Moral development

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood. Morality develops across a lifetime and is influenced by an individual's experiences and behavior when faced with moral issues through different periods of physical and cognitive development. Morality concerns an individual's reforming sense of what is right and wrong; it is for this reason that young children have different moral judgment and character than that of a grown adult. Morality in itself is often a synonym for "rightness" or "goodness." It refers to a specific code of conduct that is derived from one's culture, religion, or personal philosophy that guides one's actions, behaviors, and thoughts.[1]

Notions of moral development have evolved over the centuries. The earliest theories came from philosophers like Confucius, Aristotle, and Rousseau, who took a more humanist perspective and focused on developing the conscience and sense of virtue. In the modern-day, empirical research has explored morality through a moral psychology lens by theorists like Sigmund Freud and its relation to cognitive development by theorists like Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, B. F. Skinner, Carol Gilligan, and Judith Smetana.

The interest in morality spans many disciplines (e.g., philosophy, economics, biology, and political science) and specializations within psychology (e.g., social, cognitive, and cultural). In order to investigate the different ways individuals understand morality, it is essential to consider their culture, beliefs, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors that contribute to their moral understanding. Additionally, researchers in moral development consider the role of peers and parents, conscience and values, socialization and cultural influences, empathy and altruism, and positive development to discover what factors have the most significant impacts on the development of an individual's morality.

Historical background and foundational theories[edit]

Freud: Morality and the Superego[edit]

The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, proposed the existence of a tension between the needs of society and the individual.[2] According to Freud, moral development proceeds when the individual's selfish desires are repressed and replaced by the values of critical socializing agents in one's life (for instance, one's parents). In Freud's terminology, this process is the growth of the ego in balancing the needs and tensions between the id (selfish desires and impulses) and the super-ego (the person's internal sense of cultural needs and norms as learned from their parents).[3]

B.F. Skinner's Behavioral Theory[edit]

A proponent of behaviorism, B.F. Skinner similarly focused on socialization as the primary force behind moral development.[4] In contrast to Freud's notion of a struggle between internal and external forces, Skinner focused on the power of external forces (reinforcement contingencies) to shape an individual's development. Behaviorism is founded on the belief that people learn from the consequences of their behavior. He called his theory "operant conditioning" when a specific stimulus is reinforced for one to act.[5] Essentially, Skinner believed that all morals were learned behaviors based on the punishments and rewards (either explicit or implicit) that the person had experienced during their life, in the form of trial-and-error behavioral patterns.

Piaget's Theory of Moral Development[edit]

While both Freud and Skinner focused on the external forces that bear on morality (parents in the case of Freud, and behavioral contingencies in the case of Skinner), Jean Piaget (1965) focused on the individual's construction, construal, and interpretation of morality from a social-cognitive and social-emotional perspective.[6] To understand adult morality, Piaget believed that it was necessary to study how morality manifests in the child's world and the factors that contribute to the emergence of central moral concepts such as welfare, justice, and rights. In interviewing children using the Clinical Interview Method, Piaget (1965) found that young children were focused on authority mandates and that with age, children become autonomous, evaluating actions from a set of independent principles of morality. Piaget characterizes the development of morality of children through observing children while playing games to see if rules are followed.

Kohlberg: Moral Reasoning[edit]

Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a highly influential theory of moral development which was inspired by the works of Jean Piaget and John Dewey.[7] Kohlberg was able to demonstrate through research that humans improved their moral reasoning in 6 specific steps. These stages, which fall into categories of pre-conventional (punishment avoidance and self-interest), conventional (social norms and authority figures), and post-conventional (universal principles),  progress from childhood and throughout adult life. In his research, Kohlberg was more interested in the reasoning behind a person’s answer to a moral dilemma more than the given answer itself.


Social Domain Theory[edit]

Elliot Turiel argued for a social domain approach to social cognition, delineating how individuals differentiate moral (fairness, equality, justice), societal (conventions, group functioning, traditions), and psychological (personal, individual prerogative) concepts from early in development throughout the lifespan.[8] Over the past 40 years, research findings have supported this model, demonstrating how children, adolescents, and adults differentiate moral rules from conventional rules, identify the personal domain as a non regulated domain, and evaluate multifaceted (or complex) situations that involve more than one domain. This research has been conducted in a wide range of countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Nigeria, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, U.K., U.S., Virgin Islands) and with rural and urban children, for low and high income communities, and traditional and modern cultures. Turiel's social domain theory showed that children were actually younger in developing moral standards than past psychologists predicted.

Contemporary developments[edit]

For the past 20 years, researchers have expanded the field of moral development, applying moral judgment, reasoning, and emotion attribution to topics such as prejudice, aggression, theory of mind, emotions, empathy, peer relationships, and parent-child interactions. The Handbook of Moral Development (2006), edited by Melanie Killen and Judith Smetana, provides a wide range of information about these topics covered in moral development today.[9] One of the main objectives was to provide a sense of the current state of the field of moral development.

