Morchella semilibera

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Morchella semilibera
Coloured Figures of English Fungi or Mushrooms - t. 238.png
Illustration of a half-free morel, 1799
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Morchellaceae
Genus: Morchella
Species: M. semilibera
Binomial name
Morchella semilibera
DC. (1805)
Synonyms

Mitrophora semilibera (DC.) Lév (1846)
Morchella patula var. semilibera (DC.) S.Imai (1954)

Morchella semilibera
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
smooth hymenium

cap is conical

or ovate
hymenium attachment is irregular or not applicable
stipe is bare

spore print is cream

to yellow

ecology is mycorrhizal

or saprotrophic
edibility: choice

Morchella semilibera, commonly called the half-free morel, is a species of fungus in the family Morchellaceae native to Europe and Asia.[1][2][3]

DNA analysis has shown that the half-free morels, which appear nearly identical on a macroscopic scale, are a cryptic species complex, consisting of at least three geographically isolated species.[4] Because de Candolle originally described the species based on specimens from Europe, the scientific name M. semilibera should be restricted to the European species.[1] In 2012, Morchella populiphila was described from western North America, while Peck's 1903 species name Morchella punctipes was reaffirmed for eastern North American half-free morels.[3] M. semilibera and the other half-free morels are closely related to the black morels (M. elata and others).[4]

A proposal has been made to conserve the name Morchella semilibera against several earlier synonyms, including Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus. These names, sanctioned by Elias Magnus Fries, have since been shown to be the same species as M. semilibera.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kuo M. (April 2006). "Half-free morels (Morchella species)". MushroomExpert.com. Retrieved 2011-04-18. 
  2. ^ Gibson, Ian (2009). "Morels & False Morels of the Pacific Northwest: An Introduction". Pacific Northwest Key Council. Retrieved 2011-04-18. 
  3. ^ a b Kuo M, Dewsbury DR, O'Donnell K, Carter MC, Rehner SA, Moore JD, Moncalvo JM, Canfield SA, Stephenson SL, Methven AS, Volk TJ (11 April 2012). "Taxonomic revision of true morels (Morchella) in Canada and the United States". Mycologia. 104 (5): 1159–77. PMID 22495449. doi:10.3852/11-375. 
  4. ^ a b O'Donnell K, Rooney AP, Mills GL, Kuo M, Weber NS, Rehner SA (Mar 2011). "Phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (Morchella) reveals an early Cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the Holarctic". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 48 (3): 252–265. PMID 20888422. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2010.09.006. 
  5. ^ Moreau PA, Bellanger JM, Clowez P, Courtecuisse R, Hansen K, Knudsen H, O'Donnell K, Richard F (2014). "Proposal to conserve the name Morchella semilibera against Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus" (PDF). Taxon. 63 (3): 677–8. doi:10.12705/633.20. 

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