Mormon views on evolution
The largest church within Mormonism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), takes no official position on whether or not biological evolution has occurred, or on the validity of the modern evolutionary synthesis as a scientific theory. In the 20th century, the LDS Church published doctrinal statements on the origin of man and creation. In addition, individual leaders of the LDS Church have expressed a variety of opinions on evolution, many of which have affected the beliefs and perceptions of Latter-day Saints.
- 1 Official church doctrine
- 2 Official church publications
- 3 Unofficial teachings of leaders
- 4 Statements of Presidents of the Church
- 5 Science and Mormonism
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Official church doctrine
The LDS Church has stated that it "has no official position on evolution, and each member is entitled to his or her own personal views on the subject".
Some general authorities and lay members of the LDS Church have considered evolution to be at variance with scriptural teaching. Apostles Joseph Fielding Smith and Bruce R. McConkie were among the most well known advocates of this position. Other church authorities and members have seen much of value in evolutionary theory, even if they have not endorsed every aspect of it. Examples of this approach include B. H. Roberts, James E. Talmage, John A. Widtsoe, Henry B. Eyring, and Gordon B. Hinckley.
While maintaining its "no position" stance, the LDS Church has produced a number of official publications that have included discussion and unofficial statements from these various church leaders on evolution and the "origin of man." These statements generally adopt the position, as a church-approved encyclopedia entry[a] states, "[t]he scriptures tell why man was created, but they do not tell how, though the Lord has promised that he will tell that when he comes again."
The first official statement on the issue of evolution was in 1909, which marked the centennial of Charles Darwin's birth and the 50th anniversary of his On the Origin of Species. In that year, the First Presidency, led by Joseph F. Smith as church president, issued a statement declaring that the church, "basing its belief on divine revelation, ancient and modern, proclaims man to be the direct and lineal offspring of Deity." This teaching regarding the origin of man differs from traditional Christianity's doctrine of creation, referred to by some as "creationism", which consists of belief in a fiat creation. In addition, the statement declares human evolution as one of the "theories of men", but falls short of explicitly declaring it untrue or evil. It states:
All [men] who have inhabited the earth since Adam have taken bodies and become souls in like manner. It is held by some that Adam was not the first man upon this earth, and that the original human being was a development from lower orders of the animal creation. These, however, are the theories of men. The word of the Lord declares that Adam was "the first man of all men" (Moses 1:34), and we are therefore in duty bound to regard him as the primal parent of the race ... all men were created in the beginning after the image of God; and whether we take this to mean the spirit or the body, or both, it commits us to the same conclusion: Man began life as a human being, in the likeness of our heavenly Father.True it is that the body of man enters upon its career as a tiny germ or embryo, which becomes an infant, quickened at a certain stage by the spirit whose tabernacle it is, and the child, after being born, develops into a man. There is nothing in this, however, to indicate that the original man the first of our race, began life as anything less than a man, or less than the human germ or embryo that becomes a man.
The statement did not define the origins of animals other than humans, nor did it venture into any more specifics regarding the origin of man.
Diversity of opinion does not necessitate intolerance of spirit, nor should it embitter or set rational beings against each other. ... Our religion is not hostile to real science. That which is demonstrated, we accept with joy; but vain philosophy, human theory and mere speculations of men, we do not accept nor do we adopt anything contrary to divine revelation or to good common sense.
In 1925, in the midst of the Scopes Trial in Tennessee, a new First Presidency issued an official statement which reaffirmed the doctrine that Adam was the first man upon the earth and that he was created in the image of God. There is a short article in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism which is largely composed of quotes from the 1909 and 1925 statements, and the First Presidency has not issued an official statement on evolution since 1925.
[The idea that] there were not pre-Adamites upon the earth’ is not a doctrine of the Church. Neither side of the [pre-Adamite] controversy has been accepted as a doctrine at all. ...Leave geology, biology, archaeology and anthropology, no one of which has to do with the salvation of the souls of mankind, to scientific research, while we magnify our calling in the realm of the Church."
