Mormonism and polygamy

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Polygamy (called plural marriage by Latter-day Saints in the 19th century or the Principle by modern fundamentalist practitioners of polygamy) was practiced by leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) for more than half of the 19th century,[1] and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.[2][3] Today, various denominations of fundamentalist Mormonism continue to practice polygamy.[4]

The Latter-day Saints' practice of polygamy has been controversial, both within Western society and the LDS Church itself. The U.S. was both fascinated and horrified by the practice of polygamy, with the Republican platform at one time referencing "the twin relics of barbarism—polygamy and slavery."[5] The private practice of polygamy was instituted in the 1830s by founder Joseph Smith. The public practice of plural marriage by the church was announced and defended in 1852 by a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Orson Pratt,[3] at the request of church president Brigham Young.

For over 60 years, the LDS Church and the United States were at odds over the issue: the church defended the practice as a matter of religious freedom, while the federal government aggressively sought to eradicate it, consistent with prevailing public opinion. Polygamy was probably a significant factor in the Utah War of 1857 and 1858, given Republican attempts to paint Democratic President James Buchanan as weak in his opposition to both polygamy and slavery. In 1862, the United States Congress passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which prohibited plural marriage in the territories.[3] In spite of the law, Latter-day Saints continued to practice polygamy, believing that it was protected by the First Amendment. In 1879, in Reynolds v. United States,[6] the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the Morrill Act, stating: "Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they cannot interfere with mere religious belief and opinion, they may with practices."[3]

In 1890, when it became clear that Utah would not be admitted to the Union while polygamy was still practiced, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially terminated the practice of polygamy.[7] Although this Manifesto did not dissolve existing plural marriages, relations with the United States markedly improved after 1890, such that Utah was admitted as a U.S. state in 1896. After the Manifesto, some church members continued to enter into polygamous marriages, but these eventually stopped in 1904 when church president Joseph F. Smith disavowed polygamy before Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease, and established excommunication as the consequence for those who disobeyed. Several small "fundamentalist" groups, seeking to continue the practice, split from the LDS Church, including the Apostolic United Brethren (AUB) and the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS Church). Meanwhile, the LDS Church continues its policy of excommunicating members found practicing polygamy, and today actively seeks to distance itself from fundamentalist groups that continue the practice.[8] On its website, the church states that "the standard doctrine of the church is monogamy" and that polygamy was a temporary exception to the rule.[9][10]


Many early converts to the religion including Brigham Young,[11] Orson Pratt, and Lyman Johnson, recorded that Joseph Smith was teaching plural marriage privately as early as 1831 or 1832. Pratt reported that Smith told some early members in 1831 and 1832 that plural marriage was a true principle, but that the time to practice it had not yet come.[12] Johnson also claimed to have heard the doctrine from Smith in 1831.[13] Mosiah Hancock reported that his father was taught about plural marriage in the spring of 1832.[14]

The 1835 and 1844 versions of the church's Doctrine and Covenants (D&C) prohibited polygamy and declared that monogamy was the only acceptable form of marriage:

In as much as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in the case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again.[15]

William Clayton, Smith's scribe, recorded early polygamous marriages in 1843: "On the 1st day of May, 1843, I officiated in the office of an Elder by marrying Lucy Walker to the Prophet Joseph Smith, at his own residence. During this period the Prophet Joseph took several other wives. Amongst the number I well remember Eliza Partridge, Emily Partridge, Sarah Ann Whitney, Helen Kimball and Flora Woodworth. These all, he acknowledged to me, were his lawful, wedded wives, according to the celestial order. His wife Emma was cognizant of the fact of some, if not all, of these being his wives, and she generally treated them very kindly."[16]

As early as 1832, Mormon missionaries worked successfully to convert followers in Maine of polygamist religious leader Jacob Cochran, who went into hiding in 1830 to escape imprisonment due to his practice of polygamy. Among Cochran's marital innovations was "spiritual wifery," and "tradition assumes that he received frequent consignments of spiritual consorts, and that such were invariably the most robust and attractive women in the community."[17] The majority of what became the Quorum of the Twelve in 1835 attended Mormon conferences held in the center of the Cochranite territory in 1834 and 1835.[18][19][20][21] Brigham Young, an apostle of the church, became acquainted with Cochran's followers as he made several missionary journeys through the Cochranite territory from Boston to Saco,[22] and later married Augusta Adams Cobb, a former Cochranite.[23][24]

Joseph Smith publicly condemned polygamy, denied his involvement in it, and participants were excommunicated, as church records and publications reflect.[25][26] But church leaders nevertheless began practicing polygamy in the 1840s, particularly members of the Quorum of the Twelve.[27] Sidney Rigdon, while he was estranged from the church, wrote a letter in backlash to the Messenger and Advocate in 1844 condemning the church's Quorum of the Twelve and their alleged connection to polygamy:

It is a fact so well known that the Twelve and their adherents have endeavored to carry on this spiritual wife business ... and have gone to the most shameful and desperate lengths to keep from the public. First, insulting innocent females, and when they resented the insult, these monsters in human shape would assail their characters by lying, and perjuries, with a multitude of desperate men to help them effect the ruin of those whom they insulted, and all this to enable them to keep these corrupt practices from the world.[28]

At the time, the practice was kept secret from non-members and most church members. Throughout his life, Smith publicly denied having multiple wives.[29]

However, John C. Bennett, a recent convert to the church and the first mayor of Nauvoo, used ideas of eternal and plural marriage to justify acts of seduction, adultery and, in some cases, the practice of abortion in the guise of "spiritual wifery." Bennett was called to account by Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and was excommunicated from the church.[30] In April 1844, Joseph Smith referred to polygamy as "John C. Bennett's spiritual wife system" and warned "if any man writes to you, or preaches to you, doctrines contrary to the Bible, the Book of Mormon, or the book of Doctrine and Covenants, set him down as an imposter." Smith mused

we cannot but express our surprise that any elder or priest who has been in Nauvoo, and has had an opportunity of hearing the principles of truth advanced, should for one moment give credence to the idea that any thing like iniquity is practised, much less taught or sanctioned, by the authorities of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.[31]

