The city is named Moravský Krumlov ("Moravian Krumlov") to differentiate it from Český Krumlov ("Bohemian Krumlov"), which lies in South Bohemia.
Founded presumably in 1260 by Ottokar II of Bohemia, the town boasts quite a remarkable history, reaching its peak in the 16th century as the residence of the mighty Lords of Leipa, hereditary marshals to the kings of Bohemia. In 1622 the Krumlov chateau and the domain were acquired by the House of Liechtenstein.
On the last night of World War II (7 May 1945), it was heavily bombed by Soviet air forces. As a result, three quarters of the town lay in ruins. The chateau, the Augustinian monastery, All Saints Church, and St Florian Church were among the buildings that survived.
Until 2011, the castle of Moravský Krumlov was home to the series of paintings by Alphonse Mucha known as "The Slav Epic" (Slovanská epopej), which are now housed in Prague.