Later endorsement of First Presidency statements
Twice the First Presidency has declared the position of the Church on organic evolution. The first, a statement published in 1909 entitled The Origin of Man was signed by Presidents Joseph F. Smith, John R. Winder, and Anthon H. Lund. The other, entitled Mormon View of Evolution, signed by Presidents Heber J. Grant, Anthony W. Ivins, and Charles W. Nibley, was published in 1925. It follows very closely the first statement, indeed quotes directly from it. The doctrines in both of them are consistent and have not changed. ... Statements have been made by other presidents of the Church and members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles which corroborate these official declarations by the First Presidency.
In the early 1900s, questions concerning the Creation of the earth and the theories of evolution became the subject of much public discussion. In the midst of these controversies, the First Presidency issued the following in 1909, which expresses the Church's doctrinal position on these matters. A reprinting of this important First Presidency statement will be helpful as members of the Church study the Old Testament this year.
Official church publications
The subject of evolution has been addressed in several official publications of the LDS Church. While these resources are authorized by the LDS Church for use by its members, the highest form of church doctrine is established by a vote of the church members, a process to which only the standard works have been subjected.
The church has published several general conference talks discussing evolution. In the October 1984 conference apostle Boyd Packer stated that "no one with reverence for God could believe that His children evolved from slime or from reptiles" as well as affirming that "those who accept the theory of evolution don’t show much enthusiasm for genealogical research." In the April 2012 conference apostle Russell Nelson discussed the human body stating "some people erroneously think that these marvelous physical attributes happened by chance or resulted from a big bang somewhere". He then compared this to an "explosion in a printing shop produc[ing] a dictionary".
Old Testament Student Manual
The Old Testament Student Manual, published by the Church Educational System, contains several quotes by general authorities as well as academics from a variety of backgrounds (both members of the church and non-members). The 1980 edition of the manual contains quotes from a Seventh-Day Adventist professor Harold G. Coffin which refutes evolution and states that the fossil record tells us that "complicated living things suddenly (without warning, so to speak) began to exist on the earth". The 2003 edition states that there is no official stance on the age of the Earth but that evidence for a longer process is substantial and very few people believe the earth was actually created in the space of one week. However, it gives an anti-evolution quote from Joseph Fielding Smith as a statement to help the reader understand the church's stance on man's origins. The quote states that the theory of organic evolution is incompatible and inconsistent with revelations from God and that to accept it is to reject the plan of salvation.
Doctrine and Covenants and Church History Seminary Teacher Manual
Doctrine and Covenants 77:6 mentions "the seven thousand years of [the earth's] continuance, or its temporal existence", which has been interpreted by Joseph Fielding Smith, Bruce R. McConkie, and other Mormon leaders as a convincing statement that the earth is no more than about six thousand years old (the seventh thousand-year period being the future millennium).[b]
However, in relation to this verse, the manual for seminary teachers explains: "It may be helpful to explain that the 7,000 years refers to the time since the Fall of Adam and Eve. It is not referring to the actual age of the earth including the periods of creation."
In the Bible Dictionary of the LDS Church, the entry for "Fall of Adam" includes the following statement: "Before the fall, Adam and Eve had physical bodies but no blood. There was no sin, no death, and no children among any of the earthly creations." Under the entry "Flesh", it is written: "Since flesh often means mortality, Adam is spoken of as the 'first flesh' upon the earth, meaning he was the first mortal on the earth, all things being created in a nonmortal condition, and becoming mortal through the fall of Adam.
As noted above, the Bible Dictionary is published by the LDS Church, and its preface states: "It [the Bible Dictionary] is not intended as an official or revealed endorsement by the Church of the doctrinal, historical, cultural, and other matters set forth."
In 1982, the Ensign, an official periodical of the LDS Church, published an article entitled "Christ and the Creation" by Bruce R. McConkie, which stated that "[m]ortality and procreation and death all had their beginnings with the Fall."
In an earlier edition of the Ensign published in 1980, McConkie stated that "the greatest heresy in the sectarian world ... is that God is a spirit nothingness which fills the immensity of space, and that creation came through evolutionary processes."
The Improvement Era was an official periodical of the LDS Church between 1897 and 1970. The following entry appeared in the April 1910 edition in the "Priesthood Quorum's Table" section of that periodical, and the answer is attributed to the church's First Presidency.
