Moriori

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 44°01′52″S 176°20′53″W / 44.031°S 176.348°W / -44.031; -176.348

Moriori
Chatham Islands photo, 1910, Canterbury Museum, 2016-01-27.jpg
Moriori family c. 1910
Total population
approx. 700
Regions with significant populations
Chatham Islands36 (2013 census)[1]
North Island354 (2013 census)[1]
South Island348 (2013 census)[1]
Languages
Moriori, English, Māori
Religion
Christianity including Rātana[1]
Related ethnic groups
Māori people, other Polynesian peoples,
Austronesian peoples
The Chatham Islands from space. Chatham Island is the largest, Pitt Island is the second largest, and South East Island is the small island to the right of Pitt

The Moriori are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), New Zealand. Moriori originated from Māori settlers from the New Zealand mainland around the year 1500 AD,[2] This was near the time of the shift from the Archaic to Classic Māori culture on the main islands of New Zealand.[3] Oral tradition records multiple waves of migration to the Chatham Islands.[4] Over several centuries these settlers culture diverged from mainland Māori, developing a distinctive dialect, mythology, artistic expression and way of life.[5]

Early Moriori formed tribal groups based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation, later, a prominent pacifist culture emerged (see Nunuku-whenua).[6] This culture made it easier for Taranaki Māori invaders to nearly exterminate them in the 1830's during the Musket Wars.[7] Currently there are around 700 people who identify as Moriori, most of whom no longer live on the Chatham Islands.[8]

During the late 19th century some prominent anthropologists proposed that Moriori were pre-Māori settlers of mainland New Zealand, and possibly Melanesian in origin.[9] This hypothesis was taught in New Zealand’s schools for most of the 20th century, long after it had fallen from favour among academics[10][11][12]

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

The Moriori are ethnically Polynesian. They developed a distinct Moriori culture in the Chatham Islands as they adapted to local conditions. Although speculation once suggested that they settled the Chatham Islands directly from the tropical Polynesian islands, current research indicates that ancestral Moriori were Māori Polynesians who emigrated to the Chatham Islands from mainland New Zealand around 1500 AD.[13][14][15][16]

Evidence supporting this theory comes from the characteristics that the Moriori language has in common with the dialect of Māori spoken by the Ngāi Tahu tribe of the South Island, and comparisons of the genealogies of Moriori ("hokopapa") and Māori ("whakapapa"). Prevailing wind patterns in the southern Pacific add to the speculation that the Chatham Islands were the last part of the Pacific to be settled during the period of Polynesian discovery and colonisation.[13][16] The word Moriori derives from Proto-Polynesian *ma(a)qoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, real, genuine". It is cognate with the Māori language word Māori[17] and likely also had the meaning "(ordinary) people".

The earliest indication of human occupation of the Chathams, inferred from middens, is estimated to be between 1500 and 1550 AD.[a]

Adapting to local conditions[edit]

The Chathams are colder and less hospitable than the land the original settlers left behind, and although abundant in resources, these were different from those available where they had come from. The Chathams proved unsuitable for the cultivation of most crops known to Polynesians, and the Moriori adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Food was almost entirely marine-sourced — protein and fat from fish, fur seals, and the fatty young of sea birds. The islands supported about 2,000 people.[18]

Moriori tree carving or dendroglyph

Lacking resources of cultural significance such as greenstone and plentiful timber, they found outlets for their ritual needs in the carving of dendroglyphs (incisions into tree trunks, called rakau momori). Some of these carvings are protected by the J M Barker (Hapupu) National Historic Reserve.

As a small and precarious population, Moriori embraced a pacifist culture that rigidly avoided warfare, replacing it with dispute resolution in the form of ritual fighting and conciliation.[citation needed] The ban on warfare and cannibalism is attributed to their ancestor Nunuku-whenua.

...because men get angry and during such anger feel the will to strike, that so they may, but only with a rod the thickness of a thumb, and one stretch of the arms length, and thrash away, but that on an abrasion of the hide, or first sign of blood, all should consider honour satisfied.

— Oral tradition [19]

This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare, such as may have led to catastrophic habitat destruction and population decline on Easter Island. However, when considered as a moral imperative rather than a pragmatic response to circumstances, it also led to their later near-destruction at the hands of invading North Island Māori.

Moriori castrated some male infants in order to control population growth.[20]

European contact[edit]

William R. Broughton landed on 29 November 1791, and claimed possession of the islands for Great Britain, naming them after his ship, HMS Chatham. Sealers and whalers soon made the islands a centre of their activities, competing for resources with the native population. The population was estimated at about 1,600 in the mid-1830s with about 10% and 20% of the population having died from infectious diseases such as influenza since the arrival of sealers, ex-convicts and Māori from about 1810. The effects of influenza were made more serious by the habit, also common to the Māori, of immersion in cold water. The men intermarried with Moriori. Māori arrivals created their own village at Wharekauri which became the Māori name for the Chatham Islands.[6] Some sealing ships came to the Chathams but captains kept this secret so other ship owners would not find out about the vast fur seal population.[citation needed]

