||This article may primarily relate to a different subject, or to only one aspect rather than the subject as a whole. (January 2014)|
1st row: Ahmad al-Mansur • Hassan I of Morocco • Leo Africanus • Ibn Battuta • Karim al-Khattabi • Marcellus of Tangier
Rajae El Mouhandiz • Jamel Debbouze • Loreen • Hassan Hakmoun • Ahmed Aboutaleb • Younes El Aynaoui
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||7,400|
|Predominantly Arabic and Berber.|
|Predominantly Sunni, Nondenominational Muslims and Sufi Islam, Judaism, Christianity.|
In addition to the 33 million Moroccans in Morocco, there are large migrant populations of Moroccan origins in France, Belgium, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and smaller groups in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Arabian Peninsula and in others Arab states.
- 1 Berber genetic identity
- 2 Physical anthropology of Moroccans
- 3 Y-DNA of Arabs
- 4 Physical differences between Berbers and Arabs of Morocco
- 5 Culture
- 6 Languages
- 7 Ethnic group
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Berber genetic identity
||This section may stray from the topic of the article. (January 2014)|
Moroccans descended from Berbers, Arabs, and Black Africans exactly like the neighboring Maghrebians. The Berbers are the prehistoric populations of Morocco and are related to the wider group of Paleo-Mediterranean peoples.
The Afroasiatic family may have originated in the Mesolithic period, perhaps in the context of the Capsian culture. By 5000 BC, the populations of Morocco were an amalgamation of Ibero-Maurisian and a minority of Capsian stock blended with a more recent intrusion associated with the Neolithic revolution. Out of these populations, the proto-Berber tribes formed during the late Paleolithic era.
Physical anthropology of Moroccans
Moroccans were identified genetically and anthropologically as Berbers, The anthropologists identify Moroccans as within the Mediterranean race, but declared that successive migrations from Sub-Saharan Africa had diluted their race to the point that they were no longer pure Mediterranean like Southern European, especially those who are living near the Algerian frontiers and Western Sahara, who are mostly identified as Sahrawis or Haratins and Gnawa.
The skin of some Moroccans darkens readily under the influence of sunlight, and many of them become quite dark in the exposed parts of the body, which is typically a Mediterranean characteristic. Riffians and other Berbers of Atlas mountains of Morocco show a high percentage of blondism, higher than the other Berber groups in North Africa and some parts in Southern Europe, with about two thirds of Riffians being pinkish-white skinned with mixed or light eyes (reaching ⅘ or 80% in central Rif); the rest are of Mediterranean (mainly of classic Mediterranean or Berberid type, but many Moroccan Berbers show some blending with Classic Mediterraneans).
Nordics are ancient in Northern Africa as the Egyptian monuments of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2000 B.C.), and perhaps older. They survive today mostly in the mountains of the Rif, in Atlas Mountains of Morocco and the Canary Islands. Moroccans in general are the most Lighted haired people in Africa . blondism is more common in the Rif, and less common in the Middle Atlas and the Atlantic seacoast; >45% of Berber Moroccan population has blond or light brown hair, in the rest of Morocco is just less than 25% of the Population are blond. Moroccan Berbers of the Rif Mountains and Middle Atlas mayhave the highest percentages of Light Eyes in Continental Africa. In the Rif, dark eyes are found among 30% of the men, mixed eyes 45%, and light eyes in 25%; and the mixed eyes have green or blue elements rather than gray
According to the leading evolutionary theory of human origins, known as the Out of Africa theory, anatomically modern humans first emerged in Africa 150,000-200,000 years ago. All non-Africans are descended from at least one group of humans who migrated out of Africa into western Asia 50,000-70,000 years ago. The first modern humans in Europe, the Cro-Magnons, arrived from north-west Africa and are believed to have completely replaced the previous inhabitants, the Neanderthals. Cro-Magnons are known as Ibero-Maurisians or Mechta-Afalou people; they were in Morocco 45,000 years ago. They probably evolved from the Aterians, the Cro-Magnon people who had populated much of North Africa. There was a massive major human migration from Morocco, and this Paleolithic population was weakly mixed with later Capsian migrations during the Neolithic Era. This prehistoric population survived isolated in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, known in our time as Berbers.
Y-DNA of Arabs
Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Arab tribes expelled of Arabia for their turbulence, Banu Hilal and Sulaym, whose presence was very painful for farmers in the Nile Valley because the Arabs often came plunder.
|Arabs (Morocco)||AA (Semitic)||49||—||75.5||—||0.0||20.4||—||—||0.0||3.8||—||Semino2004|
|Berbers (Marrakesh)||AA (Berber)||29||—||92.9||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||Semino et al. 2000|
|Berbers (Middle Atlas)||AA (Berber)||69||—||87.1||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||Cruciani et al. 2004|
|Shilha (Southern Morocco)||AA (Berber)||40||2.5||85||—||0||2.5||0||0||—||—||0||Bosch et al. 2001|
|Berbers (North central Morocco)||AA (Berber)||40||0||93.8||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Alvarez et al. 2009|
|Riffians (North Morocco)||AA (Berber)||54||0||95.9||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
|Beni Snassen (Northern Morocco)||AA (Berber) & (Semitic)||67||0||95.1||—||0||0||0||0||—||—||0||Dugoujon et al. (2005)|
Physical differences between Berbers and Arabs of Morocco
||This section may stray from the topic of the article. (January 2014)|
It is easier to tell a Berber from an Arab by dress and behavior than by external physical characteristics, but there are statistical differences, particularly between the tribal Arabs and the mountain Berbers.
