Moodle

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Moodle
Moodle trademark logo, version 2014.png
1 MyHomeExample.png
Screenshot of a Student's My home page from the Mount Orange demo site moodle.org/demo
Original author(s) Martin Dougiamas
Developer(s) Martin Dougiamas
Moodle HQ
Moodle Community
Stable release 2.9 / May 11, 2015; 3 months ago (2015-05-11)[1]
Written in PHP
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Course management system
License GPLv3+[2]
Website moodle.org

Moodle is a free and open-source software learning management system written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License.[3][4] Developed on pedagogical principles,[5][6] Moodle is used for blended learning, distance education, flipped classroom and other e-learning projects in schools, universities, workplaces and other sectors.[7][8]

With customizable management features, it is used to create private websites with online courses for educators and trainers to achieve learning goals.[9][10] Moodle (acronym for modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment) allows for extending and tailoring learning environments using community sourced plugins[11]

Overview[edit]

Moodle was originally developed by Martin Dougiamas to help educators to create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative construction of content, and it is in continual evolution. The first version of Moodle was released on 20 August 2002. Nowadays the Moodle Project is led and coordinated by Moodle HQ, an Australian company of 30 developers which is financially supported by a network of sixty Moodle Partner service companies worldwide. Moodle's development has also been assisted by the work of open-source programmers.[12]

Moodle as a learning platform can enhance existing learning environments.[13] As an E-learning tool, Moodle has a wide range of standard and innovative features[14] such as calendar and Gradebook.[15] Moodle is a leading virtual learning environment[16][17][18] and can be used in many types of environments such as education, training and development[19] and in business settings.[20]

Plugins[edit]

Plugins are a flexible tool set, allowing Moodle users to extend the features of the site. There are hundreds of plugins for Moodle, extending the features of Moodle's core functionality.[citation needed] Each plugin is maintained in the Moodle plugins directory. As of April 2015, there are over 1,000 plugins available for Moodle with over 7 million downloads.[citation needed]

Themes[edit]

Graphical themes for Moodle can be installed to change the look and functionality of a Moodle site or of an individual course. Many Moodle themes are available directly from Moodle downloads site, ranging from BigBlueButton to Attendance.

Translations[edit]

Moodle has been translated in over 100 languages, available for any site administrator to install.[21] People in various countries maintain and contribute to the various language packs.[22]

Mobile[edit]

Many Moodle themes, based on Responsive web design, allow Moodle to be used on mobile devices. A Moodle mobile app is available in Google Play, App Store (iOS), and the Windows Phone Store.

E-learning standards support[edit]

Moodle has adopted a number of e-learning standards.

Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of elearning standards and specifications that define communications between client side content and a server side learning management system, as well as how externally authored content should be packaged in order to integrate with the LMS effectively. There are two versions: SCORM 1.2 and SCORM 2004. Moodle is SCORM 1.2 compliant, and passes all the tests in the ADL Conformance test suite 1.2.7 for SCORM 1.2. SCORM 2004 is not supported in Moodle, however Rustici Software have a Moodle plugin which can turn any Moodle site into a fully compliant SCORM 2004 LMS.[23]

The AICC HACP standard for CMI was developed by the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) and is used to call externally authored content and assessment packages. AICC content packages are supported in Moodle 2.1 and later versions.

Experience API, also known as 'xAPI' or 'Tin Can API', was finalised in 2014 as a successor to SCORM.

IMS Content Packages can also be imported into Moodle. In addition, Moodle Book activities can be exported as IMS Content Packages.

Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) is a standard way of integrating rich learning applications (often remotely hosted and provided through third-party services) with educational platforms. Moodle uses the External Tool activity to act as an 'LTI consumer' as standard, and will act as an 'LTI provider' using a plugin.

Deployment[edit]

Users can download and install Moodle on a Web server, such as Apache HTTP Server, and a number of database management systems, such as PostgreSQL, are supported. Pre-built combinations of Moodle with a Web server and database are available for Microsoft Windows and Macintosh. Other automated installation approaches exist, such as installing a Debian package, deploying a ready-to-use TurnKey Moodle appliance, using the Bitnami installer, or using a "one-click install" service such as Installatron.

