Mordehai Milgrom

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Mordehai Milgrom
Milgrom Mordechai.jpg
Alma materHebrew University
Weizmann Institute
Known forModified Newtonian dynamics
Scientific career
InstitutionsWeizmann Institute

Mordehai "Moti" Milgrom is an Israeli physicist and professor in the department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot, Israel.


He received his B.Sc. degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1966. Later he studied at the Weizmann Institute of Science and completed his doctorate in 1972.Before 1980 he worked primarily on high-energy astrophysics and became well-known for his kinematical model of the star system SS 433.[1][2] In the academic years 1980–1981 and 1985–1986 he was at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.[3] In 1981, he proposed Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) as an alternative to the dark matter and galaxy rotation curve problems.

Milgrom and Modified Newtonian dynamics[edit]

Milgrom suggests that Newton's Second Law be modified for very small accelerations, typically of the order of 10-9g and less.

"Modified Newtonian dynamics [an acceleration-based modification of dynamics or gravity] is solely the invention of Mordehai (Moti) Milgrom... it is safe to say that in the early 1980s no one but Milgrom had considered such a possible modification as an alternative to astrophysical dark matter. It was a brilliant stroke of insight to realize that astronomical systems were not only characterized by large scale but also by low internal accelerations and this could account for the known systematics in the kinematics and photometry of galactic systems. However, the idea was hardly greeted with overwhelming enthusiasm." (Sanders, R. H.)[1]

Recent findings[edit]

In 2022, a study about an astronomical observation of the tidal tails in five star clusters was published that might provide evidence of MOND.[4] Specifically, there is an uneven distribution of stars that shows no indication that any dark matter was involved in causing it.[5]

Personal life[edit]

Milgrom is married and has three daughters.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sanders, R. H. (2014). "A historical perspective on modified Newtonian dynamics". Canadian Journal of Physics. 93 (2): 126–138. arXiv:1404.0531. Bibcode:2015CaJPh..93..126S. doi:10.1139/cjp-2014-0206. S2CID 119240769. page 5 of preprint
  2. ^ Milgrom, Mordehai (October 1979). "Thomson scattered lines in the spectrum of SS 433 - A powerful tool for studying the system". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 78 (3): L17–L20. Bibcode:1979A&A....78L..17M.
  3. ^ Mordehai, Milgrom, Community of Scholars Profile, IAS Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Metcalfe, Tom (21 November 2022). "Lopsided star cluster may disprove Newton and Einstein, controversial new study claims". Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  5. ^ Kroupa, Pavel; Jerabkova, Tereza; Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Famaey, Benoit; Boffin, Henri M J; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Beccari, Giacomo; Prusti, Timo; Boily, Christian; Haghi, Hosein; Wu, Xufen; Haas, Jaroslav; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Thomas, Guillaume; Šubr, Ladislav; Aarseth, Sverre J (26 October 2022). "Asymmetrical tidal tails of open star clusters: stars crossing their cluster's práh† challenge Newtonian gravitation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 517 (3): 3613–3639. arXiv:2210.13472. doi:10.1093/mnras/stac2563. Retrieved 23 November 2022.

Further reading[edit]

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