Invasion by Taranaki Māori[edit]

In 1835 some displaced Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people, Māori from the Taranaki region of the North Island of New Zealand, but living in Wellington, invaded the Chathams. On 19 November 1835, the brig Lord Rodney, a hijacked[21] European ship, arrived carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs and axes, and loaded with 78 tonnes of seed potatoes, followed by another ship with 400 more Māori on 5 December 1835. While the second shipment of invaders were waiting, the invaders killed a 12-year-old girl and hung her flesh on posts.[22] They proceeded to enslave some Moriori and kill and cannibalise others. "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals."[23]

A hui or council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Māori predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs — Tapata and Torea — declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."[19] A Moriori survivor recalled : "[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep.... [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed - men, women and children indiscriminately." A Māori conqueror explained, "We took possession... in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped....." [24] The invaders ritually killed some 10% of the population, a ritual that included staking out women and children on the beach and leaving them to die in great pain over several days. The Māori invaders forbade the speaking of the Moriori language. They forced Moriori to desecrate their sacred sites by urinating and defecating on them.[25]

After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, or to have children with each other. All became slaves of the Ngati Tama and Ngati Mutunga invaders. Many Moriori women had children by their Māori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Māori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. In 1842 a small party of Māori and their Moriori slaves migrated to the subantarctic Auckland Islands, surviving for some 20 years on sealing and flax growing.[26] Only 101 Moriori out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862.[27] Although the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, Tommy Solomon,[28] died in 1933, there are several thousand mixed ancestry Moriori alive today.

An all-male group of German Moravian missionaries arrived in 1843.[29] When a group of women were sent out to join them three years later, several marriages ensued; a few members of the present-day population can trace their ancestry back to those missionary families.

Culture[edit]

Today, despite the difficulties and genocide that the Moriori faced, Moriori culture is enjoying a renaissance, both in the Chatham Islands and in the mainland of New Zealand. Moriori culture and identity is being revived, symbolised in January 2005 with the renewal of the Covenant of Peace at the new Kopinga marae[30] on the Chathams. As of 2016, the marae has registered almost 800 Moriori descendants, with more than 3000 associated children.[31]

Some Moriori descendants have made claims against the New Zealand government through the Waitangi Tribunal, a commission of inquiry charged with making recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to actions or omissions of the Crown in the period since 1840, which breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi.

Organisations and marae[edit]

The Kopinga meeting place and Hokomenetai meeting house are based in the town of Waitangi, on Chatham Island.[32]

The New Zealand Government recognises the Hokotehi Moriori Trust as having the mandate to represent Moriori in Treaty of Waitangi settlement negotiations. It is also a mandated iwi organisation under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004 and a recognised iwi aquaculture organisation in the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004. The trust represents Moriori as an "iwi authority" for resource consents under the Resource Management Act 1991, and is a Tūhono organisation. The charitable trust is managed by ten trustees, with representation from both the Chatham Islands, and the North Island and South Island. It is based at Owenga on Chatham Island.[32]

The Moriori in popular culture[edit]

Based on the writing of Percy Smith and Elsdon Best from the late 19th century, theories grew up that the Māori had displaced a more primitive pre-Māori population of Moriori (sometimes described as a small-statured, dark-skinned race of possible Melanesian origin), in mainland New Zealand – and that the Chatham Island Moriori were the last remnant of this earlier race. These theories also had the advantage – from the view of the European settlers – of undermining the notion of the Māori as the indigenous people of New Zealand, making them just one in a progression of waves of migration and conquest by increasingly more civilised and technically able peoples. This in turn was used to justify racist stereotyping, colonisation, and conquest by cultural "superiors".[33][34] However, the hypothesis of a racially distinct pre-Māori Moriori people was examined and rejected by a number of historians, anthropologists and ethnologists, among them, anthropologist H.D. Skinner in 1923,[35] ethnologist Roger Duff in the 1940s,[36] and historian and ethnographer Arthur Thomson in 1959,[37] as well as Michael King in Moriori: A People Rediscovered in 2000 and James Belich[38] and K.R. Howe in Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.[36]

The idea of Moriori arriving earlier and being vastly distinct from Māori was widely published in the early twentieth century.[39] Crucially, this story was also promoted in a series of three articles in the School Journal of 1916,[9] and the 1934 A. W. Reed schoolbook The Coming of the Maori to Ao-tea-roa [9] —and therefore became familiar to generations of schoolchildren. This in turn has been repeated by the media and politicians,[40] However, at no point has this idea completely dominated the public discussion, with the academic consensus slowly gaining more public awareness over the 20th century.[41]

One of the plots of the 2004 British novel (and 2012 american film) Cloud Atlas featured the slavery of Moriori on the Chatham Islands in the mid 19th century. Some reviews drew attention to the inappropriateness of using motifs from African slavery in the United States of America to represent Māori slave culture.[42][43] The interchangeability of these two practices has been a common misconception in the popular imagination.[44]