Certified Moodle Partners provide other Moodle services, including hosting, training, customization and content development.[24] This network of providers support development of the Moodle project through royalties.[25][citation needed]

Interoperability[edit]

Moodle runs without modification on Unix, Linux, FreeBSD, Windows, Mac OS X, NetWare and any other systems that support PHP and a database, including webhost providers.

Moodle also has import features for use with other specific systems, such as importing quizzes or entire courses from Blackboard or WebCT. As of February 2010, Moodle will not import Blackboard courses, apparently due to changes in php code-releases.[26]

In March 2012 Blackboard acquired two companies based on Moodle's software including Baltimore-based Moodlerooms Inc. and NetSpot of Adelaide, Australia.[27] The Red Hat site, Opensource.com, reports that Moodle will always be an open source project, with clear delineation between Blackboard and Moodle[28]

Background[edit]

Origins[edit]

Martin Dougiamas, who has graduate degrees in computer science and education, wrote the first version of Moodle. Dougiamas started a Ph.D. to examine "the use of open source software to support a social constructionist epistemology of teaching and learning within Internet-based communities of reflective inquiry." Although how exactly social constructionism makes Moodle different from other eLearning platforms is difficult to show, it has been cited as an important factor by Moodle adopters.[29][30] Other Moodle adopters, such as the Open University in the UK, have pointed out that Learning Management Systems can equally be seen as "relatively pedagogy-neutral".[31]

Pedagogical approach[edit]

The stated philosophy of Moodle includes a constructivist and social constructionist approach to education, emphasizing that learners (and not just teachers) can contribute to the educational experience.[32] Using these pedagogical principles, Moodle provides an environment for learning communities.[33]

Origin of name[edit]

The acronym Moodle stands for modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment. (In the early years the "m" stood for "Martin's", named after Martin Dougiamas, the original developer). As well as being an acronym, the name was chosen because of the dictionary definition of Moodle[34] and to correspond to an available domain name.[35]

Development[edit]

Moodle has continued to evolve since 1999 (since 2001 with the current architecture). It has been translated into over 100 different languages and is accessible in many countries worldwide.[36] Institutions can add as many Moodle servers as needed without having to pay license fees. The Open University of the UK currently uses a Moodle installation for their 200,000 users [37] while the UK government uses a Moodle installation for their Civil Service Learning platform serving half a million employees.

Releases[edit]

Branch Original
release date
Version Version
release date
Support Model
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0 20 August 2002 1.0.9 30 May 2003 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.1 29 August 2003 1.1.1 11 September 2003 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.2 20 March 2004 1.2.1 25 March 2004 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.3 25 May 2004 1.3.5 9 September 2004 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.4 31 August 2004 1.4.5 7 May 2005 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.5 5 June 2005 1.5.4 21 May 2006 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.6 20 May 2006 1.6.9 28 January 2009 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.7 7 November 2006 1.7.7 28 January 2009 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.8 30 March 2007 1.8.14 3 December 2010 EOL
Old version, no longer supported: 1.9 3 March 2008 1.9.19 9 July 2012 EOL (Maintained from March 2008 to June 2012. Third-party extended support until December 2013)[38]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 24 November 2010 2.0.10 9 July 2012 EOL (Maintained from November 2010 to June 2012)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.1 1 June 2011 2.1.10 14 January 2013 EOL (Maintained from June 2011 to December 2012)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.2 5 December 2011 2.2.11 8 July 2013 EOL (Maintained from December 2011 to June 2013)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.3 25 June 2012 2.3.10 11 November 2013 EOL (Maintained from June 2012 to December 2013)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.4 3 December 2012 2.4.7 11 November 2013 EOL (Maintained from December 2012 to June 2014)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.5 14 May 2013 2.5.9 10 November 2014 EOL (Maintained from May 2013 to November 2014)
Old version, no longer supported: 2.6 18 November 2013 2.6.11 11 May 2015 EOL (Maintained from December 2013 to May 2015)
Older version, yet still supported: 2.7 12 May 2014 2.7.9 13 July 2015 Active (Maintained from May 2014 to May 2017)
Older version, yet still supported: 2.8 10 November 2014 2.8.7 13 July 2015 Active (Maintained from November 2014 to May 2016)
Current stable version: 2.9 11 May 2015 2.9.1 13 July 2015 Active (Maintained from May 2015 to November 2016)
Current stable version: 3.0 9 November 2015 3.0.0 9 November 2015 Planned release (Maintained from November 2015 to May 2017)
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Moodle conferences[edit]

A MoodleMoot is a conference for Moodle community members, held to learn about Moodle, share experiences of the learning platform, discuss research in related educational technologies and contribute ideas to future Moodle development.[citation needed] Held around the world, MoodleMoots are organised by universities or other large organisations using Moodle, Moodle Partners, Moodle associations or Moodle HQ.

