Courage is required to take action when one has doubts or fears about the consequences. Moral courage therefore involves deliberation or careful thought. Reflex action or dogmatic fanaticism do not involve moral courage because such impulsive actions are not based upon moral reasoning.
- P. Aarne Vesilind, "The Courage To Do The Right Thing choose between right and wrong", The right thing to do: an ethics guide for engeenering students
- Douglas N. Walton, "Moral Deliberation and Conduct", Courage, a philosophical investigation
- Daniel A. Putman, Psychological courage
- T. A. Shippey, The Road to Middle Earth (1992) p. 72-3
- Sir Compton Mackenzie (1962), On moral courage, Collins
- Matthew Pianalto (2012), "Moral Courage and Facing Others", International Journal of Philosophical Studies (20(2), pp. 165-84), doi:10.1080/09672559.2012.668308
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