The village, which was originally known as Eisenburg, was first mentioned in 1294. It became a market in 1675. The Saxon state stud has been located here since 1828. In 1884 a narrow gauge railway, the Radebeul-Radeburg line, was built connecting the town to the district capital Radebeul and Radeburg. It was renamed Moritzburg, after the nearby castle, in 1934. The German painter Käthe Kollwitz lived at the invitation of Prince Ernst Heinrich von Wettin in the Rüdenhof in Moritzburg from 1944 until her death on 1945-04-22 . In 1995 a small museum was opened in the Rüdenhof.
The VEB Lokomotivbau Karl Marx Babelsberg (LKM) built 1956 this steam locomotive No. 991777-4. Today pulls the locomotive the Heritage railway by the Radebeul–Radeburg railway, also known as the Lößnitzgrundbahn (Lössnitzgrund Railway). The Radebeul-Radeburg railway runs between Radebeul East station and the small towns of Moritzburg and Radeburg north of Dresden.