Adoption[edit]

In the higher education market as of fall 2013, Moodle is the second largest provider with 23% market share, following Blackboard (41%) and Desire2Learn (11%) and Instructure as number three and four providers.[39] In the corporate market, the six largest LMS providers constitute approximately 50% of the market, with SuccessFactors Learning, Saba Software, Voniz Inc and Sumtotal Systems being the four largest providers. Vendors focused on mid-sized companies (200+ employees) include Halogen Software, ADP, and Workday.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Releases". Moodle. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  2. ^ "Moodle License". 
  3. ^ "TFD Encyclopedia - Moodle". 
  4. ^ The Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Vol1. 
  5. ^ https://docs.moodle.org/en/Pedagogy
  6. ^ https://dougiamas.com/archives/edmedia2003/
  7. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680513.2013.856289#.VT22fa2qpBc
  8. ^ http://research.moodle.net/mod/data/view.php?d=1&rid=154
  9. ^ http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ITSE-07-2012-0019
  10. ^ http://www.cats-pyjamas.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/MoodleToolGuideforTeachers_May2010_JS.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/wellington12/2012/images/custom/mcneil,_margot_-_a_pedagogical.pdf
  12. ^ http://opensource.com/life/15/4/how-moodle-manages-community-feedback
  13. ^ "Technology that puts the classroom in students' laptops". Adam Stanley, The Globe and Mail. 
  14. ^ http://journals.heacademy.ac.uk/doi/abs/10.11120/ndir.2013.00009
  15. ^ http://elearningindustry.com/online-grading-make-teaching-life-easier
  16. ^ "Open Universities VLE / LMS". 
  17. ^ "2014 Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for higher education in the UK". UCISA Richard Walker, Julie Voce, Joe Nicholls, Elaine Swift, Jebar Ahmed, Sarah Horrigan and Phil Vincent. 
  18. ^ http://elearningindustry.com/top-open-source-learning-management-systems
  19. ^ "E-learning". http://www.cpce-polyu.edu.hk/itu/new/: Information Technology Unit (itu). Retrieved 2011-03-01. Moodle is a well-known e-learning platform in tertiary institutions. Many universities and colleges use Moodle as the online learning system in their daily teaching and learning. Moodle is a free open source software it means developer can make modification based on their needs. CPCE decides to use Moodle as a e-learning platform for HKCC and SPEED from 2009/10 academic year onwards. 
  20. ^ http://www.elearnity.com/ekcMoodle.html
  21. ^ http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJALEL/article/view/1451
  22. ^ "Language pack maintainers and contributors". 
  23. ^ "SCORM Cloud Moodle Integration". scorm.com. 
  24. ^ "List of Moodle Partners". Moodle. 
  25. ^ "How do the Moodle Partners work?". Moodle. 
  26. ^ "Blackboard migration". moodle.org. 
  27. ^ "Blackboard makes Moodle acquisitions". bizjournals.com. 
  28. ^ "Moodle will always be an open source project". opensource.com. 
  29. ^ Weller, M. (2006). "VLE 2.0 and future directions in learning environments". Proceedings of the first LAMS Conference, Sydney. 
  30. ^ McMulli & Munroe (2004). "VMoodle at DCU". 
  31. ^ Sclater, Neil (2008). "A Large-scale Open Source eLearning Systems at the Open University". Educase. 
  32. ^ Moodle Philosophy
  33. ^ "Open-Source Learning Management System". Moodlerooms. 
  34. ^ "Moodle definition". All Words. 
  35. ^ "The chicken or the egg". Moodle.org Lounge. 
  36. ^ https://docs.moodle.org/en/Language_packs
  37. ^ Case study in Linux Pro magazine
  38. ^ Marsden, Dan (2 April 2012). "Moodle 1.9 Long Term support". Moodle. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  39. ^ A Profile of the LMS Market (page 23) (PDF), CampusComputing, 2013 .
  40. ^ Bersin, Josh. "Talent Management Software Market Surges Ahead". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 13 April 2015. 

External links[edit]