|Republic of Mordovia
Республика Мордовия (Russian)
Мордовия Республикась (Mordvin)
|— Republic —|
|Established||December 20, 1934|
|Government (as of August 2014)|
|• Head||Vladimir Volkov|
|• Legislature||State Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||26,200 km2 (10,100 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||31.86/km2 (82.5/sq mi)|
|Population (July 2014 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|License plates||13, 113|
|Official languages||Russian; Mordvin (Moksha and Erzya)|
The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: Респу́блика Мордо́вия, tr. Respublika Mordoviya; IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə mɐrˈdovʲɪjə]; Moksha/Erzya: Мордовия Республикась, Mordovija Respublikaś), also known in English as Mordvinia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Saransk. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the republic was 834,755. Ethnic Russians (53.4%) and Mordvins (40.0%) account for the majority of the population.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Administrative divisions
- 3 History
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Education and sport
- 9 Language
- 10 Recreation in Mordovia
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of Russia. The western part of the republic is situated in the Oka-Don Plain; its eastern and central parts in the Volga Elevation.
- Area: 26,200 square kilometers (10,100 sq mi)
- Highest point: 324 meters (1,063 ft) (crossing of the road from Bolshoy Maresev with the roads to Mokshaley, Pyaigiley, and Picheury)
There are 114 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include:
There are approximately five hundred lakes in the republic.
The climate is moderately continental.
- Average January temperature: −11 °C (12 °F)
- Average July temperature: +19 °C (66 °F)
- Average annual precipitation: ~500 millimeters (20 in)
The earliest archaeological signs of human beings in the area of Mordovia are from the Neolithic era. Finno-Ugric Mordvins are mentioned in written sources in 6th century. Later, Mordvins were under the influence of both Volga Bulgaria and the Kievan Rus. Mordvin princes sometimes raided Muroma and Volga Bulgaria, and often despoiled each other's holdings.
The Mongols conquered vast areas of Eastern Europe in the 13th century. They established the khanate of the Golden Horde in 1241, subjugating the area of Mordovia. Mordvins fought against Mongols and later alongside Russians. Mordvin lands territorially belonged to Mukhsha Ulus. The Golden Horde disintegrated in the 1430s, which resulted in some Mordvins becoming subjects of the Khanate of Kazan, whereas others were incorporated into Muscovy.
When Ivan IV of Russia annexed the Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Mordvin lands were subjugated to the Russian tsars. The Mordvin elite rapidly adopted Russian language and customs, whereas 1821 saw the publication of the New Testament in Erzya to address the non-elite population. In rural areas, Mordvin culture was preserved. Russians started to convert Mordvins to Orthodox Christianity in the mid-18th century. Mordvins gave up their own shamanist religion only slowly, however, and many of shamanist features were preserved as parts of local culture though the population became nominally Christian. Translations of literature to Mordvin languages were mostly religious books. In the 18th century, the Latin alphabet was used in writing Mordvin, but from the mid-19th century, Cyrillic was used.
Part of the Soviet Union
During the Russian revolution and civil war, Mordovia was held by Bolsheviks from the beginning of the war. When the Bolsheviks prevailed in the war, Mordovia became a part of the Russian SFSR. In 1925, the Soviet government founded autonomous districts and village councils in the area of the Mordvins. During the Soviet era, two written languages were developed, one based on the Erzya dialect in 1922 and one on the Moksha dialect in 1923, both using Cyrillic script. The Mordovian Okrug was founded on July 16, 1928, and it was elevated to the status of an autonomous oblast on January 10, 1930. The autonomous oblast was transformed into the Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on December 20, 1934.
Part of the Russian Federation
When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Mordovian ASSR proclaimed itself the Republic of Mordovia in 1990, and remained a part of the Russian Federation. The Republic of Mordovia in its present form has existed since January 25, 1994.
The supreme law is the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia.
In a "wave" of sovereignty common among other former Russian autonomous republics, Mordovia established a presidency in 1991.
In that same year, Vasilly Guslyannikov, a physicist by training, was elected in the general election. Guslyannikov had previously been a senior researcher at the Institute of Power Electronics and was the leader of the republican branch of the Democratic Russia political movement.
In 1993, the Supreme Council of Mordovia abolished the post of president, on the basis of which Guslyannikov was removed from his post. Guslyannikov appealed the action of the supreme legislative body of the republic in the Russian Constitutional Court, but the Constitutional Court declared its conformity with the Constitution of Russia.
The head of the government in the Republic of Mordovia is the Head of the Republic. The office is currently held by the long-time Prime Minister, Vladimir Volkov, who was sworn in on May 14, 2012. His predecessor was Nikolay Merkushkin who held the office from 1995 to 2012.