Origin of Man. — "In just what manner did the mortal bodies of Adam and Eve come into existence on this earth?" This question comes from several High Priests' quorums.
Of course, all are familiar with the statements in Genesis 1:26, 27; 2:7; also in the Book of Moses, Pearl of Great Price, 2:27; and in the Book of Abraham 5:7. The latter statement reads: "And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the man's spirit) and put it into him; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul."
These are the authentic statements of the scriptures, ancient and modern, and it is best to rest with these, until the Lord shall see fit to give more light on the subject. Whether the mortal bodies of man evolved in natural processes to present perfection, through the direction and power of God; whether the first parents of our generations, Adam and Eve, were transplanted from another sphere, with immortal tabernacles, which became corrupted through sin and the partaking of natural foods, in the process of time; whether they were born here in mortality, as other mortals have been, are questions not fully answered in the revealed word of God.
Some verses in the standard works raise questions about the compatibility of scriptural teachings and scientists' current understanding of organic evolution. One such verse, in Doctrine and Covenants section 77, verse 6, describes the "temporal existence" of the earth as 7,000 years old. The verse does not describe the process of creation, but if taken literally, implies that species may have appeared through a process faster than natural selection.
Other scriptural verses suggest that no organisms died before the fall of Adam. In the Book of Mormon, the prophet Lehi teaches: "If Adam had not transgressed he would not have fallen, but he would have remained in the garden of Eden. And all things which were created must have remained in the same state in which they were after they were created; and they must have remained forever, and had no end" (2 Nephi 2:22). In Moses 6:48 in the Pearl of Great Price, the prophet Enoch states: "Because that Adam fell, we are; and by his fall came death; and we are made partakers of misery and woe."
The BYU Library Packet on Evolution
Since 1992 at the LDS-owned universities the official stance of BYU has been contained in a packet approved by the BYU Board of Trustees (composed mostly of general authorities) of quotes from general authorities and the Encyclopedia of Mormonism. The document is distributed to students in classes when discussing evolution.
Unofficial teachings of leaders
Individual leaders of the LDS Church have expressed a variety of opinions on biological evolution.
In 1930, B. H. Roberts, the presiding member of the First Council of the Seventy, was assigned by the First Presidency to create a study manual for the Melchizedek priesthood holders of the church. Entitled The Truth, The Way, The Life, the draft of the manual that was submitted to the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles for approval stated that death had been occurring on earth for millions of years prior to the fall of Adam and that human-like pre-Adamites had lived on the earth.
On 5 April 1930, Joseph Fielding Smith, a junior member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the son of a late church president, "vigorously promulgated [the] opposite point of view" in a speech that was published in a church magazine. In his widely read speech, Smith taught as doctrine that there had been no death on earth until after the fall of Adam and that there were no "pre-Adamites".
In 1931, both Roberts and Smith were permitted to present their views to the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve. After hearing both sides, the First Presidency issued a memo to the general authorities of the church which stated:
Upon the fundamental doctrines of the Church we are all agreed. Our mission is to bear the message of the restored gospel to the people of the world. Leave Geology, Biology, Archaeology, and Anthropology, no one of which has to do with the salvation of the souls of mankind, to scientific research .... We can see no advantage to be gained by a continuation of the discussion ... but on the contrary are certain it would lead to confusion, division and misunderstanding if carried further. Upon one thing we should all be able to agree, namely, that Presidents Joseph F. Smith, John R. Winder and Anthon H. Lund were right when they said: "Adam is the primal parent of our race."