Cognition and intentionality[edit]

A hallmark of moral understanding is intentionality, which can be defined as "an attribution of the target's intentions towards another,"[10] or a sense of purpose or directedness towards a certain result.[11] According to researchers Malle, Moses, and Baldwin (2001), five components make up people's concept of intentionality: an action is considered intentional if a personal has (a) a desire for an outcome, (b) a belief that the action will lead to the outcome, (c) an intention to perform the action, (d) skill to perform the action, and (e) awareness while performing it.[12]

Recent research on children's theory of mind (ToM) has focused on when children understand others' intentions[13] The moral concept of one's intentionality develops with experience in the world. Yuill (1984) presented evidence that comprehension of one's intentions plays a role in moral judgment, even in young children.[14] Killen, Mulvey, Richardson, Jampol, and Woodward (2011) present evidence that with developing false belief competence (ToM), children are capable of using information about one's intentions when making moral judgments about the acceptability of acts and punishments, recognizing that accidental transgressors, who do not hold hostile intentions, should not be held accountable for adverse outcomes.

[15] In this study, children who lacked false belief competence were more likely to attribute blame to an accidental transgressor than children with demonstrated false belief competence. In addition to evidence from a social cognitive perspective, behavioral evidence suggests that even three-year-olds can take into account a person's intention and apply this information when responding to situations. Vaish, Carpenter, and Tomasello (2010), for instance, presented evidence that three-year-olds are more willing to help a neutral or helpful person than a harmful person.[16] Beyond identifying one's intentionality, mental state understanding plays a crucial role in identifying victimization. While obvious distress cues (e.g., crying) allow even three-year-olds to identify victims of harm,[17] it is not until around six years of age that children can appreciate that a person may be an unwilling victim of harm even in the absence of obvious distress.[18] In their study, Shaw and Wainryb (2006) discovered that children older than six interpret compliance, resistance, and subversion to illegitimate requests (e.g., clean my locker) from a victim's perspective. That is, they judge that victims who resist illegitimate requests will feel better than victims who comply.

Emotions[edit]

Moral questions tend to be emotionally charged issues that evoke strong affective responses. Consequently, emotions likely play an important role in moral development. However, there is currently little consensus among theorists on how emotions influence moral development. Psychoanalytic theory, founded by Freud, emphasizes the role of guilt in repressing primal drives. Research on prosocial behavior has focused on how emotions motivate individuals to engage in moral or altruistic acts. Social-cognitive development theories have recently begun to examine how emotions influence moral judgments. Intuitionist theorists assert that moral judgments can be reduced to immediate, instinctive emotional responses elicited by moral dilemmas.

Research on socioemotional development and prosocial development has identified several "moral emotions" which are believed to motivate moral behavior and influence moral development. These moral emotions are said to be linked to moral development because they are evidence and reflective of an individual's set of moral values, which must have undergone through the process of internalization in the first place.[19] The manifestation of these moral emotions can occur at two separate timings: either before or after the execution of a moral or immoral act. A moral emotion that precedes an action is referred to as an anticipatory emotion, and amoral emotion that follows an action is referred to as a powerful emotion.[20] The primary emotions consistently linked with moral development are guilt, shame, empathy, and sympathy. Guilt has been defined as "an agitation-based emotion or painful feeling of regret that is aroused when the actor causes, anticipates causing, or is associated with an aversive event"[21].. shame is often used synonymously with guilt, but implies a more passive and dejected response to a perceived wrong. Guilt and shame are considered "self-conscious" emotions because they are of primary importance to an individual's self-evaluation. Moreover, there exists a bigger difference between guilt and shame that goes beyond the type of feelings that they may provoke within an individual. This difference lies in the fact that these two moral emotions do not weigh the same in terms of their impact on moral behaviors. Studies on the effects of guilt and shame on moral behaviors have shown that guilt has a larger ability to dissuade an individual from making immoral choices, whereas shame did not seem to have any deterring effect on immoral behaviors. However, different types of behaviors in different types of populations, under different circumstances, might not generate the same outcomes.[20] In contrast to guilt and shame, empathy and sympathy are considered other-oriented moral emotions. Empathy is commonly defined as an affective response produced by the apprehension or comprehension of another's emotional state, which mirrors the other's affective state. Similarly, sympathy is defined as an emotional response produced by the apprehension or comprehension of another's emotional state which does not mirror the other's effect but instead causes one to express concern or sorrow for the other.[22]

The relation between moral action and moral emotions has been extensively researched. Very young children have been found to express feelings of care, and empathy towards others, showing concerns for others' well-being.[23] Research has consistently demonstrated that when empathy is induced in an individual, he or she is more likely to engage in subsequent prosocial behavior. Additionally, other research has examined emotions of shame and guilt concerning children's empathic and prosocial behavior.[24]