The practice was publicly announced in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, in 1852, some five years after the Mormons arrived in Utah, and eight years after Smith's death. The doctrine authorizing plural marriage was canonized and published in the 1876 version of the LDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants.[32]

Teachings on the multiple wives of God and Jesus[edit]

Top leaders used the examples of the polygamy of God the Father and Jesus Christ in defense of it and these teachings on God and Jesus' polygamy were widely accepted among Mormons by the late 1850s.[33][34] In 1853, Jedediah M. Grant—who later become a First Presidency member—stated that the top reason behind the persecution of Christ and his disciples was due to their practice of polygamy.[35][33] Two months later, apostle Orson Pratt taught in a church periodical that "We have now clearly shown that God the Father had a plurality of wives," and that after her death, Mary (the mother of Jesus) may have become another eternal polygamous wife of God.[36][37] He also stated that Christ had multiple wives—Mary of Bethany, Martha, and Mary Magdalene—as further evidence in defense of polygamy.[38][33] In the next two years the apostle Orson Hyde also stated during two general conference addresses that Jesus practiced polygamy[39][40][33] and repeated this in an 1857 address.[41][42] This teaching was alluded to by church president Brigham Young in 1870 and First Presidency member Joseph F. Smith in 1883.[43][44]

Plural marriages of early church leaders[edit]

Joseph Smith[edit]

The 1843 polygamy revelation, published posthumously, counseled Smith's wife Emma to accept all of Smith's plural wives, and warns of destruction if the new covenant is not observed.[45] Emma Smith was publicly and privately opposed to the practice and Joseph may have married some women without Emma knowing beforehand.[46] Emma publicly denied that her husband had ever preached or practiced polygamy,[47] which later became a defining difference between the LDS Church under Brigham Young and the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church; now known as the Community of Christ), led by Joseph Smith III. Emma Smith remained affiliated with the RLDS Church until her death at the age of 74. Emma Smith claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of the 1843 polygamy revelation was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's publication The Seer in 1853.[48]

There is a subtle difference between "sealing" (which is a Mormon priesthood ordinance that binds individuals together in the eternities), and "marriage" (a social tradition in which the man and woman agree to be husband and wife in this life). In the early days of Mormonism, common practices and doctrines were not yet well-defined. Even among those who accept the views of conventional historians, there is disagreement as to the precise number of wives Smith had: Fawn M. Brodie lists 48,[49] D. Michael Quinn 46,[50] and George D. Smith 38.[51] The discrepancy is created by the lack of documents to support the alleged marriages to some of the named wives.

A number of Smith's "marriages" occurred after his death, with the wife being sealed to Smith via a proxy who stood in for him.[52] One historian, Todd M. Compton, documented at least 33 plural marriages or sealings during Smith's lifetime.[53] Richard Lloyd Anderson and Scott H. Faulring came up with a list of 29 wives of Joseph Smith.[54]

It is unclear how many of the wives Smith had sexual relations with. Many contemporary accounts from Smith's time indicate that he engaged in sexual relations with several of his wives.[53][55] As of 2007, there were at least twelve early Latter Day Saints who, based on historical documents and circumstantial evidence, had been identified as potential Smith offspring stemming from plural marriages. In 2005 and 2007 studies, a geneticist with the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation stated that they had shown "with 99.9 percent accuracy" that five of these individuals were in fact not Smith descendants: Mosiah Hancock (son of Clarissa Reed Hancock), Oliver Buell (son of Prescindia Huntington Buell), Moroni Llewellyn Pratt (son of Mary Ann Frost Pratt), Zebulon Jacobs (son of Zina Diantha Huntington Jacobs Smith), and Orrison Smith (son of Fanny Alger).[56] The remaining seven have yet to be conclusively tested, including Josephine Lyon, for whom current DNA testing using mitochondrial DNA cannot provide conclusive evidence either way. Lyon's mother, Sylvia Sessions Lyon, left her daughter a deathbed affidavit telling her she was Smith's daughter.[56]

Other early church leaders[edit]

LDS Church president Brigham Young had 51 wives, and 56 children by 16 of those wives.

LDS Church apostle Heber C. Kimball had 43 wives, and had 65 children by 17 of those wives.

U.S. government actions against polygamy[edit]

Mormon polygamy was one of the leading moral issues of the 19th Century in the United States, perhaps second only to slavery in importance. Spurred by popular indignation, the U.S. government took a number of steps against polygamy; these were of varying effectiveness.[57][58]

1857–1858 Utah War[edit]

As the LDS Church settled in what became the Utah Territory, it eventually was subjected to the power and opinion of the United States. Friction first began to show in the James Buchanan administration and federal troops arrived (see Utah War). Buchanan, anticipating Mormon opposition to a newly appointed territorial governor to replace Brigham Young, dispatched 2,500 federal troops to Utah to seat the new governor, thus setting in motion a series of misunderstandings in which the Mormons felt threatened.[59]

1862 Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act[edit]

For the most part, the rest of the United States considered plural marriage offensive. On July 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act into law, which forbade the practice in U.S. territories. Lincoln made a statement that he had no intentions of enforcing it if the LDS Church would not interfere with him, and so the matter was laid to rest for a time. But rhetoric continued, and polygamy became an impediment to Utah being admitted as a state. Brigham Young preached in 1866 that if Utah will not be admitted to the Union until it abandons polygamy, "we shall never be admitted."[60]

After the Civil War, immigrants to Utah who were not members of the church continued the contest for political power. They were frustrated by the consolidation of the members. Forming the Liberal Party, non-Mormons began pushing for political changes and sought to weaken the church's dominance in the territory. In September 1871, Young was indicted for adultery due to his plural marriages. On January 6, 1879, the Supreme Court upheld the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act in Reynolds v. United States.[citation needed]

1882 Edmunds Act[edit]

In February 1882, George Q. Cannon, a prominent leader in the church, was denied a non-voting seat in the U.S. House of Representatives due to his polygamous relations. This revived the issue of polygamy in national politics. One month later, the Edmunds Act was passed by Congress, amending the Morrill Act and made polygamy a felony punishable by a $500 fine and five years in prison. "Unlawful cohabitation," in which the prosecution did not need to prove that a marriage ceremony had taken place (only that a couple had lived together), was a misdemeanor punishable by a $300 fine and six months imprisonment.[3] It also revoked the right of polygamists to vote or hold office and allowed them to be punished without due process. Even if people did not practice polygamy, they would have their rights revoked if they confessed a belief in it. In August, Rudger Clawson was imprisoned for continuing to cohabit with wives that he married before the 1862 Morrill Act.

