficult with the rapid increase in population. A majority of the drinking water was still coming from the city's harbour, which was busy and heavily trafficked, leading to the deterioration of the water within. In the mid-1840s, the City of Montreal installed a water system that would pump water from the St. Lawrence and into cisterns. The cisterns would then be transported to the desired location. This was not the first water system of its type in Montreal, as there had been one in private ownership since 1801. In the middle of the 19th century, water distribution was carried out by "fontainiers". The fountainiers[clarification needed] would open and close water valves outside of buildings, as directed, all over the city. As they lacked modern plumbing systems it was impossible to connect all buildings at once and it also acted as a conservation method. However, the population was not finished rising — it rose from 58,000 in 1852 to 267,000 by 1901.
Montreal was the capital of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a Tory mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill. Thereafter, the capital rotated between Quebec City and Toronto until in 1857, Queen Victoria herself established Ottawa as the capital due to strategic reasons. The reasons were twofold. First, because it was located more in the interior of the Province of Canada, it was less susceptible to attack from the United States. Second, and perhaps more importantly, because it lay on the border between French and English Canada, Ottawa was seen as a compromise between Montreal, Toronto, Kingston and Quebec City, which were all vying to become the young nation's official capital. Ottawa retained the status as capital of Canada when the Province of Canada joined with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
After World War I, the prohibition movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for alcohol. Unemployment remained high in the city and was exacerbated by the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.
During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women. The federal government, part of the Allied forces, was furious over Houde's stand and held him in a prison camp until 1944. That year, the government decided to institute conscription to expand the armed forces and fight the Axis powers. (See Conscription Crisis of 1944.)
By 1951, Montreal's population had surpassed one million. However, Toronto's growth had begun challenging Montreal's status as the economic capital of Canada. Indeed, the volume of stocks traded at the Toronto Stock Exchange had already surpassed that traded at the Montreal Stock Exchange in the 1940s. The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. In time, this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas. During the 1960s, there was continued growth as Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the Montreal Metro were finished during this time. Montreal also held the World's Fair of 1967, better known as Expo67.
The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the French-speaking majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the English Canadian minority in the business arena. The October Crisis and the 1976 election of the Parti Québécois, which supported sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city. In 1976, Montreal hosted the Summer Olympics. While the event brought the city international prestige and attention, the Olympic Stadium built for the event resulted in massive debt for the city. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities. Montreal was the site of the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre, one of Canada's worst mass shootings, where 25-year-old Marc Lépine shot and killed 14 people, all of them women, and wounding 14 other people before shooting himself at École Polytechnique.
Montreal was merged with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creating a unified city encompassing the entire island. There was substantial resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Several former municipalities, totalling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separate referendums in June 2004. The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. Demerged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services. The 2002 mergers were not the first in the city's history. Montreal annexed 27 other cities, towns and villages beginning with Hochelaga in 1883, with the last prior to 2002 being Pointe-aux-Trembles in 1982.
The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and McGill University Health Centre), the creation of the Quartier des Spectacles, reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, construction of the new Réseau express métropolitain, gentrification of Griffintown, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion of Trudeau International Airport, the completion of Quebec Autoroute 30, the reconstruction of the Champlain Bridge and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal continue to grow.
Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic. Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south and the Rivière des Prairies to its north. The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at 232 m (761 ft) above sea level.
Montreal is at the centre of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north; Longueuil, Saint-Lambert, Brossard, and other municipalities to the south; Repentigny to the east and the West Island municipalities to the west. The anglophone enclaves of Westmount, Montreal West, Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc, the Town of Mount Royal and the francophone enclave Montreal East are all surrounded by Montreal.
Montreal is classified as a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb). Summers are warm to hot and humid with a daily maximum average of 26 to 27 °C (79 to 81 °F) in July; temperatures in excess of 30 °C (86 °F) are common. Conversely, cold fronts can bring crisp, drier and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer.
Winter brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from −10.5 to −9 °C (13.1 to 15.8 °F) in January. However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March. While the air temperature does not fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) every year, the wind chill often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin.
Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall. Late season heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are possible. Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April. Montreal is generally snow free from late April to late October. However, snow can fall in early to mid-October as well as early to mid-May on rare occasions.
The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was −37.8 °C (−36 °F) on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on August 1, 1975, both at Dorval International Airport.
Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill), a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7 a.m. on January 10, 1859, where it registered at −42 °C (−44 °F).
Annual precipitation is around 1,000 mm (39 in), including an average of about 210 cm (83 in) of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal averages 2,050 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation—mostly from thunderstorms.
|Climate data for Montreal (Montréal–Trudeau International Airport)|
WMO ID: 71627; coordinates ; elevation: 36 m (118 ft); 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1941−present
|Record high humidex||13.5||14.7||28.0||33.8||40.9||45.0||45.8||46.8||42.8||33.5||26.2||18.1||46.8|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.9
|Average high °C (°F)||−5.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−9.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−14.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−37.8
|Record low wind chill||−49.1||−46.0||−42.9||−26.3||−9.9||0.0||0.0||0.0||−4.8||−10.9||−30.7||−46.0||−49.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||77.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||27.3
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||49.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||16.7||13.7||13.6||12.9||13.6||13.3||12.3||11.6||11.1||13.3||14.8||16.3||163.3|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||4.2||4.0||6.9||11.6||13.6||13.3||12.3||11.6||11.1||13.0||11.7||5.9||119.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||15.3||12.1||9.1||3.2||0.07||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.72||5.4||13.0||58.9|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500)||68.1||63.4||58.3||51.9||51.4||55.3||56.1||56.8||59.7||62.0||68.0||71.4||60.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||101.2||127.8||164.3||178.3||228.9||240.3||271.5||246.3||182.2||143.5||83.6||83.6||2,051.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||35.7||43.7||44.6||44.0||49.6||51.3||57.3||56.3||48.3||42.2||29.2||30.7||44.4|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||2||3||5||6||7||7||7||5||3||1||1||4|
|Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada and Weather Atlas|
For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada. This legacy has left a variety of buildings including factories, elevators, warehouses, mills, and refineries, that today provide an invaluable insight into the city's history, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. There are 50 National Historic Sites of Canada, more than any other city.
