Moon (2009 film)

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Standing alone, an astronaut holds his helmet in his hand.
Theatrical release poster
Directed byDuncan Jones
Written byNathan Parker
Story byDuncan Jones
Produced by
CinematographyGary Shaw
Edited byNicholas Gastor
Music byClint Mansell
Distributed by
Release dates
  • 23 January 2009 (2009-01-23) (Sundance)
  • 12 June 2009 (2009-06-12) (United States)
  • 17 July 2009 (2009-07-17) (United Kingdom)
Running time
97 minutes[1]
  • United Kingdom[2]
  • United States[2]
Budget$5 million[3]
Box office$9.8 million[4]

Moon is a 2009 science fiction film directed by Duncan Jones (in his directorial debut) and written by Nathan Parker from a story by Jones. The film follows Sam Bell (Sam Rockwell), a man who experiences a personal crisis as he nears the end of a three-year solitary stint mining helium-3 on the far side of the Moon. Dominique McElligott, Kaya Scodelario, Benedict Wong, Matt Berry, and Malcolm Stewart also star. It premiered at the 2009 Sundance Film Festival and was released in selected cinemas in New York and Los Angeles on 12 June 2009. The release was expanded to additional theatres in the United States on 10 July and to the United Kingdom on 17 July. A follow-up film containing an epilogue to the film's events, Mute, was released in 2018. A third installment, a graphic novel called Madi: Once Upon A Time in the Future, was released in 2020.

Moon was modestly budgeted and grossed just under $10 million worldwide,[4] but was well received by critics. Rockwell's performance found praise. The movie won numerous film critic and film festival awards and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Film, and won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation in 2010.


After an oil crisis, Lunar Industries makes a fortune by building Sarang Station, a facility on the Moon to mine the alternative fuel helium-3. The facility requires only one human to maintain operations, oversee harvester machines, and launch canisters bound for Earth containing helium-3. Samuel Bell has two weeks before ending his three-year work contract there.[a] Chronic communication problems have disabled his live feed from Earth and limit him to occasional recorded messages from his wife Tess, who was pregnant with their daughter Eve when he left.

Sam begins to suffer from hallucinations of a teenage girl and a disheveled man. One such image distracts him while he is out recovering a canister, causing him to crash his rover into the harvester. Losing cabin air from the crash, Sam falls unconscious.

Sam awakes in the base infirmary with no memory of the accident. He overhears GERTY, an artificial intelligence who assists with the base's automation, having a live chat with Lunar Industries management. Lunar Industries then orders Sam to remain on base and informs him that a rescue team will arrive to repair the harvester. Suspicious, Sam manufactures a fake problem to persuade GERTY to let him outside. He travels to the crashed rover and finds his unconscious doppelganger. He brings the double back to the base and tends to his injuries. The two Sams start to wonder if one is a clone of the other. After an argument and physical altercation, GERTY reveals that they are both clones of the original Sam Bell. GERTY activated the newest clone after the rover crash and convinced him that he was at the beginning of his three-year contract. GERTY confirms his memories of his wife and daughter are implanted.

The two Sams search the area, finding a communications substation beyond the facility's perimeter which has been interfering with the live feed from Earth. GERTY helps the older Sam access the recorded logs of past clones, showing them all falling ill as their contract expires. Later, the older Sam discovers a secret vault containing hundreds of hibernating clones. Lunar Industries is unethically using clones of the original Sam Bell to avoid the cost of training and transporting new astronauts, as well as deliberately jamming the live feed in order to prevent the clones from contacting Earth; clones who believe they are entering hibernation at the end of their contract just before their final return to Earth are in fact incinerated. The older Sam drives past the interference radius in a second rover and tries to call Tess on Earth. He instead makes contact with Eve, now 15 years old, who says Tess died years ago. He hangs up when Eve tells her father that someone is calling regarding Tess. Returning, the older Sam begins displaying the same symptoms as previous clones as they begin to deteriorate.