1887 Edmunds–Tucker Act[edit]

Polygamists, including George Q. Cannon, imprisoned under the Edmunds–Tucker Act, at the Utah Penitentiary in 1889.

In 1887, the Edmunds–Tucker Act allowed the disincorporation of the LDS Church and the seizure of church property; it also further extended the punishments of the Edmunds Act. In July of the same year, the U.S. Attorney General filed suit to seize all church assets.

The church was losing control of the territorial government, and many members and leaders were being actively pursued as fugitives. Without being able to appear publicly, the leadership was left to navigate "underground."

Following the passage of the Edmunds–Tucker Act, the church found it difficult to operate as a viable institution. After visiting priesthood leaders in many settlements, church president Wilford Woodruff left for San Francisco on September 3, 1890, to meet with prominent businessmen and politicians. He returned to Salt Lake City on September 21, determined to obtain divine confirmation to pursue a course that seemed to be agonizingly more and more clear. As he explained to church members a year later, the choice was between, on the one hand, continuing to practice plural marriage and thereby losing the temples, "stopping all the ordinances therein," and, on the other, ceasing plural marriage in order to continue performing the essential ordinances for the living and the dead. Woodruff hastened to add that he had acted only as the Lord directed:

I should have let all the temples go out of our hands; I should have gone to prison myself, and let every other man go there, had not the God of heaven commanded me to do what I do; and when the hour came that I was commanded to do that, it was all clear to me.[61]

1890 Manifesto banning plural marriage[edit]

The final element in Woodruff's revelatory experience came on the evening of September 23, 1890. The following morning, he reported to some of the general authorities that he had struggled throughout the night with the Lord regarding the path that should be pursued. The result was a 510-word handwritten manuscript which stated his intentions to comply with the law and denied that the church continued to solemnize or condone plural marriages. The document was later edited by George Q. Cannon of the First Presidency and others to its present 356 words. On October 6, 1890, it was presented to the Latter-day Saints at the General Conference and unanimously approved.

While many church leaders in 1890 regarded the Manifesto as inspired, there were differences among them about its scope and permanence. Contemporary opinions include the contention that the manifesto was more related to an effort to achieve statehood for the Utah territory.[62] Some leaders were reluctant to terminate a long-standing practice that was regarded as divinely mandated. As a result, over 200 plural marriages were performed between 1890 and 1904.[63]

1904 Second Manifesto[edit]

It was not until 1904, under the leadership of church president Joseph F. Smith, that the church completely banned new plural marriages worldwide.[64] Not surprisingly, rumors persisted of marriages performed after the 1890 Manifesto, and beginning in January 1904, testimony given in the Smoot hearings made it clear that plural marriage had not been completely extinguished.

The ambiguity was ended in the General Conference of April 1904, when Smith issued the "Second Manifesto," an emphatic declaration that prohibited plural marriage and proclaimed that offenders would be subject to church discipline. It declared that any who participated in additional plural marriages, and those officiating, would be excommunicated from the church. Those disagreeing with the Second Manifesto included apostles Matthias F. Cowley and John W. Taylor, who both resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve. Cowley retained his membership in the church, but Taylor was later excommunicated.

Although the Second Manifesto ended the official practice of new plural marriages, existing plural marriages were not automatically dissolved. Many Mormons, including prominent church leaders, maintained existing plural marriages into the 1940s and 1950s.[65]

In 1943, the First Presidency learned that apostle Richard R. Lyman was cohabitating with a woman other than his legal wife. As it turned out, in 1925 Lyman had begun a relationship which he defined as a polygamous marriage. Unable to trust anyone else to officiate, Lyman and the woman exchanged vows secretly. By 1943, both were in their seventies. Lyman was excommunicated on November 12, 1943. The Quorum of the Twelve provided the newspapers with a one-sentence announcement, stating that the ground for excommunication was violation of the law of chastity.

Remnants within sects[edit]

Teens from polygamous families along with over 200 supporters demonstrate at a pro-plural marriage rally in Salt Lake City in 2006[66]

Over time, many of those who rejected the LDS Church's relinquishment of plural marriage formed small, close-knit communities in areas of the Rocky Mountains. These groups continue to practice "the Principle." In the 1940s, LDS Church apostle Mark E. Petersen coined the term "Mormon fundamentalist" to describe such people.[67] Fundamentalists either practice as individuals, as families, or as part of organized denominations. Today, the LDS Church objects to the use of the term "Mormon fundamentalists" and suggests using the term "polygamist sects" to avoid confusion about whether the main body of Mormon believers teach or practice polygamy.[68]

Mormon fundamentalists believe that plural marriage is a requirement for exaltation and entry into the highest level of the celestial kingdom. These beliefs stem from statements by 19th-century Mormon authorities including Brigham Young (although some of these leaders gave possibly conflicting statements that a monogamist may obtain at least a lower degree of "exaltation" through mere belief in polygamy).[69]

For public relations reasons, the LDS Church has sought vigorously to disassociate itself from Mormon fundamentalists and the practice of plural marriage.[70] Although the LDS Church has requested that journalists not refer to Mormon fundamentalists using the term "Mormon,"[71] journalists generally have not complied, and "Mormon fundamentalist" has become standard terminology. Mormon fundamentalists themselves embrace the term "Mormon" and share a religious heritage and beliefs with the LDS Church, including canonization of the Book of Mormon and a claim that Joseph Smith is the founder of their religion.