Some of the city's earliest still-standing buildings date back to the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that dates back to 1687, and Château Ramezay, which was built in 1705, examples of early colonial architecture are dotted throughout the city. Situated in Lachine, the Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in the city, built between 1669 and 1671. In Point St. Charles visitors can see the Maison Saint-Gabriel, which can trace its history back to 1698. There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal in their original form: Notre Dame of Montreal Basilica, Bonsecours Market, and the 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Montreal's earliest buildings are characterized by their uniquely French influence and grey stone construction.
Saint Joseph's Oratory, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's Art Deco Université de Montréal main building, the landmark Place Ville Marie office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of the city's 20th-century architecture. Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex.
In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, one of only three design capitals of the world (the others being Berlin and Buenos Aires). This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda); the International Design Alliance (IDA).
The Underground City (officially RÉSO), an important tourist attraction, is an underground network connecting shopping centres, pedestrian thoroughfares, universities, hotels, restaurants, bistros, subway stations and more, in and around downtown with 32 km (20 mi) of tunnels over 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi) in the most densely populated part of Montreal.
The city is composed of 19 large boroughs, subdivided into neighbourhoods. The boroughs are: Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace, The Plateau Mount Royal, Outremont and Ville Marie in the centre; Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension in the east; Anjou, Montréal-Nord, Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles and Saint-Leonard in the northeast; Ahuntsic-Cartierville, L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, Pierrefonds-Roxboro and Saint-Laurent in the northwest; and Lachine, LaSalle, The South West and Verdun in the south.
Many of these boroughs were independent cities that were forced to merge with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 municipal reorganization of Montreal.
The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal, Chinatown, the Gay Village, the Latin Quarter, the gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is under development. Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the Shaughnessy Village/Concordia U area home to thousands of students at Concordia University. The borough also comprises most of Mount Royal Park, Saint Helen's Island, and Notre-Dame Island.
The Plateau Mount Royal borough was a working class francophone area. The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is undergoing considerable gentrification, and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force. The neighbourhood of Mile End in the northwestern part of the borough has been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments, St-Viateur Bagel and Fairmount Bagel. The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members.
The South West borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. The borough included Goose Village and was historically home to the traditionally working-class Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Point Saint Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint Henri and Little Burgundy.
Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace borough, and Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.
Old Montreal is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the Bonsecours Market, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre.
Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored. Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city and is served by several STM bus routes and Metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths.
The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. The Old Port was the site of the Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved to a larger site downstream, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. The new Port of Montreal is Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth.
The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park, one of Montreal's largest greenspaces. The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876.
The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short ski slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities.
The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165 acres (67 ha) terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic. More than 900,000 people are buried there.
Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. In 1901, the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada.
The first cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood. Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the John the Baptist Society and now owned by the city. It was converted to fibre optic light in 1992. The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next.
This section needs to be updated.(January 2023)
|Note: Many boroughs were independent cities that were forced to be merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 municipal reorganization of Montreal.|
In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Montréal had a population of 1,762,949 living in 816,338 of its 878,542 total private dwellings, a change of 3.4% from its 2016 population of 1,704,694. With a land area of 364.74 km2 (140.83 sq mi), it had a population density of 4,833.4/km2 (12,518.6/sq mi) in 2021.
According to Statistics Canada, at the 2016 Canadian census the city had 1,704,694 inhabitants. A total of 4,098,927 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2016 census, up from 3,934,078 at the 2011 census (within 2011 CMA boundaries), which is a population growth of 4.19% from 2011 to 2016. In 2015, the Greater Montreal population was estimated at 4,060,700. According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities. In the 2016 census, children under 14 years of age (691,345) constituted 16.9%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (671,690) numbered 16.4% of the total population of the CMA.
People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French 23%, Italians 10%, Irish 5%, English 4%, Scottish 3%, and Spanish 2%.
The panethnic breakdown of the city of Montreal as per the 2021 census was European[a] (1,038,940 residents or 60.3% of the population), African (198,610; 11.5%), Middle Eastern[b] (159,435; 9.3%), South Asian (79,670; 4.6%), Latin American (78,150; 4.5%), Southeast Asian[c] (65,260; 3.8%), East Asian[d] (64,825; 3.8%), Indigenous (15,315; 0.9%), and Other/Multiracial[e] (23,010; 1.3%).
Visible minorities comprised 38.8% of the city of Montreal population in the 2021 census. The five most numerous visible minorities are Black Canadians (11.5%), Arab Canadians (8.2%), South Asian Canadians (4.6%), Latin Americans (4.5%), and Chinese Canadians (3.3%). Furthermore, some 27.2% of the population Greater Montreal are members of a visible minority group as of 2021, up from 5.2% in 1981. Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour".
As of the 2021 Census, 47.0% of Montreal residents spoke French alone as a first language, while 13.0% spoke English alone. 2% spoke both English and French as first languages, 2.6% spoke both French and a non-official language and 1.5% spoke both English and a non-official language. 0.8% of residents spoke English, French and a non-official language as first languages. 32.8% of residents had a non-official language as a mother tongue. The most common were Arabic (5.7%), Spanish (4.6%), Italian (3.3%), Chinese Languages (2.7%), Haitian Creole (1.6%), Vietnamese (1.1%), and Portuguese (1.0%).
The 2021 census reported that immigrants (individuals born outside Canada) comprise 576,125 persons or 33.4% of the total population of Montreal. Of the total immigrant population, the top countries of origin were Haiti (47,550 residents or 8.3% of the population), Algeria (43,840; 7.6%), France (39,275; 6.8%), Morocco (33,005; 5.7%), Italy (30,215; 5.2%), China (26,335; 4.6%), the Philippines (20,475; 3.6%), Lebanon (17,455; 3.0%), Vietnam (16,395; 2.8%), and India (13,575; 2.4%).
The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec was among the lowest in Canada in 1998. Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory.
Some 49.5% of the total population is Christian, largely Roman Catholic (35.0%), primarily because of descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 11.3%, with a further 3.2% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes.
Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 218,395 members, the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada at 12.7%. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 90,780. In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. In 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal numbered 109,480. Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.
Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP and the largest in Quebec. In 2019, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for CA$234.0 billion of Quebec's CA$425.3 billion GDP. The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival.
Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs. The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually. As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway, and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995.
The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal. Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body); the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World); the International Air Transport Association (IATA), IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC), as well as some other international organizations in various fields.
Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations. The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film, and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil.
Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx). The city is also home to Mila (research institute), an artificial intelligence research institute with over 500 researchers specializing in the field of deep learning, the largest of its kind in the world.
The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since November 2, 1995, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labour, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio. Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs.
Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area. As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 12th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres around the world. The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country. The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor managing assets totalling $408 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal. Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA.
Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan, Bombardier Inc., Canadian National Railway, CGI Group, Air Canada, Air Transat, CAE, Saputo, Cirque du Soleil, Stingray Group, Quebecor, Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group, Uniprix, Proxim, Domtar, Le Château, Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications, Bell Canada. Standard Life, Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson, Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin, MEGA Brands, Aeroplan, Agropur, Metro Inc., Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Transat A.T., Via Rail, GardaWorld, Novacam Technologies, SOLABS, Dollarama, Rona and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.
The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada, with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Shell decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada.
Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle magazine. The city is Canada's centre for French-language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture. Montreal was designated as the World Book Capital for the year 2005 by UNESCO.
Being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. The city has produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, dance, and music, with a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the vibrancy of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, including its more than 100 annual festivals, the largest being the Montreal International Jazz Festival which is the largest jazz festival in the world. Other popular events include the Just for Laughs (largest comedy festival in the world), Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique [fr], Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival, Igloofest, Piknic Electronik, Montréal en Lumiere, Osheaga, Heavy Montreal, Mode + Design, Montréal complètement cirque, MUTEK, Black and Blue, and many smaller festivals. The city of Montreal is also widely recognized for its diverse and vibrant night life, which is considered a vital part of the local cultural ecosystem.
A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard [fr], La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo [fr], and the Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault [fr] have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil.
Nicknamed la ville aux cent clochers (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. There are an estimated 650 churches on the island, with 450 of them dating back to the 1800s or earlier. Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window." The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, Notre-Dame Basilica, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Beginning in the 1940s, Quebec literature began to shift from pastoral tales romanticising the French-Canadian countryside to writing set in the multicultural city of Montreal. Notable pioneering works describing the character of the city include Gabrielle Roy's 1945 novel Bonheur D'Occasion, translated as The Tin Flute, and Gwethalyn Graham's 1944 novel Earth and High Heaven. Subsequent writers of fiction who have set their work in Montreal have included Mordecai Richler, Claude Jasmin, Francine Noel, and Heather O'Neill, among many others.
The most popular sport is ice hockey. The professional hockey team, the Montreal Canadiens, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and has won an NHL-record 24 Stanley Cup championships. The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993. They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins, both of which are also Original Six teams, and with the Ottawa Senators, the closest team geographically. The Canadiens have played at the Bell Centre since 1996. Prior to that they played at the Montreal Forum.
The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Percival Molson Memorial Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Late season and playoff games are sometimes played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also hosted the 2008 Grey Cup. The Alouettes have won the Grey Cup eight times, most recently in 2023. The Alouettes have had two periods on hiatus. During the second one, the Montreal Machine played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. The McGill Redbirds, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Carabins play in the U Sports football league.
Montreal has a storied baseball history. The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. In 1946, Jackie Robinson broke the Baseball colour line with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support. Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. They played their games at Jarry Park Stadium until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C., in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals.
CF Montréal (formerly known as the Montreal Impact) are the city's professional soccer team. They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. They joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer, in 2012. The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium, and the venue hosted Montreal games in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.
Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. This race takes place on the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans, but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula One calendar in 2010. It was dropped from the calendar again in 2020 and 2021, due to COVID-19 pandemic, but racing resumed in 2022, with the 2022 Canadian Grand Prix. The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002 to 2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race.
Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the National Bank Open (formerly known as the Rogers Cup) men's and women's tennis tournaments. The men's tournament is a Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a Premier tournament on the WTA Tour. The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year.
Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium cost $1.5 billion; with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was paid off in December 2006. Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities.
Montreal was the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014.
|Montréal Canadiens||NHL||Ice hockey||Bell Centre||1909||24|
|PWHL Montreal||PWHL||Ice hockey||Verdun Auditorium||2023||0|
|Montréal Alouettes||CFL||Canadian football||Percival Molson Memorial Stadium
|CF Montréal||MLS||Soccer||Saputo Stadium||2012||0|
|Montreal Alliance||CEBL||Basketball||Verdun Auditorium||2022||0|
Montreal is Canada's second-largest media market, and the centre of Canada's francophone media industry.
There are four over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV), CKMI-DT (Global) and CJNT-DT (Citytv). There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Ici Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA), CFJP-DT (Noovo), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir).
Montreal has three daily newspapers, the English-language Montreal Gazette and the French-language Le Journal de Montréal, and Le Devoir; another French-language daily, La Presse, became an online daily in 2018. There are two free French dailies, Métro and 24 Heures. Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools.
The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. The council consists of 65 members from all boroughs. The council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils.
Reporting directly to the council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the council for approval. The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the city council.
Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period. The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee.
The city is only one component of the larger Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, CMM), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers 4,360 km2 (1,680 sq mi), with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006.
|Year||Liberal||Conservative||Bloc Québécois||New Democratic||Green|
|Year||CAQ||Liberal||QC solidaire||Parti Québécois|
Law enforcement on the island itself is provided by the Service de Police de la Ville de Montréal, or the SPVM for short.