The State Assembly is the legislature of the republic.
The most developed industries are machine construction, chemicals, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Saransk, as well as in the towns of Kovylkino and Ruzayevka, and in the urban-type settlements of Chamzinka and Komsomolsky.
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
|1970||1 026||15 423||9 048||6 375||15.0||8.8||6.2|
|1975||1 003||14 983||9 689||5 294||14.9||9.7||5.3|
|1980||984||14 320||10 287||4 033||14.6||10.5||4.1|
|1985||964||15 123||11 152||3 971||15.7||11.6||4.1|
|1990||963||12 910||11 018||1 892||13.4||11.4||2.0||1,87|
|1991||961||11 537||11 079||458||12.0||11.5||0.5||1,73|
|1992||961||10 215||11 574||- 1 359||10.6||12.0||- 1.4||1,55|
|1993||959||9 276||13 217||- 3 941||9.7||13.8||- 4.1||1,42|
|1994||956||8 916||14 748||- 5 832||9.3||15.4||- 6.1||1,37|
|1995||952||8 589||13 460||- 4 871||9.0||14.1||- 5.1||1,32|
|1996||946||7 883||13 579||- 5 696||8.3||14.4||- 6.0||1,22|
|1997||939||7 493||13 631||- 6 138||8.0||14.5||- 6.5||1,16|
|1998||931||7 469||13 116||- 5 647||8.0||14.1||- 6.1||1,16|
|1999||923||6 994||14 200||- 7 206||7.6||15.4||- 7.8||1,09|
|2000||913||7 148||14 838||- 7 690||7.8||16.2||- 8.4||1,12|
|2001||903||7 049||14 200||- 7 151||7.8||15.7||- 7.9||1,11|
|2002||891||7 131||14 918||- 7 787||8.0||16.7||- 8.7||1,12|
|2003||880||7 433||15 170||- 7 737||8.4||17.2||- 8.8||1,16|
|2004||873||7 689||14 768||- 7 079||8.8||16.9||- 8.1||1,20|
|2005||865||7 394||14 823||- 7 429||8.5||17.1||- 8.6||1,14|
|2006||858||7 367||13 981||- 6 614||8.6||16.3||- 7.7||1,14|
|2007||851||7 728||13 320||- 5 592||9.1||15.6||- 6.6||1,19|
|2008||846||8 215||13 167||- 4 952||9.7||15.6||- 5.9||1,28|
|2009||841||8 103||13 027||- 4 924||9.6||15.5||- 5.9||1,27|
|2010||835||7 974||13 106||- 5 132||9.5||15.7||- 6.1||1,24|
|2011||830||7 896||12 310||- 4 414||9.5||14.8||- 5.3||1,25|
|2012||822||8 180||11 925||- 3 745||10.0||14.5||- 4.5||1,32|
|2013||815||8 256||12 095||- 3 839||10.1||14.8||- 4.7||1,37|
|2014||811||8 133||11 621||- 3 488||10.0||14.3||- 4.3||1,37|
|2015||808||7 864||11 431||- 3 567||9.7||14.2||- 4.5||1,35(e)|
The Mordvin people are a Finnic group speaking two related languages, Moksha and Erzya. The Mordvins identify themselves as separate ethnic groups: the Erzya and Moksha. Only one third of all Mordvinic languages speakers live in the Republic of Mordovia. During the Soviet period, school textbooks were published in each language.
According to the 2010 Census, Russians make up 53.4% of the republic's population, while ethnic Erzya and Moksha are only 40%. Other groups include Tatars (5.2%), Ukrainians (0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 3,153 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
According to a 2012 survey 68.6% of the population of Mordovia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church (there is a lot of churches and monasteries, for example, Monastery of John the Evangelist in Makarovka), 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Muslims, 1% are Old Believers. In addition, 10% of the population declare to be "spiritual but not religious", 7% are atheist, and 6.4% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Some Mordvins adhere to the Mordvin native religion.
There are many museums in the republic. The largest ones include the Mordovian Republican United Museum of Regional Studies and the Museum of Mordvinian Culture in Saransk.
The National Library of the Republic of Mordovia is the largest library in the republic.
The State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia, located in Saransk, is well known in Russia. Most of the plays played in this theater are Russian fairy-tales.
Erzya literature experienced a renaissance in the 1920s and 1930s.
Mordovian cuisine is widespread in the country.
Education and sport
The most important facilities of higher education include Mordovian State University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute in Saransk. Mordovia, along with neighbour Chuvashia and Penza Oblast, has given some of the best modern racewalking athletes, both women (Olga Kaniskina, Anisya Kirdyapkina, Elena Lashmanova, Olena Shumkina, Irina Stankina) or men (Sergey Bakulin, Valeriy Borchin, Stanislav Emelyanov, Vladimir Kanaykin, Sergey Kirdyapkin, Sergey Morozov, Denis Nizhegorodov, Roman Rasskazov), apart from Alexei Nemov (see more in the article History of Mordovian sport).