The two Sams realize that the incoming rescue team will kill them both if they are found together. The newer Sam convinces GERTY to wake another clone, planning to leave the awakened clone in the crashed rover and send the older Sam to Earth in one of the helium-3 transports. However, the older Sam, having learned that the clones are designed to break down at the end of the 3-year contract, knows that he will not live much longer. With his health declining, the older Sam suggests that he be placed back into the crashed rover to die so that Lunar Industries will not suspect anything, while the newer Sam escapes instead.

Following GERTY's advice, the newer Sam reboots GERTY to wipe its records of the events. Before leaving, the newer clone reprograms a harvester to crash and wreck the jamming antenna, thereby enabling live communications with Earth; he also brings along a helium-3 canister to provide him with funds once he reaches Earth. The older Sam, back in the crippled rover, remains conscious long enough to watch the launch of the transport carrying the newer Sam to Earth. The rescue team is fooled after finding both a newly-awakened clone in the medical bay and the corpse of the older Sam inside the crashed rover.

The helium transport approaches Earth's atmosphere. Later, Sam's testimony on Lunar Industries' activities stirs up a controversy, and the company's stock plummets.[b]


Additionally, Robin Chalk appears as Rockwell's body double in portraying the Sam Bell clones.


This is the feature film directorial debut for Duncan Jones, who co-wrote with Nathan Parker.[5] The film was specifically written as a vehicle for actor Sam Rockwell.[6] Rockwell almost turned the film down and Paddy Considine was an alternate choice.[7] The film pays homage to the films of Jones' youth, such as Silent Running (1972), Alien (1979), and Outland (1981).[8] In an interview with, speaking about those films, Jones stated it was his "intent to write for a science fiction-literate audience" and that he "wanted to make a film which would be appreciated by people like myself who loved those films".[9] Conceptual design was from Gavin Rothery.[10][11][12]

Jones described his interest in the lunar setting:

[We] wanted to create something which felt comfortable within that canon of those science fiction films from the sort of late seventies to early eighties.[13] For me, the Moon has this weird mythic nature to it. ... There is still a mystery to it. As a location, it bridges the gap between science fiction and science fact. We (humankind) have been there. It is something so close and so plausible and yet at the same time, we really don't know that much about it.

The director described the lack of romance in the Moon as a location, citing images from the Japanese lunar orbiter SELENE: "It's the desolation and emptiness of it ... it looks like some strange ball of clay in blackness. ... Look at photos and you'll think that they're monochrome. In fact, they're not. There simply are no primary colours." Jones made reference to the photography book Full Moon by Michael Light in designing the look of the film.[14]

Moon's budget was US$5 million.[3] The director took steps to minimise production costs, such as keeping the cast small and filming in a studio.[13] Moon was produced at Shepperton Studios, in London,[5] where it was filmed in 33 days.[13][15] Jones preferred using models to digital animation,[8] working with Bill Pearson, the supervising model maker on Alien, to help design the lunar rovers and helium-3 harvesters in the film.[16] The Moon base was created as a full 360-degree set, measuring 85–90 feet (26–27 m) long and approximately 70 feet (21 m) wide. The Moon base's artificial intelligence, GERTY, was designed to be bound to an overhead rail within the mining base since its mechanical tether was critical to the story's plot.[13] Spacey's vocal portrayal of GERTY was heavily influenced by HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), voiced by Douglas Rain. The visual effects were provided by Cinesite, which has sought cut-price deals with independent films.[17] Since Jones had an effects background with TV advertisements, he drew on his experience to create special effects within a small budget.[13]

To save further on production costs, Jones re-used several set pieces from an abandoned movie based on the BBC TV sci-fi comedy Red Dwarf.[18] These include the sleeping quarters and the corridor of the "secret room".[citation needed]


Sam Rockwell and Duncan Jones at the 2009 Tribeca Film Festival screening

International sales for Moon are handled by the Independent sales company.[19] Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group acquired distribution rights to the film for English-speaking territories.[5] Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group was considering making Moon a direct-to-DVD release; however, after Moon premiered at the 2009 Sundance Film Festival in January 2009, Sony Pictures Classics decided to handle this film's theatrical release for Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group.[20]

Sony Pictures Classics distributed the film in the United States in cinemas,[21] beginning with screenings in selected cinemas in New York and Los Angeles on 12 June.[22] The film's British premiere was held on 20 June 2009 at the Cameo Cinema in Edinburgh as part of the 63rd Edinburgh International Film Festival. Jones was present at the screening along with other key crew members. The full UK release was on 17 July.[23] The Australian release was on 8 October.[24]