Since 1975, when Montreal's homicide rate peaked at around 10.3 per 100,000 people with a total of 112 murders, the overall crime rate in Montreal has declined, with a few notable exceptions, reaching a minimum in 2016 with 23 murders. Sex crimes have increased 14.5 per cent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 per cent over the same period. The major criminal organizations active in Montreal are the Rizzuto crime family, Hells Angels and West End Gang. However, in the 2020s, the city has seen an increase in overall crime, with a notable increase in homicides. 25 homicides were reported in 2020 which matched the number reported in 2019. The next year saw a 48% increase in murders with a total of 37 in 2021, giving the city a homicide rate of around 2.1 per 100,000 people. The Montreal Police Annual Report for 2021 showed that there were 144 shootings across the city, or an average of one shooting every 2.5 days. In comparison, there were 71 shootings recorded the year before. 2022 saw another 10.8% increase in homicides, with a total of 41 being reported (giving a slightly higher homicide rate of 2.3 per 100,000 people), the highest number since 2007, when there were 42.
The education system in Quebec is different from other systems in North America. Between high school (which ends at grade 11) and university, students must go through an additional school called CEGEP. CEGEPs offer pre-university (2-years) and technical (3-years) programs. In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English.
French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Centre de services scolaire de Montréal (CSSDM), Centre de services scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys and the Centre de services scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île.
With four universities, ten other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an 8 km (5.0 mi) radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents).
Higher education (English)
- McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions and is widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2021, McGill was ranked as the top medical-doctoral university in Canada for the seventeenth consecutive year by Maclean's and second in Canada and the 27th best university in the world by the QS World University Rankings.
- Concordia University was created from the merger of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College in 1974. The university has been ranked as one of the top comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.
Higher education (French)
- Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the second largest research university in Canada and ranked as one of the top universities in Canada. Two separate institutions are affiliated to the university: the École Polytechnique de Montréal (School of Engineering) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). HEC Montreal was founded in 1907 and is considered one of the best business schools in Canada.
- Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) is the Montreal campus of Université du Québec. UQAM generally specializes in liberal-arts, although many programs related to the sciences are available.
- L'Institut de formation théologique de Montréal des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice (IFTM) specializes in theology and philosophy.
- Institut d'hôtellerie et de tourisme du Québec (IHTQ) offers an Applied Bachelor in Hospitality and Hotel Management.
- Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal offers both a Bachelor and a Master program in classical music.
Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Also, l'Institut de pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology
Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion. Commuting traffic from the cities and towns in the West Island (such as Dollard-des-Ormeaux and Pointe-Claire) is compounded by commuters entering the city that use twenty-four road crossings from numerous off-island suburbs on the North and South Shores. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are presently four road bridges (including two of the country's busiest) along with one bridge-tunnel, two railway bridges, and a metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies to the city's north, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by nine road bridges (seven to the city of Laval and two that span directly to the north shore) and a Metro line.
The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Décarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520 and R-136 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will be a bypass for trucks and intercity traffic.
Société de transport de Montréal
Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by STM (Société de transport de Montréal, “Montreal Transit Company”). The STM bus network consists of 203 daytime and 23 night time routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010. It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses. The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize.
The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines. Total daily passengers is 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010). Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most. The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and in 2007 was extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations. The metro has recently been modernizing its trains, purchasing new Azur models with inter-connected wagons.
Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada and Air Transat. To the north of the city is Montreal Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services. In 2018, Trudeau was the third busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and aircraft movements, handling 19.42 million passengers, and 240,159 aircraft movements. With 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport.
Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. It is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more.
Montreal-based Via Rail Canada provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York. All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station.
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was founded here in 1881. Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995, when it moved to Calgary, Alberta. With the Port of Montreal kept open year-round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the eastern and intermodal freight terminus of CPR's successor company, Canadian Pacific Kansas City (CPKC). CPKC connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Central Maine and Quebec Railway to Halifax, and Canadian National Railway (CN). The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but in 1978 all passenger services were transferred to Via. Since 1990, The Canadian has terminated in Toronto instead of in Montreal.
Montreal-based CN was formed in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada. Like the CPR, CN divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via. CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in 1978. It was eliminated in 1990 in favour of rerouting The Canadian.
The commuter rail system is managed and operated by Exo, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the seventh busiest in North America following New York, Chicago, Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, and Mexico City.
On April 22, 2016, the forthcoming automated rapid transit system, the Réseau express métropolitain (REM), was unveiled. Groundbreaking occurred April 12, 2018, and construction of the 67-kilometre-long (42 mi) network – consisting of three branches, 26 stations, and the conversion of the region's busiest commuter railway – commenced the following month. To be opened in three phases as of 2022, the REM will be completed by mid-2024, becoming the fourth largest automated rapid transit network after the Dubai Metro, the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit, and the Vancouver SkyTrain. Most of it will be financed by pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ Infra).
The city of Montreal is world-renowned for being in the top 20 most cyclist-friendly cities around the globe. It follows that they have one of the world's most successful bike share systems in BIXI. First launched in 2009 with Montreal-based PBSC Urban Solutions ICONIC bikes, the bicycle-sharing scheme has since grown its fleet to include 750 docking and charging stations across the different neighbourhoods with 9000 bikes available for users. In what the STM states is a mission to combine different forms of mobility, transit card holders can now take advantage of their membership to also rent bicycles at select stations.
- Algiers, Algeria – 1999
- Brussels, Belgium
- Bucharest, Romania
- Busan, South Korea – 2000
- Boston, United States – 1995
- Guadalajara, Mexico – 2004
- Hanoi, Vietnam – 1997
- Hiroshima, Japan – 1998
- Lyon, France – 1979
- Manila, Philippines – 2005
- Melbourne, Australia – 2007
- Port-au-Prince, Haiti – 1995
- Quito, Ecuador – 1997
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – 1998
- San Salvador, El Salvador – 2001
- Shanghai, China – 1985
- Tunis, Tunisia – 1999
- Yerevan, Armenia – 1998
- List of anglophone communities in Quebec
- List of mayors of Montreal
- List of Montreal music venues
- List of shopping malls in Montreal
- List of tallest buildings in Montreal
- Montreal International Games Summit
- Royal eponyms in Canada
- Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
- Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
- Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
- Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
- Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.
- "Quebec's Metropolis 1960–1992". Montreal Archives. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Gagné, Gilles (May 31, 2012). "La Gaspésie s'attable dans la métropole". Le Soleil (in French). Quebec City. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- Leclerc, Jean-François (2002). "Montréal, la ville aux cent clochers : regards des Montréalais sur leurs lieux de culte". Éditions Fides (in French). Quebec City.