Modern plural marriage theory within the LDS Church[edit]

Although the LDS Church has abandoned the practice of plural marriage, it has not abandoned the underlying doctrines of polygamy. According to the church's sacred texts and pronouncements by its leaders and theologians, the church leaves open the possibility that it may one day re-institute the practice. It is still the practice of monogamous Mormon couples to be sealed to one another. However, in some circumstances, men and women may be sealed to multiple spouses. Most commonly, a man may be sealed to multiple wives: if his first wife dies, he may be sealed to a second wife. A deceased woman may also be sealed to multiple men, but only through vicarious sealing if they are also deceased.[72]

Reasons for polygamy[edit]

As early as the publication of the Book of Mormon in 1830, Latter Day Saint doctrine maintained that polygamy was allowable only if it was commanded by God. The Book of Jacob condemned polygamy as adultery,[73] but left open the proviso that "For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise, they shall hearken unto these things."[74] Thus, the LDS Church today teaches that plural marriage can only be practiced when specifically authorized by God. According to this view, the 1890 Manifesto and Second Manifesto rescinded God's prior authorization given to Joseph Smith.

However, Bruce R. McConkie controversially stated in his 1958 book, Mormon Doctrine, that God will "obviously" re-institute the practice of polygamy after the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.[75][76] This echoes earlier teachings by Brigham Young that the primary purpose of polygamy was to bring about the Millennium.[77] Current official church materials do not make any mention of the future re-institution of plural marriage.

Multiple sealings when a prior spouse has died[edit]

In the case where a man's first wife dies, and the man remarries, and both of the marriages involve a sealing, LDS authorities teach that in the afterlife, the man will enter a polygamous relationship with both wives.[78] Current apostles Russell M. Nelson and Dallin H. Oaks are examples of such a case.[79]

Under LDS Church policy, a man whose sealed wife has died does not have to request any permission beyond having a current temple recommend and an interview with his bishop to get final permission for a living ordinance, to be married in the temple and sealed to another woman, unless the new wife's circumstance requires a cancellation of sealing. However, a woman whose sealed husband has died is still bound by the original sealing and must request a cancellation of sealing to be sealed to another man (see next paragraph for exception to this after she dies). In some cases, women in this situation who wish to remarry choose to be married to a subsequent husband and are not sealed to them, leaving them sealed to their first husband for eternity.

As of 1998, however, women who have died may be sealed to more than one man. In 1998, the LDS Church created a new policy that a woman may also be sealed to more than one man. A woman, however, may not be sealed to more than one man while she is alive. She may only be sealed to subsequent partners after both she and her husband(s) have died.[80] Thus, if a widow who was sealed to her first husband remarries, she may be sealed by proxy to all of her subsequent husband(s), but only after both she and the subsequent husbands have died. Proxy sealings, like proxy baptisms, are merely offered to the person in the afterlife, indicating that the purpose is to allow the woman to choose the right man to be sealed to.[citation needed]

In the twenty-first century, church leadership has taught that doctrinal knowledge about the nature of family relations in the afterlife is limited and there is no official church teaching on how multiple marriages in life play out in the afterlife beyond trust in God that such matters will work out happily.[81]

Multiple sealings when marriages end in divorce[edit]

A man who is sealed to a woman but later divorced must apply for a "sealing clearance" from the First Presidency in order to be sealed to another woman.[82] Receiving clearance does not void or invalidate the first sealing. A woman in the same circumstances would apply to the First Presidency for a "cancellation of sealing" (sometimes called a "temple divorce"), allowing her to be sealed to another man. This approval voids the original sealing as far as the woman is concerned.[83] Divorced women who have not applied for a sealing cancellation are considered sealed to the original husband. However, according to Drs. Joseph Stuart and Janiece Johnson of the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, even in the afterlife the marriage relationship is voluntary, so no person could be forced into an eternal relationship through a temple sealing they do not wish to be in.[84] Divorced women may also be granted a cancellation of sealing, even though they do not intend to marry someone else. In this case, they are no longer regarded as being sealed to anyone and are presumed to have the same eternal status as unwed women.

Proxy sealings where both spouses have died[edit]

According to church policy, after a man has died, he may be sealed by proxy to all of the women to whom he was legally married while he was alive. The same is true for women; however, if a woman was sealed to a man while she was alive, all of her husbands must be deceased before she can be sealed by proxy to them.[80][85]

Church doctrine is not entirely specific on the status of men or women who are sealed by proxy to multiple spouses. There are at least two possibilities:

  1. Regardless of how many people a man or woman is sealed to by proxy, they will only remain with one of them in the afterlife, and that the remaining spouses, who might still merit the full benefits of exaltation that come from being sealed, would then marry another person in order to ensure each has an eternal marriage.
  2. These sealings create effective plural marriages that will continue after death. There are no church teachings clarifying whether polyandrous relationships can exist in the afterlife, so some church members doubt whether this possibility would apply to women who are sealed by proxy to multiple spouses. The possibility for women to be sealed to multiple men is a recent policy change enacted in 1998. Church leaders have neither explained this change, nor its doctrinal implications.

Criticism of plural marriage[edit]

Instances of unhappy plural marriage[edit]

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS Church claim that plural marriages produced unhappiness in some wives.[86] LDS historian Todd Compton, in his book In Sacred Loneliness, described various instances where some wives in polygamous marriages were unhappy with polygamy.[53]

A means for male sexual gratification[edit]

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS Church claim that church leaders established the practice of polygamy in order to further their immoral desires for sexual gratification with multiple sexual partners.[87] Critics point to the fact that church leaders practiced polygamy in secret from 1833 to 1852, despite a written church doctrine (Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1835 edition) renouncing polygamy and stating that only monogamous marriages were permitted.[88] Critics also cite several first-person accounts of early church leaders attempting to use the polygamy doctrine to enter into illicit relationships with women.[89][90] Critics also assert that Joseph Smith instituted polygamy in order to cover up an 1835 adulterous affair with a neighbor's daughter, Fanny Alger, by taking Alger as his second wife.[91] Compton dates this marriage to March or April 1833, well before Joseph was accused of an affair.[92] However, historian Lawrence Foster dismisses the marriage of Alger to Joseph Smith as "debatable supposition" rather than "established fact."[93]