While emotions serve as information for children in their interpretations about moral consequences of acts, the role of emotions in children's moral judgments has only recently been investigated. Some approaches to studying emotions in moral judgments come from the perspective that emotions are automatic intuitions that define morality.[25][26] Other approaches emphasize the role of emotions as evaluative feedback that help children interpret acts and consequences.[8] Research has shown children attribute different emotional outcomes to actors involved in moral transgressions than those involved in conventional transgressions[27]( Arsenio & Fleiss, 1996). Emotions may help individuals prioritize among different information and possibilities and reduce information processing demands in order to narrow the scope of the reasoning process (Lemerise & Arsenio, 2000). In addition, Malti, Gummerum, Keller, & Buchmann, (2009) found individual differences in how children attribute emotions to victims and victimizers.[28]

Role of interpersonal, intergroup, and cultural influences[edit]

Children's interactions and experiences with caregivers and peers have been shown to influence their development of moral understanding and behavior[29] Researchers have addressed the influence of interpersonal interactions on children's moral development from two primary perspectives: Socialization/Internalization[30][31][32]) and social domain theory.[33][34][35]

Research from the social domain theory perspective focuses on how children actively distinguish moral from conventional behavior based in part on the responses of parents, teachers, and peers.[36] Social domain suggests that there are different areas of reasoning co-existing in development those include societal (concerns about conventions and grouping), moral (fairness, justice and rights) and psychological (concerns with personal goals and identity).[37] Adults tend to respond to children's moral transgressions (e.g., hitting or stealing) by drawing the child's attention to the effect of his or her action on others, and doing so consistently across various contexts. In contrast, adults are more likely to respond to children's conventional misdeeds (e.g., wearing a hat in the classroom, eating spaghetti with fingers) by reminding children about specific rules and doing so only in certain contexts (e.g., at school but not at home).[38][39] Peers respond mainly to moral but not conventional transgressions and demonstrate emotional distress (e.g., crying or yelling) when they are the victim of moral but unconventional transgressions.[38]

Research from a socialization/internalization perspective focuses on how adults pass down standards or rules of behavior to children through parenting techniques and why children do or do not internalize those values.[40] From this perspective, moral development involves children's increasing compliance with and internalization of adult rules, requests, and standards of behavior. Using these definitions, researchers find that parenting behaviors vary in the extent to which they encourage children's internalization of values and that these effects depend partially on a child's attributes, such as age and temperament.[41] For instance, Kochanska (1997) showed that gentle parental discipline best promotes conscience development in temperamentally fearful children but that parental responsiveness and a mutually responsive parent-child orientation best promote conscience development in temperamentally fearless children.[42] These parental influences exert their effects through multiple pathways, including increasing children's experience of moral emotions (e.g., guilt, empathy) and their self-identification as moral individuals.[43] Development can be divided up to multiple stages however the first few years of development is usually seen to be formed by 5 years of age. According to Freud's research, relationships between a child and parents early on usually provides the basis for personality development as well as the formation of morality.[44]

Researchers interested in intergroup attitudes and behavior related to one moral development have approached the study of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination in children and adolescents from several theoretical perspectives. Some, however not limited to are of these theoretical frameworks: Cognitive Development Theory;[45] Social Domain Theory;[46][47] Social Identity Development Theory[48] Developmental Intergroup Theory[49] Subjective Group Dynamics [50][51] Implicit Theories [52] and Intergroup-contact Theory.[53] The plethora of research approaches is not surprising given the multitude of variables, (e.g., group identity, group status, group threat, group norms, intergroup contact, individual beliefs, and context) that need to be considered when assessing children's intergroup attitudes. While most of this research has investigated two-dimensional relationships between each of the three components: stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination (e.g., the role of stereotypes in intergroup prejudice, use of stereotypes to reason about intergroup discrimination, how prejudices manifest into discrimination), very few have addressed all three aspects of intergroup attitudes and behaviors together.[54]

In developmental intergroup research, stereotypes are defined as judgments made about an individual's attributes based on group membership.[55] These judgments are more complex than regular judgments as they require one to recognize and understand (e.g. gender, race, religion, culture, nationality, ethnicity) which group one individual belongs to as they might be treated differently deliberately because of the group they are associated with.[9] Social psychologists focus on stereotypes as a cognitive component influencing intergroup behaviors and tend to define them as being fixed concepts associated with a category.[56] Prejudice, on the other hand, is defined in terms of negative attitudes or affective expressions toward a whole group or members of a group.[57] Negative stereotypes and prejudices can manifest into discrimination towards an outgroup, and for children and adolescents, this may come in the form of exclusion from peer groups and the wider community (Killen & Rutland, 2011). Such actions can negatively impact a child in the long term in the sense of weakening one's confidence, self-esteem, and personal identity.