The Mordvinic languages, alternatively Mordvin languages, or Mordvinian languages, (Russian: Мордовские языки, Mordovskiye yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair) are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language. Previously considered a single "Mordvin language", it is now treated as a small language family. Due to differences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar, Erzya and Moksha are not mutually intelligible, so the Russian language is often used for intergroup communications.
The two Mordvinic languages are official languages of Mordovia alongside Russian.
Recreation in Mordovia
A business card of the region is ecotourism and rural tourism. These two directions become very popular nowadays. The thing is the majority of people lives in concrete jungle, they begin to forget their natural roots. Plus, modern resorts lose their popularity, become ordinary and, as the result, people try to find something new and interesting. Mordovia offers great possibilities for everyone to feel the absolute unity with nature, to have a rest in the magic atmosphere of harmony and inartificial beauty. Fresh air, virgin forests, pure rivers, picturesque fields and meadows will take to a miraculous Mordovian fairytale, where people can forget about their everyday worries, find peace and be themselves. In fact, the Republic of Mordovia can be called a cultural and ethnographic sight. The uniqueness of the region is that here ecotourism and rural tourism are two inseverable parts. It means that when you’re going to have a rest in some recreation center of Mordovia you will not only revel in nature, but you will almost certainly get an opportunity to visit some ancient villages that carefully keep their cultures, customs and traditions. You will get acquainted with everyday life of peasantry, experience various national crafts, visit unique churches, see authentic clothes and houseware of the Mordovians, try tasty dishes of Moksha cuisine and natural products production. If you’re lucky, you will get an opportunity to see spectacular musical stagings, full of songs, dances and real rites. There’s hardly any other place in the world, which can offer such a saturated rest. Moreover, choosing “natural” holidays in Mordovia, you'll get comfortable living-places, so, you won’t feel any extreme isolation from all modern conveniences, what is obviously a big advantage. Such an “eco-rural” tourism is implemented, principally, by means of different recreation centers, such as “Otrada”, “Dolomit”, “Irbis”, “Horse-carriage courtyard”, “Smolny”, “Karelskaya”, “Zelyonaya Rosha” and some others. There’s an opportunity to try all possible kinds of rural tourism: agricultural tourism, experiences and experiential tourism, food routes, sports tourism, ethno-tourism etc. At the same time here tourists familiarize with the world of nature, learn to be careful to the natural treasure. So, the main purpose of all the recreation centers is not just to offer you the conditions of comfortable rest, but to educate you in ecological sense of this word, to make you see the beauty of the environment and be responsible for its state.
- Law #50-Z
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Republic of Mordovia. Administrative-Territorial Division, p. 4
- Official website of the Republic of Mordovia. Nikolay Ivanovich Merkushkin (Russian)
- Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia, Article 9.3
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Republic of Mordovia Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Мордовия на 1 июля 2014 г. (Russian)
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia, Article 12
- Official website of the Government of the Republic of Mordovia
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- Encyclopaedia Britannica
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- Конституционное собрание Республики Мордовия. 21 сентября 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Мордовия (текст в ред. от 15 марта 2011 г.)», в ред. Закона №62-З от 3 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 71 и 94 Конституции Республики Мордовия». Вступил в силу 22 сентября 1995 г. Опубликован: "Известия Мордовии", №180, 22 сентября 1995 г. (Constitutional Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia. September 21, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia (text of rev. of March 15, 2011), as amended by the Law #62-Z of September 3, 2015 On Amending Articles 71 and 94 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia. Effective as of September 22, 1995.).
- Государственное Собрание Республики Мордовия. Закон №50-З от 19 ноября 2002 г. «О государственном гимне Республики Мордовия». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Известия Мордовии", #179, 21 ноября 2002 г. (State Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia. Law #50-Z of November 19, 2002 On the State Anthem of the Republic of Mordovia. Effective as of the day of official publication.).
- Государственное Собрание Республики Мордовия (State Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia). "Республика Мордовия. Административно-территориальное деление" (Republic of Mordovia. Administrative-Territorial Division). Саранск, 1998.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mordovia.|
- Official website of the Republic of Mordovia (Russian)
- International Relations Office of Mordovian State University (English) (Russian) (French)
- Official website of Mordovian State University (Russian)
- Official website of the National Library of the Republic of Mordovia (Russian)
- Official website of the State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia (Russian)
- Encyclopaedia about the Republic of Mordovia (Russian)