Others conclude that many Latter-day Saints entered into plural marriage based on the belief that it was a religious commandment, rather than as an excuse for sexual license. For instance, many of the figures who came to be best associated with plural marriage, including church president Brigham Young and his counselor Heber C. Kimball, expressed revulsion at the system when it was first introduced to them. Young famously stated that after receiving the commandment to practice plural marriage in Nauvoo, he saw a funeral procession walking down the street and he wished he could exchange places with the corpse. He recalled that "I was not desirous of shrinking from any duty, nor of failing in the least to do as I was commanded, but it was the first time in my life that I had desired the grave, and I could hardly get over it for a long time."[94] When Kimball first heard of the principle, he believed that he would marry elderly women whom he would care for and who would not be a threat to his first wife Vilate. He was later shocked to learn that he was to marry a younger woman.[95] His biographer writes that he "became sick in body, but his mental wretchedness was too great to allow of his retiring, and he would walk the floor till nearly morning, and sometimes the agony of his mind was so terrible that he would wring his hands and weep like a child."[95] While his wife Vilate had trials "grievous to bear" as a result of her acceptance of plural marriage, she supported her husband in his religious duties, and taught her children that "she could not doubt the plural order of marriage was of God, for the Lord had revealed it to her in answer to prayer."[96]

Bar chart showing age differences at the time of polygamous marriage between teenage brides and early Latter Day Saint church leaders.[97][98][99][100] The average age of first marriage for white US women from 1850–1880 was 23.[101]

Underage plural marriages[edit]

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS Church claim that church leaders sometimes used polygamy to take advantage of young girls for immoral purposes.[102] Historian George D. Smith studied 153 men who took plural wives in the early years of the Latter Day Saint movement, and found that two of the girls were thirteen years old, 13 girls were fourteen years old, 21 were fifteen years old, and 53 were sixteen years old.[103] Historian Todd Compton documented that Joseph Smith married one girl who was fourteen-years old (possibly two); according to Compton, "it is unlikely that the marriage was consummated".[104] Historian Stanly Hirshon documented cases of girls aged 10 and 11 being married to old men.[105]

The mean age of marriage for women was lower in Mormon polygamy than in New England and the Northeastern states (the societies in which Smith and many early converts to the movement had lived). This was partly caused by the practice of polygamy, and Compton concludes that "Early marriage and very early marriage were… accepted" in early Mormonism. These marriages were frequently "dynastic" in purpose, meant to join people to the families of leaders, motivated by the significance of marriage for the nineteenth-century Latter-day Saint understanding of the afterlife. According to Compton, the "valid parallel" for Mormon early marriages is the "American and European history of elite early marriages that were not consummated until the marriage participants were much older". Compton "find[s] dynastic marriages of teenage girls problematic, even if sexual consummation is delayed".[106]

However, it seems that Brigham Young attempted to stamp out the practice of men being sealed to excessively young girls. In 1857, he stated, "I shall not seal the people as I have done. Old Father Alread brought three young girls 12 & 13 years old. I would not seal them to him. They would not be equally yoked together. . . . Many get their endowments who are not worthy and this is the way that devils are made."[107]

Instances of coercion[edit]

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS Church have documented several cases where deception and coercion were used to induce marriage,[108] for example citing the case of Joseph Smith who warned some potential spouses of eternal damnation if they did not consent to be his wife.[53] In 1893, married LDS Church member John D. Miles traveled to England and proposed to Caroline Owens, assuring her that he was not polygamous. She returned to Utah and participated in a wedding, only to find out after the ceremony that Miles was already married. She ran away, but Miles hunted her down and raped her. She eventually escaped, and filed a lawsuit against Miles that reached the Supreme Court and became a significant case in polygamy case law.[109] Ann Eliza Young, nineteenth wife of Brigham Young, claimed that Young coerced her to marry him by threatening financial ruin of her brother.[110]

Incestuous plural marriages[edit]