One explicit manner in which societies can socialize individuals is through moral education. Solomon and colleagues (1988) present evidence from a study that integrated direct instruction and guided reflection approaches to moral development, with evidence for resultant increases in spontaneous prosocial behavior.[58]

Culture can also be a key contributor toward differences in morality within society.[59][60] Prosocial behavior, which benefits others, is much more likely in societies with concrete social goals than societies that emphasize the individual. For example, children being raised in China eventually adopt the collective communist ideals of their society. Children learn to lie and deny responsibility for accomplishing something good instead of seeking recognition for their actions.[60] Early indications of prosocial behavior include sharing toys and comforting distressed friends, and these characteristics can be seen in an individual's behavior as young as infancy and toddlerhood. Starting in preschool, sharing, helping, and other prosocial behaviors become more common, particularly in females, although the gender differences in prosocial behavior are not evident in all social contexts.[60]

Moral relativism[edit]

Moral relativism, also called "cultural relativism," suggests that morality is relative to each culture. One cannot rightly pass moral judgment on members of other cultures except by their cultural standards when actions violate a moral principle, which may differ from one's own. Shweder, Mahapatra, and Miller (1987) argued for the notion that different cultures defined the boundaries of morality differently.[61] The term is also different from moral subjectivism, which means that moral truth is relative to the individual. Moral relativism can be identified as a form of moral skepticism and is often misidentified as moral pluralism. It opposes the attitude of moral superiority and ethnocentrism found in moral absolutism and the views of moral universalism. Turiel and Perkins (2004) argued for the universality of morality, focusing mainly on evidence throughout the history of resistance movements that fight for justice by affirming individual self-determination rights.[62] Miller (2006) proposes cultural variability in the priority given to moral considerations (e.g., the importance of prosocial helping).[63] Rather than variability in what individuals consider moral (fairness, justice, rights). Wainryb (2006), in contrast, demonstrates that children in diverse cultures such as the U.S., India, China, Turkey, and Brazil share a pervasive view about upholding fairness and the wrongfulness of inflicting, among others.[64] Cultures vary in conventions and customs, but not principles of fairness, which appear to emerge very early in development before socialization influences. Wainryb (1991; 1993) shows that many apparent cultural differences in moral judgments are due to different informational assumptions or beliefs about how the world works.[65][66] When people hold different beliefs about the effects of actions or the status of different groups, their judgments about the harmfulness or fairness of behaviors often differ, even when they apply the same moral principles.

Religion[edit]

The role of religion in culture may influence a child's moral development and sense of moral identity. Values are transmitted through religion, which is for many inextricably linked to cultural identity. Religious development often goes along with the moral development of the children as it shapes the child's concepts of right and wrong. Intrinsic aspects of religion may have a positive impact on the internalization and the symbolism of moral identity. The child may internalize the parents' morals if a religion is a family activity or the religious social group's morals to which the child belongs. Religious development mirrors the cognitive and moral developmental stages of children. Nucci and Turiel (1993), on the other hand, proposed that the development of morality is distinct from the understanding of religious rules when assessing individuals' reactions to whether moral and nonmoral religious rules was contingent on God's word and whether a harmful act could be justified as morally correct based on God's commands.[67] Children form their understanding of how they see the world, themselves, or others and can understand that not all religious rules are applied to morality, social structures, or different religions.

Moral development in Western and Eastern cultures[edit]

Morality is understood differently across cultures, and this has produced significant disagreement between researchers. According to Jia and Krettenauer,[40] Western concepts of morality should not be considered universal because such concepts are context-dependent; social expectations vary widely across the globe and even have different understandings of what constitutes as good or just.[40]

For example, researchers Hardy and Carlo [68] have theorized that a person’s moral motivations originate in their “moral identity,” or the extent to which they perceive themselves as moral individuals. However, other researchers believe that this view is limited because it does not account for more collectivistic cultures than individualistic in their societal values.[69] Additionally, according to these and other researchers.,[40] “concepts of justice, fairness, and harm to individuals” are emphasized as core elements of morality in Western cultures, whereas “concepts of interdependence, social harmony, and the role of cultural socialization” are emphasized as core elements of morality in Eastern cultures. For example, researchers Vauclair and Fischer [70] showed that people in Taiwan focused on ethics of community, where people in the United States focused on ethics of autonomy.[70]

While the differences in understanding what classifies as moral behavior and typical moral development can be vast, there are some strong similarities. Some researchers [61] have developed three categories for understanding ethical principles found cross-culturally: ethics of autonomy, ethics of community, and ethics of divinity.[71] Ethics of autonomy (rights, freedom, justice), which are usually emphasized in individualistic/Western cultures, are centered on protecting and promoting individuals’ ability to make decisions based on their personal preferences. Ethics of community (duty, interdependence, and roles), which are usually more emphasized by collectivistic/Eastern cultures (and often corporations), aim to protect the integrity of a given group, such as a family or community. Ethics of divinity (natural order, tradition, purity) aim to protect a person's dignity, character, and spiritual aspects. These three dimensions of understanding form a research tool for studying moral development across cultures that can aid in determining possible universal traits in the lifespan of individuals.