Another of the apostles, geologist James E. Talmage, pointed out that Smith's views could be misinterpreted as the church's official position, since Smith's views were widely circulated in a church magazine but Roberts's views were limited to an internal church document. As a result, the First Presidency gave permission to Talmage to give a speech promoting views that were contrary to Smith's. In his speech on August 9, 1931, in the Salt Lake Tabernacle, Talmage taught the same principles that Roberts had originally outlined in his draft manual. Over Smith's objections, the First Presidency authorized a church publication of Talmage's speech in pamphlet form. In 1965, Talmage's speech was reprinted again by the LDS Church in an official church magazine. As Talmage points out in the article, "The outstanding point of difference ... is the point of time which man in some state has lived on this planet." With regards to evolution in general, Talmage challenged many of its aspects in the same speech. He said:
I do not regard Adam as related to—certainly not as descended from—the Neanderthal, the Cro-Magnon, the Peking or the Piltdown man. Adam came as divinely created, created and empowered, and stands as the patriarchal head of his posterity .... Were it true that man is a product of evolution from lower forms, it is but reasonable to believe that he will yet develop into something higher. While it is a fact that eternal progression is a characteristic of man's Divine birthright, as yet we have learned nothing to indicate that man shall develop physically into any other form than that in which he now appears...Believe not those who would make man but little above the brutes, when in truth he is but little below the angels, and if faithful shall pass by the angels and take his place among the exalted sons of God. ...
Evolution is true so far as it means development, and progress, and advancement in all the works of God .... At best the conception of the development of man's body from the lower forms through evolutionary processes has been but a theory, an unproved hypothesis. Theories may be regarded as the scaffolding upon which the builder stands while placing the blocks of truth in position. It is a grave error to mistake the scaffolding for the wall, the flimsy and temporary structure for the stable and permanent. The scaffolding serves but a passing purpose, important though it be, and is removed as soon as the walls of that part of the edifice of knowledge have been constructed. Theories have their purpose, and are indispensable, but they must never be mistaken for demonstrated facts. The Holy Scriptures should not be discredited by theories of men; they cannot be discredited by fact and truth.
Roberts died in 1933 and The Truth, The Way, The Life remained unpublished until 1994, when it was published by an independent publisher.
Although it is apparent that Roberts and Smith may have had differing views on whether there was death before the fall of Adam, it is evident that they may have had similar views against organic evolution as the explanation for the origin of man. For example, Roberts wrote that "the theory of evolution as advocated by many modern scientists lies stranded upon the shore of idle speculation. There is one other objection to be urged against the theory of evolution before leaving it; it is contrary to the revelations of God." Roberts further criticized the theories of evolution as follows:
As before stated, the claims of evolution, as explained by philosophers of the Darwin school, are contrary to all experience so far as man's knowledge extends. The great law of nature is that every plant, herb, fish, beast and man produces its kind; and though there may be slight variation from that law, those variations soon run out either by reverting to the original stock, or else by becoming incapable of producing offspring, and thus become extinct.
Man, His Origin and Destiny
In 1954, when he was President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Smith wrote at length about his views on evolution in his book Man, His Origin and Destiny. In response to an inquiry about the book from the head of the Geology Department at the University of Utah, church president David O. McKay affirmed that "the Church has officially taken no position" on evolution, that Smith's book "is not approved by the Church", and that the book is composed entirely of Smith's "views for which he alone is responsible".
Bruce R. McConkie
In a 1984 speech apostle McConkie disparaged the "evolutionary fantasies of biologists" and stated that yet to be revealed "doctrines will completely destroy the whole theory of organic evolution". In his popular and controversial reference book Mormon Doctrine, general authority Bruce R. McConkie devoted ten pages to his entry on "Evolution". After canvassing statements of past church leaders, the standard works, and the 1909 First Presidency statement, McConkie concluded that "[t]here is no harmony between the truths of revealed religion and the theories of organic evolution." The evolution entry in Mormon Doctrine quotes extensively from Smith's Man, His Origin and Destiny.[c] McConkie characterized the intellect of those Latter-day Saints who believe in evolution while simultaneously having knowledge of LDS Church doctrines on life and creation as "weak and puerile". McConkie included a disclaimer in Mormon Doctrine stating that he alone was responsible for the doctrinal and scriptural interpretations.
Statements of Presidents of the Church
Every statement by a President of the LDS Church does not necessarily constitute church doctrine, but a statement by a church president is generally regarded by church membership to be the most authoritative declaration of doctrine that can be made by a person acting alone.
In these respects we differ from the Christian world, for our religion will not clash with or contradict the facts of science in any particular ... whether the Lord found the earth empty and void, whether he made it out of nothing or out of the rude elements; or whether he made it in six days or in as many millions of years, is and will remain a matter of speculation in the minds of men unless he give revelation on the subject. If we understood the process of creation there would be no mystery about it, it would be all reasonable and plain, for there is no mystery except to the ignorant.
