Moritz Hochschild

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Moritz Hochschild
Born
Moritz Hochschild

1881
Died1965 (age 84)
CitizenshipGerman
OccupationMining executive
Spouse(s)Käthe Rosenbaum
ChildrenGerardo Hochschild Rosenbaum

Dr. Moritz (Don Mauricio) Hochschild (1881 in Biblis, Germany – 1965 in Paris, France) was one of the most famous men in the mining industry in the first half of the twentieth century and was, along with Simón Iturri Patiño and Carlos Víctor Aramayo, one of the three so-called Bolivian tin barons.[1] It is now known that he saved Jews during the Holocaust as well.

Early life[edit]

Hochschild was an agnostic Jew whose family had already been active in the mining industry for over a generation. He was the eldest son of a general trader who had two cousins involved in the metal industry: brothers Berthold Hochschild, who founded the American Metal Company and Zachary Hochschild, a partner in Metallgesellschaft.[2] After Hochschild graduated from school, he studied mining and engineering at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology.[3] In 1905, he began his career in the field at the large industrial conglomerate Metallgesellschaft.[3] and then as the company's agent in Spain and Australia and then finally moved to South America to work independently.[3] After several years in Chile, he returned to Germany and stayed there until the end of the first World War.

Career[edit]

In 1918, he married Käthe Rosenbaum and in 1920, he returned once again to Bolivia. In 1920, his son, Gerardo Hochschild Rosenbaum, was born; his wife died in 1924.[3] During the following two decades, Hochschild built up an economic empire in Bolivia around the mining and trade of tin ore. His empire stretched from Peru in the north to Chile in the south. During this period of growth, more of his family followed him to South America to work for him, including his cousin Philipp Hochschild and Philipp's wife Germaine. Moritz (or Don Mauricio, as he was known in South America) and Germaine had an affair, and they married after Germaine divorced Philipp.[3]

The 1930s saw the peak of the Moritz Hochschild Group's economical and political influence. In 1938, using his influence with German Busch, Bolivia's military president from 1937 to 1939, Hochschild pushed Bolivia to open its doors to Jewish refugees from Hitler's Germany.[4] An estimated 9,000 were admitted. Hochschild also funded the transport of the refugees and their housing once they arrived in the South American country. Newspapers have called him "Bolivia's Schindler."

In both 1939 and 1944, Hochschild was arrested by the Bolivian government and sentenced to death.[3] Just two weeks after his release following his 1944 arrest, he was captured and held by kidnappers for two weeks. After he was freed he left Bolivia, never to return.[3]

In 1951, the Hochschilds donated the majority of their fortune to the Hochschild Trust and Foundation. In the following year, the Moritz Hochschild Group was nationalized during the Bolivian National Revolution; however, they were compensated with an allotment of 30% of the company's prior assets.[3] The company, Hochschild Mining, grew further and expanded worldwide. In 1961 Hochschild inaugurated Mantos Blancos copper mine in Antofagasta, Chile, which became his most successful mining operation, although its best results were to come after his death.

Holocaust Savior[edit]

Mauricio Hochschild, who is now being called the 'Bolivian Schindler,'[5] was a Bolivian business tycoon with a reputation as a 'bad guy' facilitated the escape of at least 9,000 Jews from Nazi Germany as recent documents have revealed. It it now believed that he had strong connections with the Nazi resistance movement, despite being vilified in his time. Moritz Hochschild died in 1965 in Paris.[6] He is the great uncle of billionaire Eduardo Hochschild, who is now the Chairman of Hochschild Mining PLC.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Secret Schindler: Mauricio Hochschild". aishcom. 2017-05-20. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  2. ^ "A Review of Helmut Waszkis' "Dr. Moritz (Don Mauricio) Hochschild 1881-1965. The Man and His Companies. A German ]ewish Mining Entrepreneur in South America" (PDF).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Papers of Moritz Hochschild
  4. ^ "'Bolivian Schindler' saved 9,000 Jews from Nazi Germany". Daily Mail Online. 2017-03-18. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  5. ^ "Old files reveal wartime tale of 'Bolivian Schindler'". Guardian TV. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  6. ^ Llona, Carmen (2017-03-17). "'Bolivian Schindler' saved some 9,000 lives during Holocaust, papers show". Fox News. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
  7. ^ "Eduardo Hochschild". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-03-10.

External links[edit]