In indigenous American communities[edit]

In Indigenous American communities, morality is taught to children through storytelling. It provides children guidelines for understanding the core values of their community, the significance of life, and ideologies of moral character from past generations.[72] Storytelling shapes the minds of young children in these communities and forms the dominant means for understanding and the essential foundation for learning and teaching.

Storytelling in everyday life is used as an indirect form of teaching. Stories embedded with lessons of morals, ideals, and ethics are told alongside daily household chores. Most children in Indigenous American communities develop a sense of keen attention to the details of a story to learn from them and understanding why people do the things they do.[73] The understanding gained from a child's observation of morality and ethics taught through storytelling allows them to participate within their community appropriately.

Specific animals are used as characters to symbolize specific values and views of the culture in the storytelling, where listeners are taught through the actions of these characters. In the Lakota tribe, coyotes are often viewed as a trickster characters, demonstrating negative behaviors like greed, recklessness, and arrogance [72] while bears and foxes are usually viewed as wise, noble, and morally upright characters from which children learn to model.[74] In the stories, trickster characters often get into troubles, thus teaching children to avoid exhibiting similar negative behaviors. The reuse of characters calls for a more predictable outcome that children can more easily understand.

Social exclusion[edit]

Intergroup exclusion context provides an appropriate platform to investigate the interplay of these three dimensions of intergroup attitudes and behaviors: prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Developmental scientists working from a Social Domain-Theory [10] perspective have focused on methods that measure children's reasoning about exclusion scenarios. This approach has helped distinguish which concerns children attend to when presented with a situation where exclusion occurs. Exclusion from a peer group could raise concerns about moral issues (e.g., fairness and empathy towards excluded), social-conventional issues (e.g., traditions and social norms set by institutions and groups), and personal issues (e.g., autonomy, individual preferences related to friendships), and these can coexist depending on the context in which the exclusion occurs. In intergroup as well as intergroup contexts, children need to draw on knowledge and attitudes related to their own social identities, other social categories, the social norms associated with these categories as well as moral principles about the welfare of the excluded, and fair treatment, to make judgments about social exclusion. The importance of morality arises when the evaluation process of social exclusion requires one to deal with not only the predisposed tendencies of discrimination, prejudice, stereotypes, and bias but also the internal judgments about justice equality and individual rights, which may prove to be a very complex task since it often evokes conflicts and dilemmas coming from the fact that the components of the first often challenge the components of the latter.[75]

Findings from a Social Domain Theory perspective show that children are sensitive to the context of exclusion and pay attention to different variables when judging or evaluating exclusion. These variables include social categories, the stereotypes associated with them, children's qualifications as defined by prior experience with an activity, personality and behavioral traits that might be disruptive for group functioning, and conformity to conventions as defined by group identity or social consensus. In the absence of information, stereotypes can be used to justify the exclusion of a member of an out-group.[76][77] One's personality traits and whether he or she conforms to socially accepted behaviors related to identity also provide further criteria for social acceptance and inclusion by peers.[78][79] Also, research has documented the presence of a transition occurring at the reasoning level behind the criteria of inclusion and exclusion from childhood to adolescence.[76]  Children get older, they become more attuned to issues of group functioning and conventions and weigh them in congruence with issues of fairness and morality.[9]

Allocation of resources[edit]

Resource allocation is a critical part of the decision-making process for individuals in public responsibility and authority (e.g., health care providers).[80] When resources become scarce, such as in rural communities experiencing situations when there is not enough food to feed everyone, authorities in a position to make decisions that affect this community can create conflicts on various levels (e.g., personally, financially, socially, etc.).[81] The moral conflict that arises from these decisions can be divided into a focus of conflict and a focus of moral conflict. The locus, or the place where conflict occurs, can develop from multiple sources, which include “any combination of personal, professional, organizational, and community values.[82] The focus of conflict occurs from competing values held by stakeholders and financial investors. As K. C. Calman [80] stated in regards to the reallocation of resources in a medical setting, resources must be thought of as money and in the form of skills, time, and faculties.[83]

