| Burkina Faso 11,118,983 (52%)  |
1.2 million Cote d'Ivoire
160,140 in Ghana
|Regions with significant populations|
|Primarily Burkina Faso|
northern Ivory Coast and northern Ghana
|Mossi, African French|
|Islam 65%, Christianity 15%, Traditional 20%|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Mamprusi people, Gurunsi people, Dagomba people, Gurma people and other Gur peoples|
The Mossi (or Mole, Mosse, sing. Moaaga) are a Gur ethnic group native to modern Burkina Faso, primarily the Volta River basin. The Mossi are the largest ethnic group in Burkina Faso, constituting 52% of the population, or about 11.1 million people. The other 48% of Burkina Faso's population is composed of more than 60 ethnic groups, mainly the Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo and Fulani. The Mossi speak the Mòoré language.
|History of Burkina Faso|
The Mossi people originated in Burkina Faso, although significant numbers of Mossi live in neighboring countries, including Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, and Togo. In 1996, the estimated population of Burkina Faso was 10,623,323. Five to six million are probably Mossi; another 1.2 million Mossi live in Côte d'Ivoire.
Yennenga was a warrior princess, daughter of a Mamprusi king in upper east Ghana. While exploring her kingdom on horseback, she lost her way and was rescued by Rialé, a solitary Mandé hunter. They got married and gave birth to the first authentic Mossi, Ouedraogo, who is recognised as the father of Mossi people.
The Mossi are directly descended from the Mamprusi people and similarly live in upper east Ghana with a capital of Bawku/Nalerigu. These legendary origins apply only to the Nakomse (sing. Nakoambga), or the ruling class.
The Tengabisi and other Mossi peoples do not share these origin myths.
As the Mossi people's history has been kept by oral tradition, it is impossible to assign precise dates for the period before colonization. Nevertheless, historians assign the beginning of their existence as a state to the 15th century. The Mossi were able to conquer a vast amounts of territory thanks to their mastering of the horse, created a prosperous empire, and kept peace in the region until the beginning of colonialism. The expansion of the Mossi empire was stopped in the 19th century with the initiation of intensive colonisation by the French.
French rule affected Mossi society and weakened the power of the Mossi emperor, the Mogho Naaba. Despite colonization, the Mogho Naaba was given some authority over the Mossi during the French colonial period. He is consulted today for crucial decisions, especially those affecting the destiny of society. Two great events have affected the status of the Mogho Naaba during colonization:
- During the initial phase of the French invasion, he retired to the Mamprusi kingdom with which the Mossi have always kept brotherly relations.
- In 1896, the Mogho accepted the French protectorate.
Mossi and several other peoples played a significant role in France's military during World War II. They constituted part of the corps in the military troops of French West Africa, known in French as the Tirailleurs Sénégalais.
Organization of Mossi society
The Mossi people have organised their society in an original hierarchic process in which family and state are the key elements. The Mossi people are very heterogeneous. When horsemen invaded from the south they created a political or ruling class, called Nakomse (sing. Nakoambga), and a spiritual class called Tengabisi. All chiefs come from the ruling class. The Tengabisi include Saya (smiths), Nyonyose (farmers), Yarse (weavers and merchants), and others.
The origins of the Nyonyose are diverse: In the north their ancestors were Dogon and Kurumba, in the southwest their ancestors were Lela, Nuna, Sisala and others, and in the far east they were Gurmantche. These people were united into a new ethnicity called Mossi in about 1500.
It is a mistake to describe a "Nyonyosé tribe" or the "art of the Nyonyosé" because the Nyonyose do not exist outside Mossi society. All Nyonyosé are Mossi. At the same time, it is a mistake to assume that all segments of Mossi society are culturally identical, for the differences between the Nakomsé and the Tengabisi are striking; only the Tengabisi use masks, and only the Nakomsé use figures in the context of political celebrations. The Nakomse are the political class, and the Tengabisi are the spiritual class.
Mogho Naaba and the Nakomse
The highest position in Mossi society is that of the Emperor, who is given executive power. The Emperor's role is to rule the entire population and to protect the kingdom. Today, he lives in Ouagadougou, the historical and present capital of Burkina Faso. Though the political dynamic of the country has changed, the Mogho Naaba (Emperor) is recognised by his people and has substantial authority.