Notes[edit]

a. Estimated to have been settled between 400-450 years BP. The source uses the 1950-start convention,[45] giving a date of 1500-1550 AD.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Moriori Population and Geography". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  2. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "1. – Moriori – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  3. ^ Barber, Ian (1995). "Journal of the Polynesian Society: Constructions Of Change: A History Of Early Maori Culture Sequences, By Ian Barber, P 357-396". www.jps.auckland.ac.nz. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  4. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "2. – Moriori – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  5. ^ Seymour, Maud Ella (1924). "A history of the Chatham Islands".
  6. ^ a b King, M. Moriori. Penguin, 2000
  7. ^ Rekohu: A Report on Moriori and Ngati Mutunga Claims in the Chatham Islands. https://forms.justice.govt.nz/search/Documents/WT/wt_DOC_68595363/Rekohu%20Report%202016%20Reprint.pdf: Waitangi Tribunal Report. 2001.
  8. ^ Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "6. – Moriori – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  9. ^ a b c "Imagining Moriori: A history of ideas of a people in the twentieth century", Jacinta Blank, MA Thesis, 2007
  10. ^ See 1904 paper by A. Shand on The Early History of the Morioris
  11. ^ Shapiro, HL (1940). "The physical anthropology of the Maori-Moriori". www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  12. ^ As Kerry Howe put it, 'Scholarship over the past 40 years has radically revised the model offered a century earlier by Smith: the Moriori as a pre-Polynesian people have gone (the term Moriori is now a technical term referring to those ancestral Māori who settled the Chatham Islands)' (Howe 2003:182).
  13. ^ a b Clark, Ross (1994). "Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence". In Sutton, Douglas G. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123–135.
  14. ^ Solomon, Māui; Denise Davis (2011-09-02). "Moriori". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  15. ^ Howe, Kerry R. (2011-09-24). "Ideas of Māori origins". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  16. ^ a b King, Michael (2000). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0.
  17. ^ Polynesian Lexicon Project Online, entry *maqoli
  18. ^ Denise Davis and Māui Solomon (3 March 2017). "Moriori population of the Chatham Islands, 1800–1920". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  19. ^ a b King (2000).
  20. ^ "The Encyclopedia of New Zealand".
  21. ^ King, M. The Silence Beyond. Penguin, 2011; p. 190.
  22. ^ Michael King (2000). Moriori: a People Rediscovered; revised ed. Published by Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0. Original edition 1989; pp. 57-58.
  23. ^ King (2000), pp. 59-60
  24. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 53.
  25. ^ King, M. The Silence Beyond. Penguin, 2011 ISBN 9780143565567; p. 190.
  26. ^ Murihiku timeline (Abandoned website) Backup copy at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Kopel et al., 2003.
  28. ^ Tommy Solomon Archived 23 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ "German Missions". Reference Guides - Missionary Sources (PDF). Hocken Collections. 2008. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  30. ^ Berry, Ruth (22 January 2005). "Chathams embrace peace ethic". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  31. ^ McBryde, Brendan (18 August 2016). "Reaching a rare island getaway". brendan.mcbryde.nz. Fiordland Advocate. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
  32. ^ a b "Rohe". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  33. ^ See Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Ideas of Māori origins
  34. ^ "According to the myth, the Maori, as a superior and more warlike people, expropriated the land from the Moriori. Therefore Pakeha expropriation of the same land on the basis of their superior civilisation was in accordance with the principle of the survival of the fittest. For this reason the false myth of the Moriori has been one of New Zealand's most enduring myths.", "Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End", Ranginui Walker, Penguin, Auckland, 1990
  35. ^ Skinner, H.D., The Morioris of the Chatham Islands, Honolulu, 1923
  36. ^ a b K. R. Howe. 'Ideas of Māori origins, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 28 October 2008
  37. ^ Thomson, Arthur, The Story of New Zealand, Past and Present, Savage and Civilized, 2 vols, London, 1859, i, 61
  38. ^ Belich, James, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, pp.26, 65-6
  39. ^ For example The Cyclopedia of New Zealand of 1902
  40. ^ "Don Brash - Ragging on Te Reo". Radio New Zealand. 2017-12-02. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  41. ^ Wheeler, Read (2016). Portrayals of the Moriori people : historical, ethnographical, anthropological and popular sources, c.1791-1989 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History, Massey University (Master of Arts in History thesis). Massey University.
  42. ^ says, Desechables Monterrey (2014-03-25). "Accumulated Histories and Disposable People in Cloud Atlas and the Black Atlantic". The Black Atlantic. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  43. ^ mailevine (2014-01-13). "The Pacific Problems of Cloud Atlas". the maile vine. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  44. ^ Petrie, Hazel (2015-09-21). Outcasts of the Gods? The Struggle over Slavery in Maori New Zealand. Auckland University Press. ISBN 9781775587859.
  45. ^ McFadgen, B. G. (March 1994). "Archaeology and Holocene sand dune stratigraphy on Chatham Island". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 24 (1): 17–44. doi:10.1080/03014223.1994.9517454.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]