The healthcare system has many examples where morality and resource allocation has ongoing conflicts. Concerns of morality arise when the initiation, continuation, and withdrawal of intensive care affect a patient well being due to medical decision making.[84] Sox, Higgins, & Owens (2013) offer guidelines and questions for medical practitioners to consider, such as: “How should I interpret new diagnostic information? How do I select the appropriate diagnostic test? How do I choose among several risky treatments?” [85] Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in the United States have had a moral consensus that there are no differences between these two therapies. However, even though a political decision offers support for medical practitioner's decision making, there continues to be difficulty withdrawing life-sustaining treatments.[84]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kohlberg, Lawrence; Hersh, Richard H. (1997). "Moral Development: A Review of the Theory". Theory Into Practice. College of Education, The Ohio State University. 16: 53–59 – via JSTOR Journals.
  2. ^ Sagan, Eli. Freud, Women, and Morality: The Psychology of Good and Evil. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Print.
  3. ^ Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. XIX (1999) James Strachey, Gen. Ed. ISBN 0-09-929622-5
  4. ^ Driscoll, Marcy Perkins. Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Pearson, 2014.
  5. ^ November 30th, Last Updated; Pm, 2018 07:12. "Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)". InstructionalDesign.org. Retrieved 2020-12-12.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Piaget, Jean, Ved P. Varma, and Phillip Williams. Piaget, Psychology and Education: Papers in Honour of Jean Piaget. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976. Print.
  7. ^ Kohlberg, Lawrence. The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
  8. ^ a b Turiel, Elliot. The Culture of Morality: Social Development, Context, and Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Internet resource.
  9. ^ a b c Killen, M., & Smetana, J.G. (Eds.) (2006). Handbook of moral development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  10. ^ a b Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T. (2014). "Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes". Behaviour. 151 (2–3): 337–359. doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003132. PMC 4336952. PMID 25717199.
  11. ^ Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (1998). Intentionality. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/intentionality-philosophy
  12. ^ "Intentionality | Malle Lab". research.clps.brown.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  13. ^ Wellman, H. M., & Liu, D. (2004). Scaling of theory-of-mind tasks. Child Development, 75, 502-517.
  14. ^ Yuill, N. (1984). Young children's coordination of motive and outcome in judgments of satisfaction and morality. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2, 73-81.
  15. ^ Killen, M., Mulvey, K. L., Richardson, C., Jampol, N., & Woodward, A. (2011). The accidental transgressor: Testing theory of mind and morality knowledge in young children. Cognition, 119, 197-215.
  16. ^ Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Young children selectively avoid helping people with harmful intentions. Child Development, 81, 1661-1669.
  17. ^ Zelazo, P. D., Helwig, C. C., & Lau, A. (1996). Intention, act, and outcome in behavioral prediction and moral judgment. Child Development, 67, 2478-2492.
  18. ^ Shaw, L. A., & Wainryb, C. (2006). When victims don't cry: Children's understandings of victimization, compliance, and subversion. Child Development, 77, 1050-1062.
  19. ^ Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Koenig, Amy L. (December 1995). "A Longitudinal Study of the Roots of Preschoolers' Conscience: Committed Compliance and Emerging Internalization". Child Development. 66 (6): 1752. doi:10.2307/1131908. ISSN 0009-3920.
  20. ^ a b Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J. (2007-01-01). "Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior". Annual Review of Psychology. 58 (1): 345–372. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070145. ISSN 0066-4308.
  21. ^ Ferguson, T.; Stegge, H. (1998). "Measuring Guilt in Children: A Rose by Any Other Name Still Has Thorns". doi:10.1016/B978-012148610-5/50003-5. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ Eisenberg, Nancy (February 2000). "Emotion, Regulation, and Moral Development". Annual Review of Psychology. 51 (1): 665–697. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665.
  23. ^ Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda, "Empathy-Related Responding in Children", Handbook of Moral Development, Routledge, retrieved 2021-11-20
  24. ^ Tangney, June Price (2005-01-28), "The Self-Conscious Emotions: Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment and Pride", Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 541–568, retrieved 2021-11-20
  25. ^ Greene, Joshua D.; Sommerville, R. Brian; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Darley, John M.; Cohen, Jonathan D. (2001-09-14). "An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment". Science. 293 (5537): 2105–2108. doi:10.1126/science.1062872. ISSN 0036-8075.
  26. ^ Haidt, Jonathan (2001). "The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment". Psychological Review. 108 (4): 814–834. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.108.4.814. ISSN 1939-1471.