Second to the Emperor come the nobles, Nakomse (“people of power”; sing. Nakoambga), who all are from the family of the Emperor, whether they be brothers, sisters, cousins, or otherwise. All dignitaries come from the Emperor's family. The Nakomse are often assigned territories in the kingdom as governorships and rule in the name of the Mogho Naaba. As in the past, the Emperor needs the support of the “ancient ones”, his Nyon-nyonse (or gnon-gnon-sse) subjects to fully exercise his power. The Nyon-nyonse are the peoples who lived in Mossi-controlled regions before the Mossi.
Mossi society is divided vertically into two major segments: the descendants of the horsemen who conquered the peoples on the Mossi plateau are called the Nakomse, and all Mossi chiefs come exclusively from the Nakomse class. These people use figures as political art to validate their rule over the peoples they conquered. The descendants of the ancient farming peoples who had occupied the land from the beginning of time and who, by right of first occupation, were and are the owners of the land are called the Tengabisi (“people of the earth”). These Tengabisi can be further divided into groups of smiths (Saya), groups of traders (Yarse) and, most important, groups of farmers (Nyonyose). Generally the smiths and the traders do not use masks, but the Nyonyose are the principal makers and users of masks in Mossi society.
Craftsmen and ordinary citizens
They constitute the larger part of the population and are all subjects of the emperor. These two groups are generally fused but have internal subdivisions, each one having its own ruling family; they perform ceremonies and other important events. Mossi people often identify with groups; hence, at all levels, there is a hierarchy in Mossi society. In everyday life, the family hierarchy is most important, and family is often directly associated with the notion of hierarchy for the Mossi.
'Mogonaba' was what Leo Frobenius was told was the appropriate term for the emperor of Mossi at Wagadugu when he visited the country in 1904-6. His is one of the few disinterested reports as he was an anthropologist and not a missionary, representative of a European company, or military. He describes a court much like a European one (he may have an anti-aristocratic bias) with nobles in intrigues over commerce, power and industry. This report alone caused disbelief in Europe as no European source had ever considered Africans to be socially like Europeans. The lack of racism in Frobenius' report and his discovery of an industrious people and what some would describe as a glorious past interested W.E.B. Du Bois in Frobenius' other writings on Africa. Rudolf Blind's translation in English of the Voice of Africa, published by Hutchinson & Co., produced some racist comments he thought necessary to conform with English sensitivities — otherwise he believed no Englishman would consider the book realistic.
An important contribution was made in the 1960s by the historian Elliott P. Skinner, who wrote at length about the sophistication of Mossi political systems in The Mossi of the Upper Volta: The Political Development of a Sudanese People. This was at a time when many African countries were gaining independence, and Skinner strongly made the point that African peoples were very clearly qualified to govern themselves.
Language and cultural values
Group identity and values within the Mossi and contrasted against other ethnic groups are tied first and foremost to language.
The Mossi speak the More language, of the Western Oti-Volta group of languages, northwestern sub-group. It is spoken in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Ivory Coast. This language group is part of a larger grouping, Gur languages belonging to the Niger–Congo family. In the language there are a few dialects based mainly on region. For example, there is a dialect spoken in Yatenga (Ouahigouya), another distinct dialect in the northern region, a third in the southeast in Koupela, different from a fourth dialect in the same region called Tenkodogo. Despite these regional differences, the dialects are mutually intelligible.
According to the explanations of Marie Tapsoba, the former Cultural Counsellor at Burkina Embassy in Senegal and Mossi herself, Mossi culture can be divided into four main values characteristic of the ethnic group.
Attitude towards ancestors
Ancestors are believed to have reached a better world from which they can influence life on earth. They can help or punish their descendants depending on their behavior. Ancestors are also the judges that have the power to allow a descendant to enter the "pantheon of the ancestors". If an ancestor chooses to deny entrance, the soul of the disavowed one is condemned to run at random for all eternity. Because of these beliefs, Mossi swear by their ancestors or by the land; when they do so (which only occurs in extreme situations), it is more than symbolic — it is a call to imminent justice.