Critics of polygamy in the early LDS Church claim that polygamy was used to justify marriage of close relatives that would otherwise be considered immoral.[111][112] In 1843, Joseph Smith's diary records the sealing of John Milton Bernhisel to his sister, Maria, in a ceremony that included the sealing of Bernhisel to multiple relatives, some of whom were deceased.[113] However, this is understood by most scholars as the collective sealing or binding of the family and not a marriage between Bernhisel and his sister. Similar family sealings are practiced in Latter-Day Saint temples today, where children of parents who were not sealed at the time of their marriage are sealed to their parents and to one another in a group ceremony.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Polygamy: Latter-day Saints and the Practice of Plural Marriage". Church Newsroom. Archived from the original on March 6, 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  2. ^ Flake, Kathleen (2004). The Politics of American Religious Identity. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 65, 192. ISBN 0807855014.
  3. ^ a b c d e Embry, Jessie L. (1994), "Polygamy", in Powell, Allan Kent (ed.), Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917, archived from the original on April 17, 2017, retrieved October 30, 2013
  4. ^ Press, BRADY McCOMBS Associated (November 12, 2019). "Mexico killing highlights confusion over Mormon groups". KUTV.
  5. ^ US website
  6. ^ Reynolds v. United States “The History of The Supreme Court”
  7. ^ Official Declaration 1
  8. ^ The LDS Church encourages journalists not to use the word "Mormon" in reference to organizations or people that practice polygamy "Style Guide — LDS Newsroom". April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2014.; the church repudiates polygamist groups and excommunicates their members if discovered Bushman (2008, p. 91); "Mormons seek distance from polygamous sects". NBC News. 2008.
  9. ^ LDS Church, Polygamy: Latter-day Saints and the Practice of Plural Marriage, LDS Newsroom
  10. ^ Jacob 2:27–30
  11. ^ Journal History, 26 August 1857; cited by Hyrum Leslie Andrus, Doctrines of the Kingdom (Salt Lake City, Utah: Desert Book Co., 1999), 489n436 (Andrus 1973)
  12. ^ Orson Pratt, "Celestial Marriage," Journal of Discourses, reported by David W. Evans (7 October 1869), Vol. 13 (London: Latter-day Saint's Book Depot, 1871), 192–93.
  13. ^ Lyman Johnson as recounted by Orson Pratt, "Report of Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith," Millennial Star, vol. 40, no. 50 (16 December 1878): 788.
  14. ^ Todd M. Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997), 644; citing Mosiah Hancock Autobiography, 61–62.
  15. ^ Doctrine and Covenants (1835 ed.), section 101, p. 251.
  16. ^ Smith 1995, pp. 94–101
  17. ^ Ridlon, G.T. Cochran Delusion/Mormon Invasion, in Saco Valley Settlements and Families: Historical, Biographical, Genealogical, Traditional, and Legendary (Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle, 1895), 269 ff.
  18. ^ Evening and Morning Star 2 [August 1834]: 181.
  19. ^ Messenger and Advocate 2 [October 1835]: 204–07 states that "On August 21, 1835, nine of the Twelve met in conference at Saco, Maine."
  20. ^ History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 1:583.
  21. ^ History of the Church 2:252
  22. ^ Times and Seasons 6 [November 1, 1845].
  23. ^ Stewart, J. J. (1961) Brigham Young and His Wives, at p. 85.
  24. ^ Carter, K.B. (1973) Our pioneer heritage 6, 187–89.
  25. ^ "Notice," Times and Seasons, Volume 5, No. 3, 1 February 1844 (p. 423 in bound editionalt source of text) "As we have lately been credibly informed, that an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter-day Saints, by the name of Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and other false and corrupt doctrines, in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan."
  26. ^ Roberts, B. H. (1912). History of the Church. Vol. 6. p. 411. What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one.—Joseph Smith
  27. ^ Smith, W. "A Proclamation," Warsaw Signal, Warsaw, Illinois [October 1845], page 1, column 4
  28. ^ Van Wagoner 1989, p. 83[citation not found]
  29. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 195, 283–84
  30. ^ Times and Seasons 3 [August 1, 1842]: 870–71.
  31. ^ Times and Seasons 5 [April 1, 1844]: 490–91.
  32. ^ Doctrine and Covenants, section 132; in the same edition, the statement denouncing polygamy (the old section 101) was removed.
  33. ^ a b c d Schelling Durham, Michael (1997). Desert Between the Mountains: Mormons, Miners, Padres, Mountain Men, and the Opening of the Great Basin, 1772-1869 (1st ed.). New York City: Henry Holt & Company, Inc. p. 182. ISBN 9780805041613. Pratt clearly loud out arguments in favor of polygamy that the Saints would use for years to come. ... Pratt and others argued that Jesus had three wives: Mary Magdalene, and Lazarus' two sisters, Mary and Martha. Apostle Orson Hyde went a step further and preached that 'Jesus Christ was married at Cana of Galilee, that Mary, Martha, and others were his wives, and that he begat children.'
  34. ^ Swanson, Vern G. (2013). "Christ and Polygamy". Dynasty of the Holy Grail: Mormonism's Holy Bloodline. Springville, UT: Cedar Fort, Inc. pp. 247–259. ISBN 9781462104048. Dr. William E. Phipps noted that the belief that 'Jesus married, and married often!' was used to encourage and promote the doctrine of polygamy amongst timid Latter-Day Saints ... By the late-1850s the idea that more than one woman was married to Jesus was widely accepted among Mormon circles. ... As if the concept of Christ's polygamy was not unsettling enough, Mormonism even taught in the nineteenth century that God the Father had a plurality of wives as well.
  35. ^ Grant, Jedediah (August 7, 1853). "Uniformity". Journal of Discourses. 1: 345–346. 'The grand reason why the Gentiles and philosophers of his school persecuted Jesus Christ, was, because he had so many wives; there were Elizabeth, and Mary, and a host of others that followed him.' ... The grand reason of the burst of public sentiment in anathemas upon Christ and his disciples, causing his crucifixion, was evidently based upon polygamy, according to the testimony of the philosophers who rose in that age.
  36. ^ Pratt, Orson (October 1853). "The Seer". The Seer. 1 (10): 158,172. Retrieved October 9, 2017. Inasmuch as God was the first husband to her, it may be that He only gave her to be the wife of Joseph while in this mortal state, and that He intended after the resurrection to again take her as one of his wives to raise up immortal spirits in eternity. ... We have now clearly shown that God the Father had a plurality of wives, one or more being in eternity by whom He begat our spirits as well as the spirit of Jesus His First Born, and another being upon the earth by whom He begat the tabernacle of Jesus.
  37. ^ Dana, Bruce E. (September 2004). The Eternal Father and His Son. Cedar Fort Inc. p. 62. ISBN 1555177883. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
  38. ^ Pratt, Orson (1853). The Seer. Washington, D.C. Liverpool Orson Pratt Franklin D. Richards. p. 159,172. Retrieved October 9, 2017. If all the acts of Jesus were written, we should no doubt learn that these beloved women [Mary, and Martha her sister, and Mary Magdalene] were his wives. ... We have also proved most clearly that the Son followed the example of his Father, and became the great Bridegroom to whom kings' daughters and many honorable Wives were to be married.
  39. ^ Hyde, Orson (October 6, 1854). "The Marriage Relations". Journal of Discourses. 2: 81–82. Jesus was the bridegroom at the marriage at Cana of Galilee ... I do not despise to be called ... a child of the Savior if he had Mary, Martha, and several others as wives ... I shall say here, that before the Savior died, he looked upon his own natural children . ...
  40. ^ Hyde, Orson (March 18, 1855). "The Judgements of God on the United States—The Saints and the World". Journal of Discourses. 2: 210. ... Jesus Christ was married at Cana of Galilee, that Mary, Martha, and others were his wives, and that he begat children.
  41. ^ Hyde, Orson (March 1857). "Man the Head of the Woman—Kingdom of God—The Seed of Christ—Polygamy—Society in Utah". Journal of Discourses. 4: 259. It will be borne in mind that once on a time, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and on a careful reading of that transaction, it will be discovered that no less a person than Jesus Christ was married on that occasion. If he was never married, his intimacy with Mary and Martha, and the other Mary also whom Jesus loved, must have been highly unbecoming and improper to say the best of it.
  42. ^ Barry, Richard (October 1910). "The Mormon Evasion of Anti-Polygamy Laws". Pearson's Magazine. 24 (4): 446.
  43. ^ Young, Brigham (November 13, 1870). "Gathering the Poor—Religion a Science". Journal of Discourses. 13: 309. The Scripture says that He, the Lord, came walking in the Temple, with His train; I do not know who they were, unless His wives and children; but at any rate they filled the Temple, and how many there were who could not get into the Temple I cannot say. This is the account given by Isaiah, whether he told the truth or not I leave every body to judge for himself.
  44. ^ "Evening Meeting". Wilford Woodruff's Journal. 8: 187. July 22, 1883. Joseph F. Smith ... He spoke upon the marriage on Cana of Galilee. He thought Jesus was the Bridegroom and Mary and Martha the brides. He also referred to Luke 10:34-42. Also John 11:2-5, John 12:13. Joseph Smith spoke upon these passages to show that Mary and Martha manifested much closer relationship then merely believer . ... Quote reproduced at
  45. ^ A 12 July 1843 polygamy revelation on plural marriage, attributed to Joseph Smith, with the demand that Emma Smith, the first wife, accept all of Joseph Smith's plural wives. See the LDS version of the Doctrine and Covenants, 132:1–4, 19, 20, 24, 34, 35, 38, 39, 52, 60–66.