  27. ^ Arsenio, William F. (December 1988). "Children's Conceptions of the Situational Affective Consequences of Sociomoral Events". Child Development. 59 (6): 1611. doi:10.2307/1130675.
  28. ^ Malti, T., Gummerum, M., Keller, M., & Buchmann, M. (2009). Children's moral motivation, sympathy, and prosocial behavior. Child Development, 80, 442-460.
  29. ^ "Early Childhood Moral Development". www.mentalhelp.net. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  30. ^ Grusec, J. E., & Goodnow, J. J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30, 4-19.
  31. ^ Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (1995). Mother-child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66, 236-254.
  32. ^ Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Koenig, A. L. (1995). A longitudinal study of the roots of preschoolers' conscience: Committed compliance and emerging internalization. Child Development, 66, 1752-176
  33. ^ Turiel, E. (1983). The development of social knowledge: Morality and convention. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  34. ^ Smetana, J. G. (2006). Social-cognitive domain theory: Consistencies and variations in children's moral and social judgments. In M. Killen, & J. G. Smetana (Ed.), Handbook of Moral Development (pp. 19-154). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  35. ^ Nucci, L. (2008). Moral development and moral education: An overview.
  36. ^ Smetana, J. G. (1997). Parenting and the development of social knowledge reconceptualized: A social domain analysis. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and the internalization of values (pp. 162-192). New York: Wiley.
  37. ^ Turiel, E (2007). "The Development of Morality". In W. Damon; R. M. Lerner; N. Eisenberg (eds.). Handbook of Child Psychology. 3 (6th ed.). doi:10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0313. ISBN 9780471272878.
  38. ^ a b Smetana, J. G. (1984). Toddlers' social interactions regarding moral and conventional transgressions. Child Development, 55, 1767-1776.
  39. ^ Smetana, J. G. (1985). Preschool children's conceptions of transgressions: Effects of varying moral and conventional domain-related attributes. Developmental Psychology, 21, 18-29.
  40. ^ a b c d Jia F and Krettenauer T (2017) Recognizing Moral Identity as a Cultural Construct. Front. Psychol. 8:412. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00412
  41. ^ Grusec, Joan E.; Goodnow, Jacqueline J. (1994). "Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view". Developmental Psychology. 30 (1): 4–19. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.30.1.4. ISSN 1939-0599.
  42. ^ Kochanska, G. (1997). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: From toddlerhood to age 5. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228-240.
  43. ^ Kochanska, G., Koenig, J. L., Barry, R. A., Kim, S., & Yoon, J. E. (2010). Children's conscience during toddler and preschool years, moral self, and a competent, adaptive developmental trajectory. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1320-1332
  44. ^ Freud, S (1930–1961). Civilization and its Discontents. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
  45. ^ Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
  46. ^ Killen, M., & Rutland, A. (2011). Children and social exclusion: Morality, prejudice, and group identity. NY: Wiley/Blackwell Publishers.
  47. ^ Killen, M., Sinno, S., & Margie, N. G. (2007). Children's experiences and judgments about group exclusion and inclusion. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp. 173-218). New York: Elseveir.
  48. ^ Nesdale, D. (1999). Developmental changes in children's ethnic preferences and social cognition. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20, 501-519
  49. ^ Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In R. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child psychology (pp. 39-90). New York: Elsevier
  50. ^ Abrams, D., Rutland, A., Cameron, L., & Marques, J. (2003). The development of subjective group dynamics: When in-group bias gets specific. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 155-176
  51. ^ Rutland, A., Killen, M., & Abrams, D. (2010). A new social-cognitive developmental perspective on prejudice: The interplay between morality and group identity. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 280-291.
  52. ^ Levy, S. R., Chiu, C. Y., & Hong, Y. Y. (2006). Lay theories and intergroup relations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations., 9, 5-24
  53. ^ Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 922-934. doi:10.1002/ejsp.504
  54. ^ McKown, C. (2004). Age and ethnic variation in children's thinking about the nature of racism. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 597-617. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.08.001
  55. ^ Killen, M., Margie, N. G., & Sinno, S. (2006). Morality in the context of intergroup relationships. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 155-183). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  56. ^ Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
  57. ^ Stangor, C. (2009). The study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination within social psychology: A quick history of theory and research. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. (pp. 1-22). New York, NY US: Psychology Press.
