Mormon Doctrine (book)
Mormon Doctrine (originally subtitled A Compendium of the Gospel) is an encyclopedic work written in 1958 by Bruce R. McConkie, a general authority of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). It was intended primarily for a Latter-day Saint audience and is often used as a reference book by church members because of its comprehensive nature. It has never been an official publication of the church, and it has been both heavily criticized by some church leaders and members and well regarded by others. After the book's first edition was removed from publication at the instruction of the church's First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve, corrections were made in subsequent editions. The book went through three editions, but as of 2010, it is out of print.
In 1958, McConkie, then a member of the First Council of the Seventy of the LDS Church, published a book entitled Mormon Doctrine: A Compendium of the Gospel, which he described as "the first major attempt to digest, explain, and analyze all of the important doctrines of the kingdom" and "the first extensive compendium of the whole gospel—the first attempt to publish an encyclopedic commentary covering the whole field of revealed religion." He included a disclaimer that he alone was responsible for the doctrinal and scriptural interpretations, a practice then unusual.
In writing the book, McConkie relied heavily upon the LDS Church's scriptures and recognized doctrinal authorities, including Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, Orson Pratt, John Taylor, and Joseph Fielding Smith.
Scrutiny by church leaders
Church leaders were surprised by its publication since he had not asked permission and was not asked to develop such a work. They responded that while they applauded the attempt of the book to fill a need, it used a harsh tone. Apostle Mark E. Petersen said it was "full of errors and misstatements, and it is most unfortunate that it has received such wide circulation."
On January 5, 1959, apostle Marion G. Romney was assigned by church president David O. McKay to read and report on the book. His report was delivered on January 28, which mainly "dealt with Elder McConkie's usage of forceful, blunt language; some strongly worded statements about ambiguous doctrine and matters of opinion; and the overall authoritative tone throughout the book, though in general Romney had a high regard for Mormon Doctrine and felt it filled an evident need remarkably well." The report concluded that "notwithstanding its many commendable and valuable features and the author's assumption of 'sole and full responsibility' for it, its nature and scope and the authoritative tone of the style in which it is written pose the question as to the propriety of the author's attempting such a project without assignment and supervision from him whose right and responsibility it is to speak for the church on 'Mormon Doctrine.'"
Petersen "gave McKay an oral report in which he recommended 1,067 corrections" to the book.
Nearly a year later, after meeting to discuss the book, the January 8, 1960 office notes of McKay reflect:
"We [the First Presidency of the church] decided that Bruce R. McConkie’s book, 'Mormon Doctrine' recently published by Bookcraft Company, must not be re-published, as it is full of errors and misstatements, and it is most unfortunate that it has received such wide circulation. It is reported to us that Brother McConkie has made corrections to his book, and is now preparing another edition. We decided this morning that we do not want him to publish another edition."
McKay called Joseph Fielding Smith on January 27, 1960 to inform him of the decision to ban further publication of the book:
[McKay] then said: 'Now, Brother Smith, he is a General Authority, and we do not want to give him a public rebuke that would be embarrassing to him and lessen his influence with the members of the Church, so we shall speak to the Twelve at our meeting in the temple tomorrow, and tell them that Brother McConkie's book is not approved as an authoritative book, and that it should not be republished, even if the errors... are corrected.' Brother Smith agreed with this suggestion to report to the Twelve, and said, 'That is the best thing to do.'
When the First Presidency met with McConkie about their decision, he responded, "I am amenable to whatever you Brethren want. I will do exactly what you want. I will be as discreet and as wise as I can."
In his biography of his father, Joseph Fielding McConkie states:
"On July 5, 1966, President McKay invited Elder McConkie into his office and gave approval for the book to be reprinted if appropriate changes were made and approved. Elder Spencer W. Kimball [of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles] was assigned to be Elder McConkie's mentor in making those changes .... My father told me that President McKay had so directed him. In addition to that, I am in possession of handwritten papers by my father affirming that direction."
Other accounts of the meeting suggest that McConkie sought out permission and generously interpreted McKay's counsel:
McConkie audaciously approached McKay six years later and pushed for publication of the book in a revised form .… McKay, age ninety-two and in failing health, did not take the matter up with his counselors or the Quorum of the Twelve. Rather, he said that 'should the book be re-published at this time,' McConkie would be responsible for it and 'that it will not be a Church publication.' Three days after meeting with McKay, McConkie wrote in a memo to Clare Middlemiss, McKay's secretary, "President McKay indicated that the book should be republished at this time."