Land is related to the ancestors, being a path by which one can access the ancestors. Even today, this notion gives a unique value to land in Mossi thought. Land is considered to be much more than simple dust and has a spiritual dimension to it. A Mossi's life depends on his/her land, and it is essential for the family settlement.
Family is an essential cultural element of the Mossi, who hold collectivism in high regard. Individualism does not exist in traditional Mossi culture: one’s actions and behaviors are always taken to be characteristics of one's family. They must always ask an elder in order to do something. As a result, all are expected to act in their family's name; thus, the family is the smallest entity in the Mossi society. Heritage is patrilineal, passed down from a father to his sons. However, when a man has no sons, women can inherit from their husbands and even from their father.
Hierarchy is a fundamental concept for the Mossi and pervasive in their culture. The family is organised like a kingdom with its king — the husband and father, his advisor — the wife, and the people — the children. Aunts and uncles play a role by helping in the education and raising of children.
Traditional and cultural holidays and events
Ceremonies and celebrations pace the life of Mossi people, with each celebration having its particulars. Through them the community expresses joy or suffering, or simply fulfills duties to the memory of the ancestors.
Mogho Naaba court
The Friday Mogho Naaba court ceremony derives from an event when the Moro Naba's sister fled north to the land of Yadega, the kingdom called Yatenga. As she fled north, she carried all of the amulets of power, or nam, with her. The Moro Naba had to decide whether to follow her and retrieve his sacred power objects or to remain behind to rule over his people. Three times he left his palace to mount a white horse, and three times he returned to the palace. In the end he did not pursue his sister, and to this day the kings of Yatenga claim that they hold the power of Mossi rule.
The political segment of Mossi society, the Nakomse (sing. Nakoambga), use art to validate their rule. Bridles, saddles, stirrups and other objects associated with the horse are very important. In addition, Mossi chiefs use carved wooden figures to represent their royal ancestors. These figures are displayed each year at royal festivals called na possum, when the heads of each household in the community reaffirm their allegiance and loyalty to the chief.
The Nyonyose (the ancient farmers and spiritual segment of Mossi society) use masks in their religious observances and rituals. The Nakomse (chief class) do not use masks. Masks in initiations and funerals is typical of all the Voltaic or Gur-speaking peoples, including the Nyonyose, Lela, Winiama, Nouna, Bwaba, and Dogon. Masks appear at burials to observe on behalf of the ancestors that proper procedures are carried out. They appear at funeral or memorial services held at regular intervals over the few years after an elder has died. Masks attend to honor the deceased and to verify that the spirit of the deceased merits admission into the world of ancestors. Without a proper funeral, the spirit remains near the home and causes trouble for his/her descendants.
Masks are carved of the wood of the Ceiba pentandra, the faux kapokier. They are carved in three major styles that correspond to the styles of the ancient people who were conquered in 1500 by the invading Nakomse and integrated into a new Mossi society:
- In the north masks are vertical planks with a round concave or convex face.
- In the southwest masks represent animals such as antelope, bush buffalo, and strange creatures, and are painted red, white and black.
- In the east, around Boulsa, masks have tall posts above the face to which fiber is attached.
Female masks have two pairs of round mirrors for eyes; small masks, representing Yali ("the child") have two vertical horns. All Nyonyose masks are worn with thick costumes made of the fiber of the wild hemp, Hibiscus cannabinus. In the old days only the northern Nyonyose in Yatenga and Kaya, and the eastern people around Boulsa allowed their masks to be photographed. The people in the southwest forbade photography because it did not conform to the yaaba soore, the path of the ancestors.
Mask characters include Balinga, the Fulani woman; katre, the hyena; nyaka, the small antelope; Wan pelega, the large antelope, and many others. Masks from all three areas appear at annual public festivals such as International Art & Craft Fair (Salon international de l’Artisanat de Ouagadougou or SIAO), Week of the Culture, and the Atypical Nights of Koudougou (Les Nuits Atypiques de Koudougou). Each Nyonyose family has its own mask, and they are charged with protecting the masks to this day. Masks are very sacred and are a link to the spirits of ancestors and of nature.