  58. ^ Solomon, D., Watson, M. S., Delucchi, K. L., Schaps, E., & Battistich, V. (1988). Enhancing children's prosocial behavior in the classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 527-554.
  59. ^ Jensen, Lene Arnett (September 2008). "Through two lenses: A cultural–developmental approach to moral psychology". Developmental Review. 28 (3): 289–315. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2007.11.001.
  60. ^ a b c Shaffer, David R. (2009). Social and personality development (6th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-495-60038-1.
  61. ^ a b Shweder, R. A., Mahapatra, M., & Miller, J. G. (1987). Culture and moral development In J. Kagan & S. Lamb (Eds.), The emergence of morality in young children. (pp.1-83). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  62. ^ Turiel, E. & Perkins, S. A. (2004). Flexibilities of mind: Conflict and culture. Human Development, 47, 158-178.
  63. ^ Miller, J. G. (2006). Insights into moral development from cultural psychology. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 375-398). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  64. ^ Wainryb, C. (2006). Moral development in culture: Diversity, tolerance, and justice. In M. Killen & J.G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Development (pp. 211-242). NY: Wiley.
  65. ^ Wainryb, C. (1991). Understanding differences in moral judgments: The role of informational assumptions. Child Development, 62, 840-851.
  66. ^ Wainryb, C. (1993). The application of moral judgments to other cultures: Relativism and universality. Child Development, 64, 924-933.
  67. ^ Nucci, L. P., & Turiel, E. (1993). God's word, religious rules and their relation to Christian and Jewish children's concepts of morality. Child Development, 64, 1485-1491.
  68. ^ reference: Hardy, S. A., and Carlo, G. (2005). Identity as a source of moral motivation. Hum. Dev. 48, 232–256. doi: 10.1159/000086859
  69. ^ reference: Dien, D. S. F. (1982). A Chinese perspective on Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Dev. Rev. 2, 331–341. doi: 10.1016/0273-2297(82)90017-X
  70. ^ a b Vauclair, C. M., and Fischer, R. (2011). Do cultural values predict individuals’ moral attitudes? A cross-cultural multilevel approach. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 41, 645–657. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.794
  71. ^ Shweder, R., Much, N., Mahapatra, M., and Park, L. (1997). “The “big three” of morality (autonomy, community, divinity), and the “big three” explanations of suffering,” in Morality and Health, eds A. Brandt and P. Rozin (New York, NY: Routledge).
  72. ^ a b Howard, Scott J. (1999). "Contemporary American Indian storytelling: An outsider's perspective". American Indian Quarterly. 23 (1): 45–53. doi:10.2307/1185925. JSTOR 1185925.
  73. ^ Gaskins, Suzanne. "Open Attention as a Cultural Tool for Observational Learning" (PDF). University of Notre Dame. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-06. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
  74. ^ "Native American Indian Legends and Folklore".
  75. ^ Killen, Melanie; Lee-Kim, Jennie; McGlothlin, Heidi; Stangor, Charles; Helwig, Charles C. (2002). "How Children and Adolescents Evaluate Gender and Racial Exclusion". Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 67 (4): i–129. JSTOR 3181568.
  76. ^ a b Horn, S. S. (2003). Adolescents' reasoning about exclusion from social groups. Developmental Psychology, 39, 71-84
  77. ^ Killen, M., & Stangor, C. (2001). Children's social reasoning about inclusion and exclusion in gender and race peer group contexts. Child Development, 72, 174-186
  78. ^ Killen, M., Crystal, D. S., & Watanabe, H. (2002). The individual and the group: Japanese and American children's evaluations of peer exclusion, tolerance of difference, and prescriptions for conformity. Child Development, 73, 1788-1802
  79. ^ Park, Y., Killen, M., Crystal, D., & Watanabe, H. (2003). Korean, Japanese, and American children's evaluations of peer exclusion: Evidence for diversity. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 555-565
  80. ^ a b Calman, K C (1 June 1994). "The ethics of allocation of scarce health care resources: a view from the centre". Journal of Medical Ethics. 20 (2): 71–4. doi:10.1136/jme.20.2.71. PMC 1376429. PMID 8083876.
  81. ^ Gardent, Paul B.; Reeves, Susan A. "Ethic Conflicts in Rural Communities" (PDF). Dartmouth College Press.
  82. ^ Gardent, Paul B.; Reeves, Susan A. "Ethic Conflicts in Rural Communities" (PDF). Dartmouth College Press.
  83. ^ Calman, K C (1 June 1994). "The ethics of allocation of scarce health care resources: a view from the centre". Journal of Medical Ethics. 20 (2): 72–73. doi:10.1136/jme.20.2.71. PMC 1376429. PMID 8083876.
  84. ^ a b Bone, Roger C.; Rackow, Eric C.; Weg, John G.; Butler, Peter; Carton, Robert W.; Elpern, Ellen; Franklin, Cory; Goldman, Edward B.; Gracey, Douglas D.; Hiss, Roland G.; Knaus, William A.; Lefrak, Stephen S.; McCartney, Rev. James J.; O'Connell, Laurence J.; Pellegrino, Edmund D.; Raffin, Thomas A.; Rosen, Robert; Rosenow, Edward C.; Siegler, Mark; Sprung, Charles L.; Tendier, Rabbi Moses D.; Thomas, Alvin V; Voux, Kenneth L.; Wiet, Mitchell (April 1990). "Ethical and Moral Guidelines for the Initiation, Continuation, and Withdrawal of Intensive Care". Chest. 97 (4): 949–958. doi:10.1378/chest.97.4.949. PMID 2182302.
  85. ^ Owens, Harold C. Sox, Michael C. Higgins, Douglas K. (2013). Medical decision making (2nd ed.). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-470-65866-6.

External links[edit]