A high-resolution, 4K remastered version of the film was released on 16 July 2019 for the tenth anniversary of the film.[25]

Box office[edit]

Moon grossed £700,396 from its domestic UK release,[26] $3.4 million from its North American release and $9.8 million worldwide.[4]

Critical reception[edit]

Moon was generally well received by critics. On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, 90% of 195 critics' reviews are positive, with an average rating of 7.5/10. The website's consensus reads: "Boosted by Sam Rockwell's intense performance, Moon is a compelling work of science-fiction, and a promising debut from director Duncan Jones."[27] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 67 out of 100, based on 29 critics, indicating "generally favorable" reviews.[28]

Damon Wise of The Times praised Jones' "thoughtful" direction and Rockwell's "poignant" performance. Wise wrote of the film's approach to the science fiction genre: "Though it uses impressive sci-fi trappings to tell its story—the fabulous models and moonscapes are recognisably retro yet surprisingly real—this is a film about what it means, and takes, to be human."[29] Duane Byrge of The Hollywood Reporter applauded screenwriter Nathan Parker's "sharp [and] individualistic" dialogue and the way in which Parker combined science fiction and Big Brother themes. Byrge also believed that cinematographer Gary Shaw's work and composer Clint Mansell's music intensified the drama. Byrge wrote: "Nonetheless, 'Moon' is darkened by its own excellencies: The white, claustrophobic look is apt and moody, but a lack of physical action enervates the story thrust." The critic felt mixed about the star's performance, describing him as "adept at limning his character's dissolution" but finding that he did not have "the audacious, dominant edge" for the major confrontation at the end of the film.[30] Roger Ebert, giving the film three and a half stars out of four, wrote:

Moon is a superior example of that threatened genre, hard science-fiction, which is often about the interface between humans and alien intelligence of one kind of or other, including digital. John W. Campbell Jr., the godfather of this genre, would have approved. The movie is really all about ideas. It only seems to be about emotions. How real are our emotions, anyway? How real are we? Someday I will die. This laptop I'm using is patient and can wait.[31]

Empire magazine praised Rockwell's performance, including it in '10 Egregious Oscar Snubs—The worthy contenders that the Academy overlooked' feature and referred to his performance as "one ... of the best performances of the year".[32] Rolling Stone magazine ranked the film at number 23 on their Top 40 Sci-Fi Movies of the 21st Century, finding that "Duncan Jones' debut feature keeps you wondering whether its hero - played by an on-point Sam Rockwell - is losing a battle with what appears to be his "double" or if he, is, in fact, losing his mind ... this sci-fi indie does a helluva lot with very, very little".[33] Digital Spy said it was an "incredible low-budget science fiction movie", opining that Jones' direction of the film "brilliantly explores ideas of identity while mixing in some practical VFX spectacle to boot. This is perhaps one of the best sci-fi films of the 21st century".[34]

A. O. Scott, chief film critic for The New York Times wrote that Jones directing "demonstrates impressive technical command, infusing a sparse narrative and a small, enclosed space with a surprising density of moods and ideas". Scott said that like most of science fiction, the film "is a meditation on the conflict between the streamlining tendencies of technological progress and the stubborn persistence of feelings and desires that can't be tamed by utilitarian imperatives", while also asserting that "the film's ideas are interesting, but don't feel entirely worked out..the smallness of this movie is decidedly a virtue, but also, in the end, something of a limitation".[15] Moon also received positive reviews at the Sundance Film Festival.[35]

Reception from the scientific community[edit]

Moon was screened as part of a lecture series at NASA's Space Center Houston, at the request of a professor there. "He'd been reading online that we'd done this film about helium-3 mining and that's something that people at NASA are working on", says Jones. "We did a Q&A afterward. They asked me why the base looked so sturdy, like a bunker, and not like the kind of stuff they are designing that they are going to transport with them. I said 'Well, in the future I assume you won't want to continue carrying everything with you, you'll want to use the resources on the moon to build things' and a woman in the audience raised her hand and said, 'I'm actually working on something called mooncrete, which is concrete that mixes lunar regolith and ice water from the Moon's polar caps.'"[36]