Notable Mossi people
- Dez Altino, Burkinabé musician
- Laurent Bado, Burkinabé politician
- Narcisse Bambara, Burkinabé footballer
- Habib Bamogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Jean Claude Bamogo, Burkinabé musician
- Aristide Bancé, Burkinabé footballer
- Ibrahim Bancé, Burkinabé footballer
- Hassane Bandé, Burkinabé footballer
- Djibril Bassolé, Burkinabe politician
- Blaise Bassoleth, Burkinabe politician
- Pingdwinde Beleme, Burkinabé footballer
- Sana Bob, Burkinabé musician
- Innocent Bologo, Burkinabé sprinter
- Juliette Bonkoungou, Burkinabé ambassador
- Bassirou Compaoré, Burkinabé footballer
- Blaise Compaoré, former President of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 2014
- Issouf Compaoré, Burkinabé musician
- Raïssa Compaore, Burkinabé journalist
- Simon Compaoré, Burkinabé politician
- Simporé Simone Compaoré, Burkinabé playwright
- Aminata Sana Congo, Burkinabé politician
- Ernest Aboubacar Congo, Burkinabé footballer
- Christophe Joseph Marie Dabiré, Burkinabé politician
- Moumouni Dagano, Burkinabé footballer
- Noellie Marie Béatri Damiba, Burkinabé journalist
- Issoufou Dayo, Burkinabe footballer
- Zéphirin Diabré, Burkinabé politician
- Gilbert Diendéré, Burkinabé military officer
- Moumouni Fabré, Burkinabé politician
- Floby, Burkinabé musician
- Adama Guira, Burkinabé footballer
- Frédéric Guirma, Burkinabé diplomat
- Monique Ilboudo, Burkinabé author
- Patrick Ilboudo, Burkinabé writer
- Pierre Claver Ilboudo, Burkinabé writer
- Aline Koala Kaboré, Burkinabé diplomat
- Charles Kaboré, Burkinabé footballer
- Gaston Kaboré, Burkinabé film director
- Idrissa Kabore, Burkinabé boxer
- Issa Kaboré, Burkinabé footballer
- Karim Kaboré, Burkinabé cyclist
- Mohamed Kaboré, Burkinabé footballer
- Omar Kaboré, Burkinabé footballer
- Pierre Landry Kaboré, Burkinabé footballer
- Rahiza Kaboré, Bukinabé designer
- Roch Marc Christian Kaboré, current President of Burkina Faso
- Salimata Kaboré, Burkinabé painter
- Zinda Kaboré, Burkinabé politician
- Michel Kafando, former President of Burkina Faso
- Bèbè Kambou, Burkinabé footballer
- Ismaël Karambiri, Burkinabé footballer
- Kayawoto, Burkinabé musician
- Marthe Koala, Burkinabé athlete
- Eddie Komboïgo, Burkinabé politician
- Arzouma Aime Kompaoré, Burkinabé screenwriter
- Nathanio Kompaoré, Burkinabé footballer
- Cheick Kongo, French mixed martial artist
- Brahima Korbeogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Jean-Baptiste Kiéthéga, Burkinabé archeoloist
- Djakaridja Koné, Burkinabé footballer
- Ismaël Koudou, Burkinabé footballer
- Imilo Lechanceux, Ivorian-Burkinabé musician
- Hubert Maga, former President of Benin
- Frère Malkhom, Burkinabé musician
- Kamou Malo, Burkinabé football coach
- Patrick Malo, Burkinabé footballer
- Alif Naaba, Burkinabé musician
- Mogho Naaba, King of the Mossi people
- Supreme Nabiga, Burkinabé musician
- Préjuce Nakoulma, Burkinabé footballer
- Elisabeth Nikiema, Burkinabé swimmer
- Jacqueline Marie Zaba Nikiéma, Burkinabé diplomat
- Mamounata Nikiéma, Burkinabé producer
- Suzy Henrique Nikiéma, Burkinabé writer
- Boubacar Nimi, Burkinabé footballer
- Xavier Niodogo, Burkinabé diplomat
- Kollin Noaga, Burkinabé novelist
- Salif Nogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Ablassé Ouedraogo, Burkinabé economist
- Adama Ouedraogo, Burkinabé swimmer
- Adama Ouédraogo, Burkinabé actor
- Alassane Ouédraogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Alice Ouédraogo, Burkinabé lawyer
- Ambroise Ouédraogo, Burkinabé Roman Catholic Archbishop of Maradi
- Angèle Bassolé-Ouédraogo, Canadian poet
- Angelika Ouedraogo, Burkinabé swimmer