  46. ^ Brodie 1971, pp. 403
  47. ^ Saints' Herald 48:165–66.
  48. ^ Saints' Herald 65:1044–45.
  49. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 457
  50. ^ Quinn 1994, p. 587
  51. ^ Smith 2010, p. 621
  52. ^ Jacobs, Zina Diantha Huntington. Beecher, Maureen Ursenbach (ed.). "All Things Move in Order in the City: The Nauvoo Diary of Zina Diantha Huntington Jacobs". BYU Studies. 19 (3): 285.
  53. ^ a b c d Compton 1997
  54. ^ "The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives", FARMS Review, Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 67–104, 1998, archived from the original on July 1, 2013, retrieved February 25, 2012
  55. ^ Anderson, Richard Lloyd; Faulring, Scott H. "The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives – FARMS Review". 10 (2). Retrieved July 10, 2010. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  56. ^ a b Moore, Carrie (November 10, 2007). "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants". Deseret Morning News. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  57. ^ Foster, Gaines M. (2002). Moral Reconstruction: Christian Lobbyists and the Federal Legislation of Morality, 1865–1920. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 233–34. ISBN 978-0-8078-5366-5.
  58. ^ E.g., Donald T. Critchlow and Philip R. VanderMeer, The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History, Oxford University Press, 2012; Volume 1, pp. 47-51, 154.
  59. ^ Poll, Richard D. (1994), "The Utah War", in Powell, Allan Kent (ed.), Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917, archived from the original on January 13, 2017, retrieved November 11, 2013
  60. ^ Journal of Discourses 11:266.
  61. ^ "Official Declaration 1".
  62. ^ "The Mormons – Special Features – PBS".
  63. ^ Hardy 1992
  64. ^ Scriptures of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for the Sunday Schools, Salt Lake City: Deseret Sunday School Union, 1968, p. 159.
  65. ^ Embry, Jessie L. (1994). "The History of Polygamy". Utah State Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2018. Those involved in plural marriages after 1904 were excommunicated; and those married between 1890 and 1904 were not to have church callings where other members would have to sustain them. Although the Mormon church officially prohibited new plural marriages after 1904, many plural husbands and wives continued to cohabit until their deaths in the 1940s and 1950s.
  66. ^ Dobner, Jennifer (August 20, 2006). "Teens defend polygamy at Utah rally". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  67. ^ Ken Driggs, "'This Will Someday Be the Head and Not the Tail of the Church': A History of the Mormon Fundamentalists at Short Creek," Journal of Church and State 43:49 (2001) at p. 51.
  68. ^ "The Mormons . Frequently Asked Questions . Dissent/Excommunication/Controversies – PBS".
  69. ^ Quinn (1985, pp. 24 fn. 65)
  70. ^ "Mormon Fundamentalists", 6 March 2006 press release by the LDS Church.
  71. ^ "Polygamist Sects Are Not 'Mormons,' Church Says", 25 October 2006 press release by the LDS Church.
  72. ^ Handbook 1: Stake Presidents and Bishops (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2010) § 3.6.1.
  73. ^ Jacob 2:23–29
  74. ^ Jacob 2:30
  75. ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (1966). Mormon Doctrine (2nd ed.). Bookcraft. p. 578. Obviously the holy practice [of plural marriage] will commence again after the Second Coming of the Son of Man and the ushering in of the millennium.
  76. ^ Bennion, Janet (1998). Women of Principle: Female Networking in Contemporary Mormon Polygyny. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780195353006. Ironically, many mainstream Mormons still believe plural marriage to be a law of the highest degree of heaven, simply in suspension until the millennium.
  77. ^ Cairncross, John (1974). After polygamy was made a sin: the social history of Christian polygamy. Routledge and Kegan Paul. p. 181. ISBN 0-7100-7730-0.
  78. ^ Charles W. Penrose, "Mormon" Doctrine Plain and Simple, or Leaves from the Tree of Life, 1897, Salt Lake City, p.66 ("In the case of a man marrying a wife in the everlasting covenant who dies while he continues in the flesh and marries another by the same divine law, each wife will come forth in her order and enter with him into his glory."); Joseph Fielding Smith, Bruce R. McConkie, ed., Doctrines of Salvation, 1956, vol. 2, p. 67 (Smith, who was sealed to two different women, stated, "[M]y wives will be mine in the eternity."); Harold B. Lee, Deseret News 1974 Church Almanac, p. 17 ("My lovely Joan was sent to me: So Joan joins Fern/That three might be, more fitted for eternity./'O Heavenly Father, my thanks to thee'.").
  79. ^ "When I was 66, my wife June died of cancer. Two years later I married Kristen McMain, the eternal companion who now stands at my side." "Timing", Ensign, October 2003.
  80. ^ a b LDS Church, Church Handbook of Instructions, (LDS Church, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998) p. 72. "A deceased woman may be sealed to all men to whom she was legally married during her life. However, if she was sealed to a husband during her life, all her husbands must be deceased before she can be sealed to a husband to whom she was not sealed during life."
  81. ^ Oaks, Dallin H. (November 2019). "Trust in the Lord". Ensign. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  82. ^ "Why must one who is divorced be cleared by the First Presidency to go back to the temple?". Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  83. ^ C, Angela (June 26, 2019). "Clearance vs. Cancellation". By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  84. ^ Stuart, Joseph; Johnson, Janiece. "Abide #19: Doctrine and Covenants 129-132". Abide: A Maxwell Institute Podcast (Podcast). Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Retrieved December 3, 2021.{{cite podcast}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "All eternal relationships are voluntary. We will not be forced into anything eternally" (39:32).
  85. ^ "Help Center —".
  86. ^ Tanner 1979, pp. 226–228
  87. ^ Tanner 1979, pp. 204–290
  88. ^ Tanner 1987, p. 202
  89. ^ Young 1876, pp. 65–86
  90. ^ Bennett 1842, pp. 226–232
  91. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 132–134
  92. ^ Compton 1996, pp. 174–207
  93. ^ "Review of Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith" Archived 2006-03-23 at, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 33 (Spring 2001): 184–86
  94. ^ Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, p. 100 (1985).
  95. ^ a b Whitney 1888, p. 326
  96. ^ Whitney 1888, pp. 325–328
  97. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (November 10, 2014). "It's Official: Mormon Founder Had Up to 40 Wives". The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2017. [Joseph Smith Jr.] married Helen Mar Kimball, a daughter of two close friends, 'several months before her 15th birthday'.
  98. ^ Turner, John G. (October 27, 2012). "Polygamy, Brigham Young and His 55 Wives". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2017. The sheer variety of Brigham Young's marriages makes it difficult to make sense of them. He married — was sealed to, in Mormon parlance — young (Clarissa Decker, 15) and old (Hannah Tapfield King, 65).
  99. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (May 15, 2009). Civil Disobedience: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States (1st ed.). Rootledge. p. 220. ISBN 978-0765681270. Retrieved June 2, 2017. The name of each wife is followed by her age at marriage, the place of marriage, and the year the couple married. ... Lorenzo Snow ... Sarah Minnie Jensen, 16, Salt Lake City, 1871
  100. ^ Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher (January 10, 2017). A House Full of Females: Plural Marriage and Women's Rights in Early Mormonism, 1835–1870. Knopf. p. 274. ISBN 978-0307594907. Retrieved June 3, 2017. Wilford Woodfruff & (Emma Smith born March 1st 1838 at Diahman Davis County Missouri) was Sealed for time & Eternity by President Brigham Young at 7 oclock P.M. March 13, 1853.
  101. ^ Hacker, J. David; Hilde, Libra; Jones, James Holland (2010). "Nuptiality Measures for the White Population of the United States, 1850–1880". The Journal of Southern History. 76 (1): 39–70. PMC 3002115. PMID 21170276.
  102. ^ Abanes 2003, p. 294
  103. ^ George D. Smith, "Nauvoo Polygamists," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Spring 1994, p. ix.
  104. ^ Compton 1997, pp. 6, 606. These were Helen Mar Kimball and Nancy Maria Winchester. Kimball was fourteen-years old when Smith married her in May 1843; Winchester was either fourteen or fifteen, as the date of her marriage to Smith in relation to her birthday is uncertain. On Compton's conclusions about nonconsummation, see p. 231 in Compton, Todd. "Early Marriage in New England and Northeastern States, and in Mormon Polygamy: What Was the Norm?". The Persistence of Polygamy, in Bringhurst & Foster (2010, pp. 184–232){{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link); Compton writes, "my judgment is that it is unlikely that the marriage was consummated" and "it is not just not certain, it is unlikely, in my judgment."
  105. ^ Hirshon 1969, pp. 126–127
  106. ^ Compton, Todd. "Early Marriage in New England and Northeastern States, and in Mormon Polygamy: What Was the Norm?". The Persistence of Polygamy, in Bringhurst & Foster (2010, pp. 184–232){{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link).
  107. ^ Woodruff 1984, p. 58.
  108. ^ Ostling 1999, pp. 60–63
  109. ^ Gage 1972
  110. ^ Young 1875, pp. 440–454
  111. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 297
  112. ^ Young 1875, pp. 306–319
  113. ^ Faulring 1987, p. 424