In the 2013 October issue of the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences, academics ranked their top brain science movies of all time; their database being compiled by cognitive science researchers who are also movie buffs. The database, called the Cognitive Science Movie Index, ranks films for quality, relevance and accuracy in the field of cognitive science. On their top 10 lists of brain science movies of all time, Moon appears at number 5 on the quality list, number 9 on the accuracy list and number 3 on the relevance list.[37]


Award Date of ceremony Category Recipients Result
Austin Film Critics Association Awards 15 December 2009 Austin Film Critics Award for Best Film Moon Nominated
BAFTA Awards[38] 21 February 2010 BAFTA Award for Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer Duncan Jones Won
BAFTA Award for Outstanding British Film Stuart Fenegan, Trudie Styler, Duncan Jones, Nathan Parker Nominated
British Independent Film Awards[39] 6 December 2009 BIFA Award for Best British Independent Film Moon Won
Douglas Hickox Award Duncan Jones Won
BIFA Award for Best Director Nominated
BIFA Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a British Independent Film Sam Rockwell Nominated
BIFA Award for Best Screenplay Nathan Parker Nominated
BIFA Award for Best Technical Achievement Clint Mansell Nominated
Tony Noble Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association[40] 21 December 2009 Most Promising Filmmaker Duncan Jones Nominated
Edinburgh International Film Festival[41] 28 June 2009 Best New British Feature Moon Won
Empire Awards[42] 28 March 2010 Empire Award for Best Sci-Fi/Fantasy Nominated
Espoo Ciné International Film Festival[43] 29 August 2010 Grand Prize of European Fantasy Film in Gold Duncan Jones, Stuart Fenegan Won
Evening Standard British Film Awards[44] 8 February 2010 Evening Standard British Film Award for Most Promising Newcomer Duncan Jones Nominated
Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Technical Achievement Tony Noble Nominated
Fantastic'Arts[45] 31 January 2010 Jury Prize Duncan Jones Won
Special Prize Won
Gaudí Awards[46] 1 February 2010 Gaudí Award for Best European Film Nominated
Hugo Awards[47] 5 September 2010 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation - Long Form Nathan Parker, Duncan Jones Won
Irish Film & Television Awards[48] 20 February 2010 IFTA Award for Best International Actor Sam Rockwell Nominated
London Film Critics' Circle Awards[49][50] 18 February 2010 ALFS Award for British Director of the Year Duncan Jones Won
ALFS Award for British Director of the Year Nominated
ALFS Award for British Film of the Year Moon Nominated
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures[51] 12 January 2010 NBR Award for Best Directorial Debut Duncan Jones Won
NBR Award - Top Independent Films Moon Won
Phoenix Film Critics Society Awards[52] 22 December 2009 Overlooked Film of the Year Won
Saturn Awards[53] 24 June 2010 Saturn Award for Best Actor Sam Rockwell Nominated
Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film Moon Nominated
Seattle International Film Festival[54] 14 June 2009 Golden Space Needle Award for Best Actor Sam Rockwell Won
Sitges Film Festival[55] 11 October 2009 Best Actor Won
Best Film Moon Won
Best Production Design Tony Noble Won
Best Screenplay Nathan Parker Won
Writers' Guild of Great Britain[56] 22 November 2010 Writers' Guild of Great Britain Award for Best First Feature-Length Film Screenplay Duncan Jones, Nathan Parker Won


Jones released a follow-up film, titled Mute, which serves as a spiritual successor to Moon. It was released on 23 February 2018, as a Netflix exclusive. In the film, on a TV broadcast of a court trial, Sam Bell and several of his clones are all seen in the courtroom, identifying themselves in an "I'm Spartacus" allusion. A third installment, Madi: Once Upon A Time in the Future, was released as a graphic novel in 2020.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ A computer screen shows a date of 2035 in one scene towards the end.
  2. ^ These events are later referenced in Mute.


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  12. ^ "Episode 20 – Gavin Rothery – Director of Archive (2020) – Filmumentaries".
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External links[edit]