- Antoinette Ouédraogo, Burkinabé lawyer
- Assita Ouédraogo, Burkinabé actress
- Bachir Ismaël Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Claire Ouedraogo, Burkinabé nun and activist
- Dim-Dolobsom Ouédraogo, Burkinabé intellectual
- Élodie Ouédraogo, Belgian sprinter
- Fulgence Ouedraogo, French rugby union player
- Gérard Kango Ouédraogo, Burkinabé statesman
- Gilbert Noël Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Hamado Ouedraogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Idrissa Ouédraogo, Burkinabé filmmaker
- Ismahila Ouédraogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Issa Ouédraogo, Burkinabé javelin thrower
- Issiaka Ouédraogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo, former president of Burkina Faso
- Jean-Bernard Ouédraogo, Burkinabe sociologist
- Joseph Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Joséphine Ouédraogo, Burkinabé sociologist
- Kadré Désiré Ouédraogo, former Prime Minister of Burkina Faso
- Kassoum Ouédraogo, former Burkinabé footbaler
- Louckmane Ouédraogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Mahamadou Lamine Ouédraogo, Burkinabé author
- Mamadou Ouedraogo, Burkinabé swimmer
- Mamadou Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Marie Françoise Ouedraogo, Burkinabé mathematician
- Noufou Ouédraogo, Burkinabé actor
- Ouamdégré Ouedraogo, Burkinabé playwright
- Paul Yemboaro Ouédraogo, Burkinabé archbishop
- Peggy Ouedraogo, Burkinabé journalist
- Philippe Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Philippe Ouédraogo, Burkinabé cardinal
- Rabaki Jérémie Ouédraogo, Burkinabé cyclist
- Ram Ouédraogo, Burkinabé politician
- Rasmané Ouédraogo Burkinabé cyclist
- Rasmané Ouédraogo, Burkinabé actor
- Robert Ouédraogo, Burkinabé priest and musician
- Roukiata Ouedraogo, Burkinabé playwright
- Samuel Ouedraogo, Burkinabé basketball player
- Sibidou Ouédraogo, Burkinabé actor
- Tahirou Tasséré Ouédraogo, Burkinabé film director
- Youssouf Ouédraogo, former Prime Minister of Burkina Faso
- Hanatou Ouelogo, Burkinabé judoka
- Titinga Frédéric Pacéré, Burkinabé writer
- Saïdou Panandétiguiri, Burkinabé footballer
- Pargui Emile Paré, Burkinabé politician
- Issouf Paro, Burkinabé footballer
- Clément Pitroipa, Burkinabé footballer
- Jonathan Pitroipa, Burkinabé footballer
- Romaric Pitroipa, Burkinabé footballer
- Stéphane Pognongo, Burkinabé footballer
- Florent Rouamba, Burkinabé footballer
- Alimata Salembéré, Burkinabé film administrator
- Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara, Burkinabé politician
- Odile Sankara, Burkinabé actress
- Robert Sankara, Burkinabé footballer
- Thomas Sankara, former President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987
- Sékou Sanogo, Ivorian footballer
- Sékou Sanogo, Ivorian politician
- Zakaria Sanogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Aboubacar Sawadogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Bienvenu Sawadogo, Burkinabé sprinter
- Clément Sawadogo, Burkinabé politician
- Etienne Sawadogo, Burkinabé novelist
- Faysal Sawadogo, Burkinabé athlete
- Habibou Sawadogo, Burkinabé musician
- Isaka Sawadogo, Burkinabé actor
- Salimata Sawadogo Burkinabé ambassador
- Samira Sawadogo, Burkinabé actress
- Siméon Sawadogo, Burkinabé politician
- Souleymane Sawadogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Tindwende Sawadogo, Burkinabé swimmer
- Yacouba Sawadogo, pioneer of 'zai' farming technique and winner of numerous international environmental awards
- Moussa Savadogo, Malian sprinter
- Moussa Savadogo, Burkinabé playwright
- Laurent Sedego, Burkinabé politician
- Saran Sérémé, Burkinabé politician
