(4R,4aR,7S,7aR,12bS)-3-Methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol 3-oxide
3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||301.34 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Morphine-N-oxide (genomorphine) is an active opioid metabolite of morphine. Morphine itself, in trials with rats, acts 11–22 times more potent than morphine-N-oxide subcutaneously and 39–89 times more potent intraperitoneally. However, pretreatment with amiphenazole or tacrine increases the potency of morphine-N-oxide in relation to morphine (intraperitoneally more so than in subcutaneous administration). A possible explanation is that morphine-N-oxide is rapidly inactivated in the liver and impairment of inactivation processes or enzymes increases functionality.
Morphine-N-oxide can also form as a decomposition product of morphine outside the body and may show up in assays of opium and poppy straw concentrate. Codeine and the semi-synthetics such as heroin, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, hydromorphone, and hydrocodone also have equivalent amine oxide derivatives.
Morphine-N-Oxide has a DEA ACSCN of 9307 and annual production quota of 655 grammes in 2013. It is a Schedule I controlled substance in the US.
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