Further reading[edit]


  • Bringhurst, Newell G.; Foster, Craig L.; Hardy, B Carmon, eds. (2013). The Persistence of Polygamy: from Joseph Smith's Martyrdom to the First Manifesto, 1844–1890. Volume 2. Independence, Missouri: John Whitmer Books. ISBN 978-1934901144. OCLC 874165313.
  • Bringhurst, Newell G.; Hamer, John C., eds. (2007). Scattering of the Saints: Schism within Mormonism. Independence, Missouri: John Whitmer Books. ISBN 978-1934901021. OCLC 225910256.
  • Jacobson, Cardell K.; Burton, Lara, eds. (2011). Modern Polygamy in the United States: Historical, Cultural, and Legal Issues. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199746378. OCLC 466084007.
  • Talbot, Christine. A Foreign Kingdom: Mormons and Polygamy in American Political Culture, 1852-1890. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2013.
  • Smith, William Victor. "Textual Studies of the Doctrine and Covenants: The Plural Marriage Revelation." Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2018.
  • Van Wagoner, Richard S. (1989) [1986]. Mormon Polygamy: A History (2nd ed.). Signature Books. ISBN 0-941214-79-6. LCCN 85063399. OCLC 19515803. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014.

Journal articles[edit]

philosophy, sociology, psychology, and secularity


External links[edit]