- "Lonely Planet Montreal Guide – Modern History". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on January 5, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
- "Montreal". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
- "Répertoire des municipalités: Geographic code 66023". www.mamh.gouv.qc.ca (in French). Ministère des Affaires municipales et de l'Habitation.
- "Census Profile, 2021 Census; Montreal, Ville [Census subdivision], Quebec and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Census Profile, 2021 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on March 27, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
- "Montreal (Code 0547) Census Profile". 2011 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada.
- "Montreal (Code 462) Census Profile". 2011 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada.
- "Montreal (Code 462) Census Profile". 2016 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada.
- Poirier, Jean. "Island of Montréal". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (January 27, 2017). "Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA)". www150.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
- "Why Calgary? Our Economy in Depth" (PDF). Calgary Economic Development. June 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
- "Old Montréal / Centuries of History". April 2000. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "Mount Royal Park – Montreal's Mount Royal Park or Parc du Mont-Royal". montreal.about.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- "Montreal". Encyclopædia Britannica (Online ed.). Archived from the original on March 28, 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
- "Island of Montreal". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2008.
- Poirier, Jean (1979), Île de Montréal, vol. 5, Quebec: Canoma, pp. 6–8
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 9, 2022). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Montréal, Ville (V) [Census subdivision], Quebec". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (November 15, 2017). "Illustrated Glossary - Census metropolitan area (CMA) and census agglomeration (CA)". www150.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on June 20, 2022. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
- Chapter 1, article 1, "Charte de la Ville de Montréal" (in French). 2008. Archived from the original on June 5, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- Chapter 1, article 1, "Charter of Ville de Montréal". 2008. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Profil du recensement, Recensement de 2016 - Montréal, Ville [Subdivision de recensement], Québec et Québec [Province]". February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on April 10, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- "Profil du recensement, Recensement de 2016 – Montréal [Région métropolitaine de recensement], Québec et Québec [Province]" (in French). Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on April 10, 2022. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
- "Montreal (Code 2466) Census Profile". 2016 census. Government of Canada - Statistics Canada.
- "City of Toronto, History Resources". City of Toronto. October 23, 2000. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Montreal, Canada appointed a UNESCO City of Design" (PDF). UNESCO. June 7, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- Wingrove, Josh (June 9, 2008). "Vancouver and Montreal among 25 most livable cities". Globe and Mail. Canada. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
- "Montreal Ranked Top Most Livable City". Herald Sun. August 30, 2017. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
The EIU's annual report, which ranks 140 major cities around the world based on their liveability, found Melbourne, Australia to be the most liveable city in the world. [...] Montreal doesn't make the list until number 12
- "The Global Liveability Index 2021 - How the Covid-19 pandemic affected liveability worldwide" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. June 8, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 6, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
- "QS Best Student Cities 2017". Top Universities. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- "Montreal 1976". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- www.ixmedia.com. "Articles | Encyclopédie du patrimoine culturel de l'Amérique française – histoire, culture, religion, héritage". www.ameriquefrancaise.org (in French). Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "The World According to GaWC". 2018. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- "Circuit Gilles Villeneuve". Circuit Gilles Villeneuve Official Website. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- "About – Festival International de Jazz de Montréal". www.montrealjazzfest.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "Largest jazz festival". Archived from the original on May 14, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- "Just For Laughs Festival". www.tourisme-montreal.org. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "FrancoFolies de Montréal: A large Francophone music festival". Archived from the original on May 22, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- "Onishka – Art et Communaute". Archived from the original on February 20, 2016.
- "Island of Montréal". Natural Resources Canada. May 31, 2008. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008.
- Fennario, Tom (May 17, 2017). "Montreal turns 375 but acknowledges that Tiohtià:ke is much older". APTN. Archived from the original on July 21, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
- "Territorial Acknowledgement". Concordia University. February 16, 2017. Archived from the original on July 6, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
- "Learn about the Land and Peoples of Tiohtià:ke/ Montreal". McGill University. Archived from the original on August 4, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
- "Land Acknowledgement". John Abbott CEGEP. Archived from the original on July 11, 2022. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
- Kalbfleisch, John (May 17, 2017). "Founding of Ville-Marie". Canada's National History Society. Archived from the original on July 6, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Natural Resources Canada, Origins of Geographical Names: Island of Montréal". Archived from the original on July 3, 2013.
- Bernier, Francis (December 2008). "Origine du nom de la ville de Montréal Le regard du géographe". Commission de la mémoire franco-québécoise. Archived from the original on January 5, 2023. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
- "how should one pronounce montreal? a historical and linguistic guide". July 15, 2009. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Poirier, Jean (1992). "Origine du nom de la ville de Montréal". Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française (in French). 46 (1): 37–44. doi:10.7202/305046ar. ISSN 0035-2357. Archived from the original on January 5, 2023. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
- Centre d'histoire de Montréal. Le Montréal des Premières Nations. 2011. P. 15.
- "Place Royale and the Amerindian presence". Société de développement de Montréal. September 2001. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
- Tremblay, Roland (2006). The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians. Corn People. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Les Éditions de l'Homme.
- Bruce G. Trigger, "The Disappearance of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians" Archived May 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, in The Children of Aataenstic: A History of the Huron People to 1660, vol. 2, Montreal and London: Mcgill-Queen's University Press, 1976, pp. 214–218, accessed February 2, 2010
- Marsan, Jean-Claude (1990). Montreal in evolution. An historical analysis of the development of Montreal's architecture. Montréal, Qc: Les Éditions de l'Homme.
- "Geographical Name - Island of Montreal". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- Miquelon, Dale. "Ville-Marie (Colony)". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Beacock Fryer, Mary (1986). Battlefields of Canada. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-55002-007-6. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "Alanis Obomsawin, Kanesatake: 270 Years of Resistance, National Film Board of Canada, 1993, accessed Jan 30, 2010". National Film Board of Canada. February 5, 2010. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Articles of the Capitulation of Montréal, 1760". MSN Encarta. 1760. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Atherton, William Henry (1914). Montreal: 1535–1914. S. J. Clarke publishing Company. p. 57. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- "Montreal :: Government". Student's Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Lachine Canal National Historic Site of Canada" (PDF). Parks Canada. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Visiting Montréal, Canada". International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "UNA-Canada: A Sense of Belonging". United Nations Association in Canada. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Anderson, Letty. "Water-supply." Building Canada: A History of Public Works. By Norman R. Ball. Toronto: U of Toronto, 1988. 195–220. Print.