We have enough and to spare, at present in these mountains, of schools where young infidels are made because the teachers are so tender-footed that they dare not mention the principles of the gospel to their pupils, but have no hesitancy in introducing into the classroom the theories of Huxley, of Darwin, or of Mill and the false political economy which contends against co-operation and the United Order. This course I am resolutely and uncompromisingly opposed to, and I hope to see the day when the doctrines of the gospel will be taught in all our schools, when the revelations of the Lord will be our texts, and our books will be written and manufactured by ourselves and in our own midst. As a beginning in this direction I have endowed the Brigham Young Academy at Provo.
The animal and vegetable creations are governed by certain laws, and are composed of certain elements peculiar to themselves. This applies to man, to the beasts, fowls, fish and creeping things, to the insects and to all animated nature .... These principles do not change, as represented by evolutionists of the Darwinian school, but the primitive organisms of all living beings exist in the same form as when they first received their impress from the Maker. ... [Man] did not originate from a chaotic mass of matter, moving or inert, but came forth possessing, in an embryonic state, all the faculties and powers of a God.
Joseph F. Smith
Soon after the First Presidency's 1909 statement, Joseph F. Smith professed in an editorial that "the church itself has no philosophy about the modus operandi employed by the Lord in His creation of the world."
However, in the very same month (and in the wake of the evolution controversy that had recently ensued at Brigham Young University), Smith published and signed a statement wherein he explained some of the conflicts between revealed religion and the theories of evolution. He wrote:
Recently there was some trouble ... in one of the leading Church schools—the training college of the Brigham Young University—where three of the professors advanced certain theories on evolution as applied to the origin of man, and certain opinions on "higher criticism," as conclusive and demonstrated truths. This was done although it is well known that evolution and the "higher criticism" ... are in conflict on some matters with the scriptures, including some modern revelation. ... The Church, on the contrary, holds to the definite authority of divine revelation which must be the standard; and that, as so-called "science" has changed from age to age in its deductions, and as divine revelation is truth, and must abide forever, views as to the lesser should conform to the positive statements of the greater. ... Philosophic theories of life have their place and use, but it is not in the classes of the Church schools, and particularly are they out of place here or anywhere else when they seek to supplant the revelations of God.
A 1910 editorial in an LDS Church magazine that enumerates various possibilities for creation is usually attributed to Smith or to the First Presidency. Included in the listed possibilities were the ideas that Adam and Eve: (1) "evolved in natural processes to present perfection"; (2) were "transplanted [to earth] from another sphere"; or (3) were "born here ... as other mortals have been."
David O. McKay
In a 1952 speech to students at Brigham Young University, McKay used the theory of evolution as an example while suggesting that science can "leave [a student] with his soul unanchored". He stated:
There is a perpetual design permeating all purposes of creation. On this thought, science again leads a student up to a certain point and sometimes leaves him with his soul unanchored. ... For example, evolution's beautiful theory of the creation of the world offers many perplexing problems to the inquiring mind. Inevitably, a teacher who denies divine agency in creation, who insists there is no intelligent purpose in it, will impress the student with the thought that all may be chance. I say, that no youth should be so led without a counterbalancing thought. ... God is at the helm. God is the Creator of the earth. He is the Father of our souls and spirits. No question about it. You have your testimony—if you haven't you shouldn't be on the faculty—that God lives and Jesus is the Christ, and the purpose of creation is theirs."
In the April 1968 church general conference, McKay's son David Lawrence McKay read a message on his father's behalf that was an edited version of the 1952 speech, including the omission of the word "beautiful" when describing the theory of evolution.
In 1954, McKay quoted the Old Testament while affirming to members of the BYU faculty that living things only reproduce "after their kind". He said:
The stern fact of life is that animals, as other living things, can grow and produce their kind only in accordance with fixed laws of nature and the divine command, "Let the earth bring forth the living creatures after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and the beast of the earth after his kind." (Genesis 1:24)
Spencer W. Kimball
At a 1975 church women's conference, church president Spencer W. Kimball stated, "we don't know exactly how [Adam and Eve's] coming into this world happened, and when we're able to understand it the Lord will tell us."