The highest frequencies of L-mtDNA in Moroccan cities is reported for the Moroccan Arabs of the surrounding area of El Jadida at 46%. Harich et al 2010
Frequencies (> 1%) of L-mtDNA
|Country||Ethnic Group||Number tested||Reference||L-mtDNA%|
|Morocco||Moroccan (Arabs)||81||Harich et al. (2010)||46%|
|Morocco||Moroccan Arabs||56||Turchi et al. (2009)||30.00%|
The Andalusians can not be regarded as Arabs in Morocco; mostly they seem to be a mixture of Berbers and local Iberians in the historical context.
Through Moroccan history, the country had many cultural influences (Europe, Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa). The culture of Morocco shares similar traits with those of neighboring countries, particularly Algeria and Tunisia and to a certain extent Spain.
Each region possesses its own uniqueness, contributing to the national culture. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diversity and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
The traditional dress for men and women is called djellaba, a long, loose, hooded garment with full sleeves. For special occasions, men also wear a red cap called a bernousse, more commonly referred to as a fez. Women wear kaftans decorated with ornaments. Nearly all men, and most women, wear balgha (بلغه) —- soft leather slippers with no heel, often dyed yellow. Women also wear high-heeled sandals, often with silver or gold tinsel.
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish architecture; it has been made popular by the vogue of riad renovation in Marrakech. Dar is the name given to one of the most common types of domestic structures in Morocco; it is a home found in a medina, or walled urban area of a city. Most Moroccan homes traditionally adhere to the Dar al-Islam, a series of tenets on Islamic domestic life. Dar exteriors are typically devoid of ornamentation and windows, except occasional small openings in secondary quarters, such as stairways and service areas. These piercings provide light and ventilation.
Moroccan cuisine is home to Berber, Moorish, and Arab influences. It is known for dishes like couscous, pastilla, and others. Spices such as cinnamon are used in Moroccan cooking. Sweets like halwa are popular, as well as other sweets. Cuisines from neighbouring countries also influence the country's culinary traditions.
Moroccan craftsmanship has a rich tradition of jewellery, pottery, leather-work and woodwork.
The music of Morocco ranges and differs according to the various areas of the country. Moroccan music has a variety of styles from complex sophisticated orchestral music to simple music involving only voice and drums. There are three varieties of Berber folk music: village and ritual music, and the music performed by professional musicians. Chaabi (الشعبي) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which descend from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Gnawa is a form of music that is mystical. It was gradually brought to Morocco by sub-Saharan Africans and later became part of the Moroccan tradition. Sufi brotherhoods (tarikas) are common in Morocco, and music is an integral part of their spiritual tradition. This music is an attempt at reaching a trance state which inspires mystical ecstasy.
Morocco's official languages are Classical Arabic and since July 2011, also "Amazigh language" which is a standardized version of the Berber languages.
The majority of the population natively speaks Moroccan-Arabic. More than 12 million Moroccans speak Berber — which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Riff, Shilha, and Central Atlas Tamazight) — either as a first language or bilingually with Moroccan Arabic.
Hassaniya Arabic is spoken in the southern part of the country. Morocco has recently included the protection of Hassaniya in the constitution as part of the July 2011 reforms.
Spanish is also spoken by some in the northern part of the country as a foreign language. Meanwhile English is increasingly becoming more popular among the educated, particularly in the science fields.
For Maxime Rodinson, "considered as belonging to the tribe, people or Arab nationality who: 1˚ speak a variant of the Arabic language and, at the same time consider it their" natural "language, that they must speak, or, without speaking, see it as such; 2˚ regard as their heritage the history and cultural characteristics of the people who called himself and others have called Arabs, these cultural traits encompassing since the seventh century the massive adherence to Islam (which is far from their exclusivity); 3˚ (which is the same) claim Arab identity, have an awareness of Arabized. "  According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: an Arab is "someone whose mother tongue is Arabic. " 
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A Riffian from the coastal village of Ajdir, in the tribe of Beni Uriaghel. In pigment, in measurements, and morphologically this Riffian is as perfect a Nordic as one could find in northern Europe. Nordics are ancient in Northern Africa as the Egyptian monuments of the Middle Kingdom, and perhaps older. They survive today mostly in the mountains of the Rif, Atlas mountains, Soussi of Souss valley, the Canary Islands and the Chleuhs.
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