- Dagenais, Michèle. "The Urbanization of Nature: Water Networks and Green Spaces in Montreal." Method and Meaning in Canadian Environmental History (2009): 215–35. Niche. Web. Mar. 2016.
- "Montreal 1850–1896: The Industrial City." Montreal 1850–1896: The Industrial City. N.p., n.d. Web. Mar. 2016.
- "Walking Tour of Old Montreal". Véhicule Press. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- "Internment Camps in Canada during the First and Second World Wars, Library and Archives Canada". June 11, 2014. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- Arnold, Kathy (June 3, 2008). "Montreal: a thrilling collision of cultures". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Depression and War 1930–1945". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Conscription for Wartime Service". Mount Allison University. 2001. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Camillien Houde". City of Montreal. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Grand Duchess Charlotte's US Good-Will-Tours". Wort. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "The Emergence of a Modern City 1945–1960". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Jacobs, Jane (1980). The Question of Separatism: Quebec and the Struggle Over Sovereignty, Chapter II (Montreal and Toronto)
- Veltman, Calvin (1996). Post-imperial English. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 206. ISBN 978-3-11-014754-4. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "A new francophone conquest". Montreal Archives Portal. City of Montreal. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- Bowen, Arabella; John Shandy Watson (2001–2004). The Ongoing Threat of Separatism. Rough Guides. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-84353-195-1. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Montreal 1976". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "Agglomeration council". Ville de Montréal. Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- "The St. Lawrence River". Great Canadian Rivers. 2007. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- "Island of Montreal". Geographical Names of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. September 17, 2007. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- "Découpage du territoire montréalais en 2006" (PDF). Montréal en statistiques (in French). Ville de Montréal. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- "Climatic Regions [Köppen]". Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. June 2003. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Climate: Montreal – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- "Montréal Snowfall Totals & Accumulation Averages". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Montréal Weather over the Last 5 Years". Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "First 20 degrees Celsius". Criacc.qc.ca. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Canadian Climate Normals 1961–1990 Station Data". weatheroffice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- "Climate Data Online". Archived from the original on February 7, 2012.
- Burt, Christopher C. (2007). Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 61. ISBN 9780393330151.
- "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data". Environment Canada. September 25, 2013. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Montreal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on October 26, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "Daily Data Report for March 2012". Canadian Climate Data. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for May 2020". Canadian Climate Data. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Daily Data Report for November 2022". Canadian Climate Data. October 31, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
- ""Hourly Data Report for November 5, 2022". Canadian Climate Data. October 31, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
- "Montreal, Canada - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Welcome to Industrial Montreal". McGill University. Archived from the original on February 24, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- "Montréal". Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada. Parks Canada. Retrieved July 31, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Noakes, Taylor C. (January 1, 2013). "The Oldest Buildings in Montréal". Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- "Photographing Montreal's historic greystone buildings". The Canadian Jewish News. October 23, 2017. Archived from the original on January 21, 2023. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
- "Montreal Metro | The Canadian Encyclopedia". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on February 5, 2023. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
- "Contact". About. Icograda. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "The International Design Alliance Settles in Montreal". Canadian Corporate News (CCNMatthews Newswire). May 30, 2005. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Neighbourhoods". Gromco, Inc. Montreal Bits. 2005–2009. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- Barbonne, Rémy (2009). "Gentrification, nouvel urbanisme et évolution de la mobilité quotidienne : vers un développement plus durable ? Le cas du Plateau Mont-Royal (1998–2003)". Recherches Sociographiques. Érudit. 49 (3): 423–445. doi:10.7202/019875ar. Archived from the original on August 6, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- "Artists by neighbourhood in Canada" (PDF). Canada 2001 Census. Hill Strategies. October 2005. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- Taddeo, D.J. (December 23, 1996). "The Growing Importance of the Container Trade for the Port of Montreal and the Accompanying Business Concentration; How to Diversify its Operational and Financial Risk" (PDF). Port of Montreal. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- Berryman, Tom. "Short History of Mount Royal". Les amis de la montagne. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- "Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery Mission". Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges. Archived from the original on December 23, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "The cemeteries of Mount Royal". Les amis de la montagne. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- "Mount Royal Crematorium". Mount Royal Cemetery. 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Silverman, Craig (June 14, 2004). "The future of the Mount Royal cross". Hour. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 9, 2022). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Montréal, Ville (V) [Census subdivision], Quebec". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved June 20, 2022.
- "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), Quebec". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on February 13, 2023. Retrieved August 29, 2022.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population. August 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada, 2016 Census of Population. August 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Population of census metropolitan areas". Statistics Canada. February 26, 2014. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "Ville de Montréal – Portail officiel – Page d'erreur" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- "Appendix: Table A1 Population by visible minority group and place of residence, scenario C (high growth), Canada, 2006". Statistics Canada. March 9, 2010. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada, Highlight Tables, 2006 Census: Montreal(CMA)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 30, 2023. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- "Proportion of visible minorities, Canada, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, 1981 to 2001". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
- "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census". Statistics Canada. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 9, 2022). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Montréal, Ville (V) [Census subdivision], Quebec". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved September 6, 2023.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on November 12, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
- "Profil Sociodémographique Montréal 2011" (in French). Statistics Canada. 2011. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017.
- "Church attendance declining in Canada". CBC News. December 23, 2000. Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "2001 Community Highlights for Montréal". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- "Demographics: 2011 National Household Survey Analysis The Jewish Community of Montreal". Federation CJA. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- "Statistical Tables – Religion". Statistics Canada Census. Gouvernement du Québec. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- "The Jewish Communities of Canada". Am Yisrael. Archived from the original on May 21, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2008.
- "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2009. Toronto was first in Canada with CA$253 billion GDP.