Changes between the first and second editions
The second edition of Mormon Doctrine, with its approved revisions, was published in 1966. Horne states, "The most obvious difference between the two editions is a more moderate tone." Many entries were removed, while others were added, and entire paragraphs were changed in other entries. Complete removals include entire entries explicitly critical of the Roman Catholic church including those titled Catholicism:19 and Roman Catholicism:119 which specifically labeled the Catholic church as the Church of the Devil, and other aspects unique to Catholicism including Indulgences,:55 Supererogation,:120 and Transubstantiation.:125–127
Other notable changes in the second edition also include the removal of sentences stating that
- "Suicide is murder, pure and simple, and murderers are damned",:119
- "No doubt psychiatry ... has some benefit ... but in many instances, it is in effect a form of apostate religion which keeps sinners from repenting....",:103 and
- that all those using condoms or other artificial contraception are "in rebellion against God and are guilty of gross wickedness.":12
Additionally removed were references to evolution, including
- one stating that the "official doctrine of the Church" asserted a "falsity of the theory of organic evolution",:34 along with sentences stating
- that "There were no pre-Adamites",
- that Adam was not the "end-product of evolution", and
- that there "was no death in the world, either for man or for any form of life until after the Fall of Adam.":37
In later printings of the second edition, changes were made to doctrinal statements regarding black people in the pre-mortal life. The 1969 printing retained the controversial statements, but printings of the second edition by 1978 reflected the new church policy.
A third edition of the book was published in 1978 after church president Spencer W. Kimball said he received a revelation that the priesthood should be extended to all worthy male members. The changes were also included in the last printings of the second edition.
While the large majority of the Bible Dictionary included with the LDS Church's publication of the Bible in 1979 borrows from the Cambridge University Press bible dictionary, modifications were made to some entries to better reflect Mormon beliefs, and Mormon Doctrine heavily influenced those changes.
For example, the entry for "Abraham, covenant of" in the Bible Dictionary is exactly the same as the entry for "Abrahamic covenant" in Mormon Doctrine except for one paragraph. Many other Bible Dictionary entries teach identical concepts with closely paralleled wording as corresponding entries in Mormon Doctrine.
In 1972, McConkie was called to serve in the Quorum of Twelve Apostles by church president Harold B. Lee.
Out of print
Citing poor sales, Deseret Book opted in 2010 to cease printing Mormon Doctrine. Despite Deseret Book's claim that the decision was based on declining sales, some observers opined that the move was because of the book's uncompromising presentation of controversial Mormon ideas from which the church is attempting to distance itself. Aaron Shafovaloff of the blog Mormon Coffee stated that the book's Amazon.com sales rank was far higher than many other Mormon titles still in print. A story on KUTV reported that local Salt Lake City booksellers reported consistently strong sales of the book.
- Horne, Dennis B. (2000). Bruce R. McConkie: Highlights From His Life & Teachings. Eborn Books. ISBN 1-890718-01-7.
- Paul, Erich Robert (1992). Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology. University of Illinois Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-252-01895-4. Retrieved 2009-07-21..
- Prince, Gregory; Wm. Robert Wright (2005). David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism. University of Utah Press. pp. 50–52. ISBN 0-87480-822-7.
- McConkie, Joseph Fielding (2003). The Bruce R. McConkie Story: Reflections of a Son. Deseret Book. ISBN 1-59038-205-6.
- Dye, David A. (2007). Changes in Mormon Doctrine: A Comparison of the 1958 & 1966 versions of Mormon Doctrine by Bruce R. McConkie. Lulu Press. ISBN 9781257255009.
- Lavina Fielding Anderson, "Church Publishes First LDS Edition of the Bible", Ensign, October 1979, p. 9.
- Stack, Peggy Fletcher (21 May 2010). "Landmark 'Mormon Doctrine' goes out of print". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-31.
- "Bruce McConkie's 'Mormon Doctrine' out of print due to low sales". 23 May 2010.
- "Church-Owned Deseret Book Stops Publishing McConkie's 'Mormon Doctrine', Claiming 'Low Sales'". 20 May 2010.
- "Publisher Stops Printing Popular LDS Book". 20 May 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "A Requiem for Bruce R. McConkie’s Mormon Doctrine" : A discussion of Mormon Doctrine on Mormon Expression