Ezra Taft Benson
As president of the church, Ezra Taft Benson, gave an April 1981 conference address in which he stated that "the theory of man’s development from lower forms of life" is a "false idea". In 1988, he published a book counseling members of the church to use the Book of Mormon to counter the theories of evolution. He wrote that "we have not been using the Book of Mormon as we should. Our homes are not as strong unless we are using it to bring our children to Christ. Our families may be corrupted by worldly trends and teachings unless we know how to use the book to expose and combat the falsehoods in ... organic evolution. In 1988, Benson published another book that included his earlier warnings about the "deceptions" of Charles Darwin. He wrote:
As a watchman on the tower, I feel to warn you that one of the chief means of misleading our youth and destroying the family unit is our educational institutions. There is more than one reason why the Church is advising our youth to attend colleges close to their homes where institutes of religion are available. It gives the parents the opportunity to stay close to their children, and if they become alerted and informed, these parents can help expose some of the deceptions of men like ... Charles Darwin.
Gordon B. Hinckley
In a 1997 speech at an Institute of Religion in Ogden, Utah, church president Gordon B. Hinckley said: "People ask me every now and again if I believe in evolution. I tell them I am not concerned with organic evolution. I do not worry about it. I passed through that argument long ago."
None of us ... knows enough. The learning process is an endless process. We must read, we must observe, we must assimilate, and we must ponder that to which we expose our minds. I believe in evolution, not organic evolution, as it is called, but in the evolution of the mind, the heart, and the soul of man. I believe in improvement. I believe in growth.
In the late 1990s, Hinckley recalled his university studies of evolution to reporter Larry A. Witham: "'Studied all about it. Didn't worry me then. Doesn't worry me now.'" In 2004, an official church magazine printed a quote from Hinckley from a 1983 speech where he expressed a similar sentiment.
Science and Mormonism
There has been a wide range of views on the relationship between church teachings on human origins and scientific findings. In the US where many Mormons live, a 2013 poll showed that 60% of US adults believe that humans evolved over time while 30% believed they had existed in their present form since the beginning. A 2014 poll showed that only 42% of Mormons US adults believed that humans evolved over time and 52% believed they had always been in their present form.
The topic of the intersection of science and LDS teachings has been discussed on multiple occasions throughout the Mormon church's history. In 1871, Brigham Young taught, “We differ from the Christian world, for our religion will not clash with or contradict the facts of science in any particular.” On another occasion Young taught, “The idea that the religion of Christ is one thing, and science is another, is a mistaken idea, for there is no true religion without true science....” More recently, apostle Russell Nelson taught in the October 2012 General Conference of the Church, “The human spirit yearns for enlightenment. Whether truth comes from a scientific laboratory or by revelation from God, we seek it!” Henry Eyring, a prominent 20th century Mormon chemist asked, “Is there any conflict between science and religion? There is no conflict in the mind of God, but often there is conflict in the minds of men.”
- 1911 Brigham Young University controversy
- William Henry Chamberlin (philosopher)
- Ralph Vary Chamberlin
- Relationship between religion and science
- Ahmadiyya views on evolution
- Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church
- Jainism and non-creationism
- Jewish views on evolution
- Hindu views on evolution
- Issues in Science and Religion
- The entry on evolution in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism was approved by apostles Neal A. Maxwell and Dallin H. Oaks.
- Joseph Fielding Smith: "We have evidence beyond dispute that Adam was driven out of the Garden of Eden about 6,000 years ago, or perhaps a short time less. ... In [Doctrine and Covenants] section 77:6–15, we have more information in relation to the opening of these seals [i.e., the seven seals mentioned in the Book of Revelation], with the following significant detail: 'Q. What are we to understand by the book which John saw, which was sealed on the back with seven seals? A. We are to understand that it contains the revealed will, mysteries, and works of God; the hidden things of his economy concerning this earth during the seven thousand years of its continuance, or its temporal existence.'"
