- Morning glory (also written as morning-glory) is the common name for flowering plants generally considered to belong to the genus Ipomoea. However, recent research demonstrates morning glories are members of the tribe Ipomoeeae, which includes about 700 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae. The systematics of morning glories is currently an active area of research. For example, a recent study by Eserman and colleagues presents a phylogeny for morning glories based on thirty-three whole chlorplast genome sequences. This research area is important, in part because morning glories are focal study organisms for biological research. Morning glories with spiny pollen, or members of the tribe Ipomoeeae, include ten genera:
- Ipomoea L. (c. 600 species
- Argyreia Lour. (90 species)
- Turbina Raf. (15 species)
- Astripomoea A. Meeuse (12 species)
- Stictocardia Hallier f. (12 species)
- Lepistemon Blume (10 species
- Rivea Choisy (4 species)
- Blinkworthia Choisy (2 species)
- Lepistemonopsis Dammer (1 species)
- Paralepistemon Lejoly & S. Lisowski (1 species)
(Wilkin 1999; Manos et al. 2001; Stefanovic et al. 2003, Mabberley 2008)
Most morning glory flowers unravel into full bloom in the early morning. The flowers usually start to fade a few hours before the "petals" start showing visible curling. They prefer full solar exposure throughout the day, and mesic soils. Some morning glories, such as Ipomoea muricata, are night-blooming flowers.
In some places, such as Australian bushland, some species of morning glories develop thick roots and tend to grow in dense thickets. They can quickly spread by way of long, creeping stems. By crowding out, blanketing and smothering other plants, morning glory has turned into a serious invasive weed problem.
In cultivation, most are treated as perennial plants in frost-free areas and as annual plants in colder climates, but some species tolerate winter cold. There are some species which are strictly annual (e.g. Ipomoea nil), producing many seeds, and some perennial species (e.g. I. indica) which are propagated by cuttings. Some moonflowers, which flower at night, are also morning glories, in the genus Ipomoea in the section Calonyction.
Because of their fast growth, twining habit, attractive flowers, and tolerance for poor, dry soils, some morning glories are excellent vines for creating summer shade on building walls when trellised, thus keeping the building cooler and reducing heating and cooling costs.
Popular varieties in contemporary western cultivation include 'Sunspots', 'Heavenly Blue', the moonflower, the cypress vine, and the cardinal climber. The cypress vine (I. quamoclit), has bright red tubular flowers and finely dissected leaves.
Many morning glories will self-seed in the garden. They have a hard seed coat which delays germination until late spring, at which time they will grow and flower rapidly. To improve the germination of purchased seeds, soak them in a dish of warm water overnight before planting or make a small nick in the seed coat with a razor blade.
It was introduced to the Japanese in the 9th century, and they were the first to cultivate it as an ornamental flower. During the Edo period, it became very popular. The Japanese have led the world in developing varieties. Hundreds have evolved, such as a brownish coloured variant known as Dajuro, and varieties with such evocative names as 'Brocade of Dawn', 'Moon in the Dusk' and 'Wisteria Girl'. It has come to symbolize summer in Japanese horticulture and art.
Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations used the morning glory species Ipomoea alba to convert the latex from the Castilla elastica tree and also the guayule plant to produce bouncing rubber balls. The sulfur in the morning glory's juice served to vulcanize the rubber, a process predating Charles Goodyear's discovery by at least 3,000 years. Aztec priests in Mexico were also known to use the plant's hallucinogenic properties (see Turbina corymbosa).
|Morning glory seeds, mixed colors|
Ipomoea aquatica, known as water spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, ong-choy, kang-kung, or swamp cabbage, is popularly used as a green vegetable, especially in East and Southeast Asian cuisines. In the USA Ipomoea aquatica is a federal noxious weed, and can be illegal to grow, import, possess, or sell without permit. However, a market exists for the plant's powerful culinary potential. See: USDA weed factsheet. As of 2005, the state of Texas has acknowledged that water spinach is a highly prized vegetable in many cultures, and has allowed water spinach to be grown for personal consumption, in part because it is known to have been grown in Texas for more than 15 years and has not yet escaped cultivation. Because it goes by so many names, it can easily be slipped through import inspections, and it is often available in Asian or specialty produce markets.
The genus Ipomoea also contains the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Though the term "morning glory" is not usually extended to Ipomoea batatas, sometimes it may be referred to as a tuberous morning glory in a horticultural context. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown for their ornamental value, rather than for the edible tuber.
The seeds of many species of morning glory contain ergoline alkaloids such as the psychedelic ergonovine and ergine (LSA). Seeds of Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa (syn. R. corymbosa) are used as psychedelics. The seeds of morning glory can produce a similar effect to LSD when taken in large doses, often numbering into the hundreds. Though the chemical LSA is not legal in some countries, the seeds are found in many gardening stores; however, the seeds from commercial sources are often coated in some form of pesticide or methylmercury. These coatings are especially dangerous if one has a history of liver disorders and may also cause neural damage.
Morning glory Ipomoea
- "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- Eserman, Lauren A., George P. Tiley, Robert L. Jarret, Jim H. Leebens-Mack, and Richard E. Miller. 2014. Phylogenetics and diversification of morning glories (tribe Ipomoeeae, Convolvulaceae) based on whole plastome sequences. American journal of botany 101: 92-103.
- "Rubber processed in ancient Mesoamerica, MIT researchers find – MIT News Office".
- Johnnson, Timothy (1999). CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. CRC Press. p. 431. ISBN 0-8493-1187-X.
- Vargas, Theresa (2006-05-03). "A '60s Buzz Recycled - washingtonpost.com". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- Shafer, Jack. "The Washington Post takes another bad drug trip". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- "DrugScope". Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2.
- Furst, Peter (1990). Flesh of the Gods. ISBN 978-0-88133-477-7
- Schultes, Richard Evans (1976). Hallucinogenic Plants. Elmer W. Smith, illustrator. New York: Golden Press. ISBN 0-307-24362-1
- Media related to Morning glory at Wikimedia Commons
- The dictionary definition of morning glory at Wiktionary
- Texts on Wikisource:
- Erowid Morning Glory Vault
- Morning Glory Flowers is a book from 1854 (English) (Japanese)