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (January 27, 2017). "Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by census metropolitan area (CMA)". www150.statcan.gc.ca. doi:10.25318/3610046801-eng. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 4, 2023.
- "'It's raining money': Quebec's economy crawled out of the doghouse. Now, it's a powerhouse". National Post. July 28, 2017. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- "AEROSPACE: Metro Montreal 2003, Strategic Profile" (PDF). Montreal, Quebec: thomas finney. 1760. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
- "The Port of Montreal unveils its project, which will generate $3.4 billion in annual economic spinoffs for Montreal" (PDF). Press Release. Port of Montreal. April 17, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Contact Us – CN Mailing Address". Canadian National Railway. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Nemeth, Mary; Liz Warwick (December 4, 1995). "CP Rail Leaves Montreal". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "CSA Headquarters". Contact Us. Canadian Space Agency. Archived from the original on July 18, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Contact Us". International Civil Aviation Organization. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Regional Offices". World Anti-Doping Agency. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Airports Council International". Aci.aero. December 1, 2010. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- "Our Offices". About Us. International Air Transport Association. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- "Contact Us". International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- Kelly, Brendan (May 24, 2007). "Montreal gladly reclaims its 'Hollywood North' tag". The Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- Kelly, Brendan (August 13, 2008). "Montreal tries luring Hollywood back". Variety. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Culture exports 'should pass the test of the market'". China View. March 10, 2009. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- Tracey Lindeman (May 9, 2017). "How Montreal became the world's leading AI and deep learning hub". IBM. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- Peter High (November 6, 2017). "Why Montreal Has Emerged As An Artificial Intelligence Powerhouse". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 29, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "Mila". Mila. Archived from the original on December 22, 2020. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
- French, Michael (February 9, 2007). "Ubisoft Montreal to become world's biggest studio". Develop Magazine. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- Hadekel, Peter (March 24, 2010). "Warner Brothers Interactive picks Montreal because of talent – and the money tag". The Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
- "Overview of the City | Finance Montréal". www.finance-montreal.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Yeandle, Mark. "GFCI 23 The Overall Rankings" (PDF). www.longfinance.net. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2018. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- "Montréal, a rising star in global finance – Meetings à la Montréal". Meetings à la Montréal. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "Profile of the Caisse". Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec | Global Investor | Hedge funds. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "BNP Paribas in Canada – BNP Paribas Canada". www.bnpparibas.ca. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- "Home Office address on contact page". riotintoalcan.com. July 28, 2009. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "World Headquarters address on contact page". bombardier.com. Archived from the original on October 14, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "World Headquarters address on bottom of contact page – cn.ca". cn.ca. July 27, 2009. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "World Headquarters address on contact page". cgi.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Investors Contacts Archived February 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine." Air Canada. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- "Contact Us Archived June 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Air Transat. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
- "World Headquarters address on contact page". cae.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "World Headquarters address on contact page". saputo.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Quebecor inc". Quebecor.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Jean Coutu Pharmacy, health specialists and beauty advice". Jeancoutu.com. January 21, 2009. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Contact us!". Uniprix. Archived from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "Contact Us". Proxim. Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
- "General Inquiries". Domtar.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Largest Bell Canada Franchise". Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Contact Us Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Bell Canada. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- "Standard Life Canada". Standardlife.ca. Archived from the original on December 16, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Molson Coors Canada". Molson Coors. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Contacts". SNC-Lavalin. Archived from the original on January 6, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Company | Contact us". MEGA Brands. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Contact Us". Aeroplan.com. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Contacts". Agropur. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Quebec Contact". Metro. Archived from the original on September 6, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "By mail". Laurentian Bank. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- www.nbc.ca. "Contact – National Bank of Canada". Nbc.ca. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Contact Us Archived May 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Transat A.T. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
- "Useful information to help plan your train trip | Via Rail". Viarail.ca. Archived from the original on July 9, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Solabs, Inc: Private Company Information – Businessweek". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "FAQ". Dollarama. Dollarama Inc. Archived from the original on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Contacts". Rona. Archived from the original on October 20, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "World Book Capital 2005". archive.ifla.org. Archived from the original on July 3, 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
- "Notre-Dame de Paris fire: How safe are Montreal's heritage churches?". Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
- Twain, Mark (December 10, 1881). "Mark Twain in Montreal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
- "St. Joseph Oratory". A view on cities. 2009. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- "Robinson rated ready for Dodgers in '47". The Sporting News. August 13, 1946. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- "Ballpark financing issue may kill deal". ESPN (AP). December 15, 2004. Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
- "Olympic Stadium – Montreal's FIFA U-20 World Cup Venue". Canada Soccer. July 17, 2006. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup Canada 2014 Destination: Montreal". FIFA. Archived from the original on December 31, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
- "FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015 Destination: Montreal". FIFA. Archived from the original on December 30, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
- "Canada dropped from F1 calendar". BBC News. October 8, 2008. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
- "Rogers extends tennis sponsorship to 2008". YFile. York University. February 16, 2005. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "Quebec's Big Owe stadium debt is over". Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. CBC. December 19, 2006. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- Markham, Christina (February 7, 2006). "FEATURE: It's all fun and games 'til you're up to your eyes in debt". The McGill Tribune. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "City Council". City Hall. Ville de Montréal. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- "The CMM at a Glance". Statistics. Montreal Metropolitan Community. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- Territorial Division Act Archived September 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
- "Official Voting Results Raw Data (poll by poll results in Montréal)". Elections Canada. April 7, 2022. Archived from the original on March 5, 2023. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
- "Official Voting Results by polling station (poll by poll results in Montréal)". Elections Québec. Archived from the original on August 28, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
- "Montreal may match last year's total of 86 murder... - UPI Archives". UPI. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