- McConkie was Smith's son-in-law and the two had largely compatible doctrinal views.
- Works cited
- "Mormonism and science/Evolution/Official stance".
- Evenson, William E.; Jeffrey, Duane E. (2005), Mormonism and Evolution: The Authoritative LDS Statements, Salt Lake City, Utah: Greg Kofford Books, p. 35, ISBN 1589580931, OCLC 62090739
- Evenson, William E. (1992). "Evolution". In Ludlow, Daniel H. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan Publishing. p. 478. ISBN 0-02-879602-0. OCLC 24502140.
- Smith, Joseph F.; Winder, John R.; Lund, Anthon H. (November 1909), "The Origin of Man", Improvement Era, 13 (1): 75–81. Online reprint by the Biology Department of the College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University
- Smith, Joseph F.; Winder, John R.; Lund, Anthon H. (17 December 1910), "Words in Season from the First Presidency", Deseret Evening News, sec. 1, p. 3. Online reprint by the Biology Department of the College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University
- First Presidency (Heber J. Grant, Anthony W. Ivins, Charles W. Nibley), "'Mormon' View of Evolution", Deseret News, 1925-07-18, reprinted in Improvement Era 28:1090–91 (September 1925).
- William E. Evenson and Duane E. Jeffrey (2005). Mormonism and Evolution: The Authoritative LDS Statements (Salt Lake City, Utah: Greg Kofford Books) ISBN 1-58958-093-1.
- Ash, Michael R. (Winter 2002). "The Mormon Myth of Evil Evolution" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 35 (4): 23–24. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Sherlock, Richard (Fall 1980). ""We Can See No Advantage to a Continuation of the Discussion"": The Roberts/Smith/Talmage Affair" (PDF). Dialoge: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 13 (3): 70–71. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Sherlock, Richard; Keller, Jeffrey E. (1993). The Search for Harmony: The B. H. Roberts/Joseph Fielding Smith/James E. Talmage Affair. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. p. 97. ISBN 1-56085-020-5. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Roberts, B.H. (15 March 1995). The Truth, The Way, The Life: An Elementary Treaties on Theology (1 ed.). Salt Lake City: Signature Books. ISBN 1560850779. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Boyd K. Packer (1988), "The Law and the Light", Book of Mormon Symposium, BYU, (30 October 1988).
- Smith, Joseph F.; Winder, John R.; Lund, Anthon H. (February 2002), "The Origin of Man", Ensign: 26–30.
- B. H. Roberts, "Official Doctrine", sermon of 10 July 1921, Deseret News (23 July 1921) section 4:7.
- Packer, Boyd. "The Pattern of Our Parentage". lds.org. LDS Church. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Nelson, Russell. "Thanks Be to God". lds.org. LDS Church. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Tim S. Reid (1997). "Mormons and evolution: A history of B. H. Roberts and his attempt to reconcile science and religion," Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University.
- "Old Testament Student Manual Genesis-2 Samuel, 1980". lds.org. LDS Church.
- Church Educational System (2003, 3d ed.). "Genesis 1–2: The Creation", Old Testament Student Manual Genesis – 2 Samuel (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church) ISBN 1-81301-212-1.
- Smith, Joseph Fielding (1954–56), "The Earth, Its Creation and Destiny", in McConkie, Bruce R., Doctrines of Salvation: Sermons and Writings of Joseph Fielding Smith, 1, Bookcraft, p. 19
- Church Educational System (2013). Doctrine and Covenants and Church History Seminary Teacher Manual. Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church. p. 280.
- "Fall of Adam", Bible Dictionary (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church).
- "Flesh", Bible Dictionary (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church). pp. 670, 675.
- Bible Dictionary (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church). p. 599.
- Bruce R. McConkie, "Christ and the Creation," Ensign, June 1982, p. 9.
- Bruce R. McConkie, "This Generation Shall Have My Word through You," Ensign, June 1980, p. 54.
- Improvement Era, April 10, 1910, vol. 13, p. 570
- Ott, Stephen. "A Explanation of the Library Packet on Evolution" (PDF). byui.edu. BYU-I. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "BYU Library Packet on Evolution" (PDF). byu.edu. BYU. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
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