- Saïdou Simporé, Burkinabé footballer
- Salimata Simporé, Burkinabé footballer
- Sofiano, Burkinabé musician
- Joey le Soldat, Burkinabé musician
- Issouf Sosso, Burkinabé footballer
- Abdoul Tapsoba, Burkinabé footballer
- Edmond Tapsoba, Burkinabé footballer
- Irène Tassembédo, Burkinabé dancer
- Soumaila Tassembedo, Burkinabé footballer
- Bamos Théo, Burkinabé musician
- Issaka Thiombiano, Burkinabé cinematographer
- Ilias Tiendrébéogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Irène Tiendrébéogo, Burkinabé athlete
- Hippolyte Wangrawa, Burkinabé actor
- Wendy, Burkinabé musician
- Steeve Yago, Burkinabé footballer
- Blaise Yaméogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Blandine Yaméogo, Burkinabé actress
- Hamidou Yaméogo, Burkinabé cyclist
- Hermann Yaméogo, Burkinabé politician
- Herve Yaméogo, Burkinabé basketball player
- Jacques Yaméogo, Burkinabé football manager
- Maurice Yaméogo, former President of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 1966
- Narcisse Yaméogo, Burkinabé footballer
- Saint Pierre Yaméogo, Burkinabé film director
- Salvador Yaméogo, Burkinabé politician
- Moussa Yedan, Burkinabé footballer
- Rene Jacob Yougbara, Burkinabé swimmer
- Alexandre Yougbare, Burkinabé sprinter
- Anne Zagré, Belgian sprinter
- Arthur Zagré, Burkinabé footballer
- Pingrenoma Zagré, Burkinabé military chief of staff
- Hugues Fabrice Zango, Burkinabé athlete
- Mamadou Zaré, Ivorian football manager
- Zêdess, Burkinabé musician
- Yacouba Isaac Zida, Burkinabé military officer
- Djibril Zidnaba, Burkinabé footballer
- Ernest Zongo, Burkinabé cyclist
- Henri Zongo, Burkinabé politician
- Jonathan Zongo, Burkinabé footballer
- Mamadou Zongo, Burkinabé footballer
- Moïse Zongo, Burkinabé footballer
- Norbert Zongo, Burkinabé journalist
- Tertius Zongo, former Prime Minister of Burkina Faso
- Paul Zoungrana, Burkinabé cardinal
- "Burkina Faso". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. January 15, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Roy, Christopher D. (August 18, 2006). "Burkina Faso". Art and Life in Africa Project. University of Iowa. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Sculptures sur Granit de Laongo". fasotour.fr (in French). Retrieved December 3, 2020.
- Mourre, Martin (17 July 2018). "African colonial soldiers, memories and imagining migration in Senegal in the twenty-first century". Africa. Cambridge University Press. 88 (3): 518–538. doi:10.1017/S0001972018000207. S2CID 149999473.
- Tauxier, Louis (1917). Le Noir du Yatenga [The Blacks of Yatenga] (in French). Paris: Larose.
- Skinner, Eliott P., The Mossi of the Upper Volta: The Political Development of a Sudanese People, Stanford, Stanford University Press
- Naden, Tony (1989). Gur. pp. 141–68.
- Bendor-Samuel, J.T ., ed. (1989). The Niger-Congo Languages. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.
- Tapsoba, Marie (April 3, 2006). "Significant values of Mossi and Traditional and Cultural Events" (Interview).
- Roy, Christopher D. "Mossi Political Art: Royal Figures for the Ruling Elite". uiowa.edu. Department of Art History, The University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
- "Mask styles". uiowa.edu. Department of Art History, The University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 2009-11-25. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
- "Scanned photos catalogue". Archived from the original on 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2020-12-03.
- Roy, Christopher D. Art of the Upper Volta Rivers. Meudon: Chaffin, 1987 
- Roy, Christopher D. Land of the Flying Masks. Munich: Prestel, 2007.