The river rises from Clark Pond in Foster, Rhode Island. From there, it flows south through Foster and Coventry, then turns west and heads into Connecticut, flowing through Sterling and Plainfield to its mouth at the Quinebaug River.
The American Rivers organization has targeted the Moosup River for dam removal to help fish to swim upstream to spawn. In late June 2014 Moosup Dam #1 in Connecticut was removed  and on September 29, 2015 the Griswold Rubber dam in Connecticut was removed.
Below is a list all crossings over the Moosup River. The list starts at the headwaters and goes downstream.
|Moosup Valley Road|
|Kent||Coventry||Barbs Hill Road|
|Barber Hill Road|
|South Main Street|
|Black Hill Road|
In addition to many unnamed tributaries, the following brooks feed the Moosup:
- West Meadow Brook
- Bucks Horn Brook
- Roaring Brook
- Vaughn Brook
- Quanduck Brook
- Angell Brook
- U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed April 1, 2011
- American Rivers Blog "11 Dam Removal Projects to Watch This Summer." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-27. Retrieved 2015-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), accessed November 26, 2015
- American Rivers Facebook post on September 29, 2015 with three photos." , accessed November 26, 2015
- Maps from the United States Geological Survey
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