- "Montreal's murder rate reaches 45-year low: see all the crime stats". June 28, 2017. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- "Shootings, violent crime on the rise in Montreal, annual report shows". Montreal. June 8, 2022. Archived from the original on July 17, 2023. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
- "Friday evening homicide is Montreal's 41st of 2022, highest number since 2007 | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Archived from the original on July 17, 2023. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
- "Commission scolaire de Montréal". Commission scolaire de Montréal. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys". Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys – Montréal. Archived from the original on August 28, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île". Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "English Montreal School Board". English Montreal School Board. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Lester B. Pearson School Board". Lester B. Pearson School Board. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "University attendance: Montréal ranks first in relative terms and fifth in absolute terms in North America". Canada Economic Development for Quebec regions. 1996. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- "Canada's best Medical Doctoral universities: Rankings 2022". Maclean's. October 7, 2021. Archived from the original on September 8, 2022. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
- "QS World University Rankings 2022". QS Top Universities. March 29, 2022. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
- Turbide, Nadia (2008). "Concordia University". Histor!ca. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- University Rankings 2019: Canada's top Comprehensive schools Archived October 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Maclean
- "top business schools in Canada". Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
- "The keys to success for Smart Commuting Montreal, the Downtown Montreal Transportation Management Centre" (PDF). European Platform on Mobility Management. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "The completion of Autoroute 30". Objectives. Transports Québec. August 1, 2008. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- "Transit Ridership Report First Quarter 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- "The Bus Network: All Over Montreal" (PDF). Société de transport de Montréal. 2004. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- "Plan du métro de Montréal". Stm.info. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Giniger, Henry (November 22, 1981). "What's doing in Montreal". The New York Times. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- "Premier cuts ribbon on Metro extension to Laval". Montreal Gazette. April 26, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
- "New AZUR métro cars". Société de transport de Montréal. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
- "About Air Canada – Corporate Profile". Air Canada. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Air Transat". Airtransat.ca. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Mirabel airport bids final passengers farewell". CTV.ca. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Gazette, The (August 30, 2007). "It's liftoff for AirMédic ambulance". Canada.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- La Presse (May 14, 2007). "Mirabel redécolle". Lapresseaffaires.cyberpresse.ca. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Hélibellule fleet". Helibellule.ca. Archived from the original on November 29, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- LeClerc, Martin (September 8, 2007). "Hélibellule fait revivre le transport des passagers à Mirabel" (in French). TC Media. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008.
- "Aéroports de Montréal Passenger Statistics" (PDF). Admtl.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 23, 2018.
- "Transport Canada TP 577 – Aircraft Movement Statistics Annual Report 2006" (PDF). Aviation Statistics Centre – Statistics Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2009.
- "Aircraft Movement Statistics". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "Aéroports de Montréal Passenger Statistics". Admtl.com. Archived from the original on August 4, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "International destinations: Direct flights – Aéroports de Montréal". ADM. Archived from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- "U.S. destinations: Direct flights – Aéroports de Montréal". ADM. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- "Canadian destinations: Direct flights – Aéroports de Montréal". ADM. Archived from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
- "A Brief History". General Public. Canadian Pacific Railway. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Where We Ship". Customers. Canadian Pacific Railway. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- "Birth of Canadian National 1916–1923". Canadian National History. Canadian National Railway. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- "Profits and Passengers – 1960–1979". Canadian National History. Canadian National Railway. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
- "Montréal Public Transport System". European Metropolitan Transport Authorities. February 2008. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "Electric light-rail train network to span Montreal by 2020". April 23, 2016. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- cyclingmag (November 9, 2011). "Montreal In Top 20 Bicycle-Friendly Cities". Canadian Cycling Magazine. Archived from the original on September 9, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
- "Montréal Bike Share Program". PBSC Urban Solutions. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
- Solutions, PBSC Urban (September 8, 2021). "PBSC Electrifies Transportation Globally with E-Bike Share Schemes in 15+ Cities". GlobeNewswire News Room. Archived from the original on September 9, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
- "Déclaration d'intention d'amitié et de coopération entre les Villes de Montréal et le Gouvernorat du Grand Alger (mars 1999)". Ville de Montréal. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- "Discover Montreal" (PDF). www.mliesl.com. Muskoka Language International. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- "Cu cine este înfrățit Bucureștiul?". Adevărul (in Romanian). February 21, 2011. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
- Reid, Evelyn. "Sister Cities International: Montreal's Sister Cities". Montreal About. About Travel. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Dynaic Busan (June 4, 2007). "Busan News-Efforts increased for market exploration in N. America". Community > Notice. Busan Dong-Gu District Office. Archived from the original on May 21, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- "Liste – Protocoles et Ententes Internationales Impliquant La Ville de Montréal". Archived from the original on February 23, 2009.
- Citizens' Affairs Bureau (2001). "Sister City: The City of Montreal". International Relations Division, International Peace Promotion Department. The City of Hiroshima. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2008.
- Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila-Montreal Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- "Window of Shanghai". Humanities and Social Sciences Library. McGill University. 2008. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- "Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. 2013. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- Mairie de Paris. "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
- Collard, Edgar A. (1976). Montréal: The Days That Are No More, in series, Totem Book[s]. This ed. slightly edited [anew]. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada, , cop. 1976. x, 140,  p., ill. in b&w with maps and numerous sketches. ISBN 0-00-216686-0.
- Gagnon, Robert (1996). Anglophones at the C.E.C.M.: a Reflection of the Linguistic Duality of Montréal. Trans. by Peter Keating. Montréal: Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal. 124 p., ill. with b&w photos. ISBN 2-920855-98-0.
- Harris, David; Lyon, Patricia (2004). Montréal. Fodor's. ISBN 978-1-4000-1315-9. Archived from the original on October 18, 2023. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- Heritage Montréal (1992). Steps in Time = Patrimoine en marche. Montréal: Québécor. 4 vol. of 20, 20 p. each. Text printed "tête-bêche" in English and in French. On title covers: "Montréal, fête, 350 ans".
- Marsan, Jean-Claude (1990). Montreal in evolution. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-0798-2.
- Tomàs, Mariona. "Exploring the metropolitan trap: the case of Montreal." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2012) 36#3 pp: 554–567. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2011.01066.x.
- "2006 Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- "Montreal". 2006 Census of Canada: Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- Natural Resources Canada (2005). Canadian Geographical Names: Island of Montreal. Retrieved August 29, 2005.
- Michael Sletcher, "Montréal", in James Ciment, ed., Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History (5 vols., N.Y., 2005).