Ten'edn

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Maniq
Tonga
Ten'edn
Native to Thailand, Malaysia
Ethnicity Maniq people
Native speakers
370 (2014)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tnz
Glottolog tong1308[2]

The Maniq language Ten'edn, known in some of the previous literature as Tonga, is an aboriginal Mon–Khmer language of Thailand and Malaya. It goes by the name Mos in Thailand, which it shares with Kensiu. (The name Maniq is also shared with Kensiu.)

According to Benjamin (2011), Maniq (Məniʔ, Maniʔ) can refer to the following three or more speech varieties.

  • Tonga' (Toŋaʔ)
  • Mos (Mɔs)
  • Teanean (Ten'en, Tɛnʔɛn, Tean-ean)

Examples of odor terms in Maniq language:-[3]

Maniq language Jahai language Number of objects Examplars
caŋə 9 tubers (Dioscorea spp.) (4), food (1), cooked food (1), cooked meat (1), rice (1), wild pig (Sus scrofa) (1), cooked wild pig (1), fresh meat (1), white sun (1)
caŋɛs 8 animal hair (1), hair of dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) (1), hair of banded leaf monkey (Presbytis femoralis) (1), hair of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), burnt hair (1), burnt animal hair (1), roasted animal fat (1), sun (1)
caŋus 9 soap (3), washing oneself (2), fruit (Goniothalamus sp.) (1), leaves (1), Uvaria sp. (1), clothes (1), talcum powder (1), sun (1), medicine to drink (1)
hamis 2 sun (6), air/smoke coming from the sun (2)
haʔĩt haʔɛ̃t 10 dead animal (3), rotting animal (3), animal (1), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) (1), Prevost’s squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii) (1), (wac caw ‘kind of squirrel’) (1), bats (1), flying fox (Pteropus cf. vampyrus) (1), tuber (Dioscorea daunea) (1), bamboo tube (1)
kamɛh 6 (taluŋ ‘kind of millipede A’) (5), (caŋwɔɲ ‘kind of millipede B’) (1), (kaʔɔʔ basiŋ ‘kind of millipede C’) (1), Ipoh poison (Antiaris toxicaria) (1), flying fox (Pteropus cf. vampyrus) (1), forest (1)
kamloh 3 smoke from fire (3), old shelter (1), bathing (1)
lspəs ltpɨt 14 tuber (Dioscorea orbiculata) (2), bearcat (Arctictis binturong) (2), tuber (Dioscorea filiformis) (1), tuber (Dioscorea calcicola) (1), tubers (Dioscorea spp.) (1), new shelter (1), clean and dry clothes (1), fruit (Ficus chartacea) (1), forest (1), tree (1), animal (1), food (1), medicine to drink (1), white sun (1)
palɛŋ plʔeŋ 11 blood (3), animal blood (1), blood of wild pig (Sus scrofa) (1), blood of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), blood of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) (1), blood of bearcat (Arctictis binturong) (1), raw meat (1), (pɔʔ batewfern sp.’) (1), (smkam ‘plant sp.’) (1), searching for food (1), sun (1)
paʔɔ̞̃ʔ 16 tuber (Dioscorea daunea) (2), mushroom (2), pouring water (1), fetching water (1), mud (1), digging tubers in mud (1), cooking muddy tubers (1), wet or dirty clothes (1), rotting bamboo tube (1), soil (1), searching for food (1), petai (Parkia speciosa) (1), Parkia timoriana (1), sweat (1), urine (1), old shelter (1)
miʔ bayɔ̞̃ɸ 12 old shelter (3), soil (2), shelter (1), mushrooms (1), skin of a dead animal (1), rotten wood (1), bamboo tube for water (1), drinking water from a bamboo tube (1), rotten leaf (1), head of banded leaf monkey (Presbytis femoralis) (1), head of pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (1), head of stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) (1)
miʔ danɔw 10 mushrooms (3), rotten wood (2), rotten mushrooms (1), old shelter (1), animal bones (1), durian seed (1), snakes (1), forest (1), searching for food (1), soil (1)
miʔ huhũɸ 10 snakes (2), soil (2), searching for tubers (1), digging tubers (1), mushrooms (1), sweat (1), rotten wood (1), walking in the forest (1), making fire (1), smoke (1)
miʔ latɨŋ 10 soil (2), burning fire (1), (tanɔl ‘kind of fire wood A’) (1), (ɲeʔɲeʔ ‘kind of fire wood B’) (1), (tŋwaŋ ‘kind of flower’) (1), (kabɨʔ lɨkhɨ ‘kind of fruit’) (1), (bacen ‘food item (unknown)’) (1), mushrooms (1), tree (1), walking in the forest (1)
miʔ ɲətuʔ 7 tree sap (1), leaves (1), garlic (1), soil (1), forest (1), searching for food (1), (kabɨʔ ɲɛʔɲɛʔ ‘kind of fruit) (1)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maniq at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Tonga (Thailand)". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Ewelina Wnuk & Asifa Majid (April 2014). "Revisiting the limits of language: The odor lexicon of Maniq" (PDF). Cognition Volume 131, Issue 1. p. 128. Retrieved 2017-07-12. 

Peterson, Mary M. 2012. Notes on Ten-edn (Tonga-Mos) and Kensiw Borrowings. Mon Khmer Studies 40:19-35.

External links[edit]

  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2011. ‘The Aslian languages of Malaysia and Thailand: an assessment.’ In: Peter K. Austin & Stuart McGill (eds), Language Documentation and Description, Volume 11. London: Endangered Languages Project, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), pp.136–230. [ISSN 1740-6234] www.elpublishing.org/PID/131.
  • http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
  • http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-66FA-7@view Maniq in RWAAI Digital Archive