Mother's Day

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a holiday celebrating mothers and motherhood. For other uses, see Mother's Day (disambiguation).
Mother’s Day
Observed by 40+ countries
Type Worldwide
Significance Honors mothers and motherhood
Date Many dates
Frequency Annual
Related to Children's Day, Siblings Day, Father's Day, Parents' Day

Mother’s Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March or May. It complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Father's Day and Siblings Day.

In the United States, celebration of Mother's Day began in the early 20th century. It is not related to the many celebrations of mothers and motherhood that have occurred throughout the world over thousands of years, such as the Greek cult to Cybele, the Roman festival of Hilaria, or the Christian Mothering Sunday celebration (originally a commemoration of Mother Church, not motherhood).[1][2][3][4] However, in some countries, Mother's Day has become synonymous with these older traditions.[5]

Establishment of holiday[edit]

The modern holiday of Mother's Day was first celebrated in 1908, when Anna Jarvis held a memorial for her mother at St Andrew's Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia. St Andrew's Methodist Church now holds the International Mother's Day Shrine.[6] Her campaign to make "Mother's Day" a recognized holiday in the United States began in 1905, the year her mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, died. Ann Jarvis had been a peace activist who cared for wounded soldiers on both sides of the American Civil War, and created Mother’s Day Work Clubs to address public health issues. Anna Jarvis wanted to honor her mother by continuing the work she started and to set aside a day to honor all mothers, because she believed that they were "the person who has done more for you than anyone in the world".[7]

In 1908, the US Congress rejected a proposal to make Mother's Day an official holiday, joking that they would have to proclaim also a "Mother-in-law's Day". However, owing to the efforts of Anna Jarvis, by 1911 all US states observed[clarification needed] the holiday, with some of them officially recognizing Mother's Day as a local holiday,[8] the first being West Virginia, Jarvis' home state, in 1910. In 1914, Woodrow Wilson signed a proclamation designating Mother's Day, held on the second Sunday in May, as a national holiday to honor mothers.[9]

Although Jarvis was successful in founding Mother's Day, she became resentful of the commercialization of the holiday. By the early 1920s, Hallmark Cards and other companies had started selling Mother's Day cards. Jarvis believed that the companies had misinterpreted and exploited the idea of Mother's Day, and that the emphasis of the holiday was on sentiment, not profit. As a result, she organized boycotts of Mother's Day, and threatened to issue lawsuits against the companies involved.[10] Jarvis argued that people should appreciate and honor their mothers through handwritten letters expressing their love and gratitude, instead of buying gifts and pre-made cards.[9] Jarvis protested at a candy makers' convention in Philadelphia in 1923, and at a meeting of American War Mothers in 1925. By this time, carnations had become associated with Mother's Day, and the selling of carnations by the American War Mothers to raise money angered Jarvis, who was arrested for disturbing the peace.[9][10]

Spelling[edit]

In 1912 Anna Jarvis trademarked the phrases "second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day International Association.[11] She specifically noted that "Mother's" should "be a singular possessive, for each family to honor its own mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world."[12] This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in his 1914 presidential proclamation, by the U.S. Congress in relevant bills,[13][14] and by various U.S. presidents in their proclamations concerning Mother's Day.[15]

Dates around the world[edit]

While the United States holiday was adopted by some other countries, existing celebrations, held on different dates, honouring motherhood have become described as "Mother's Day", such as Mothering Sunday in the United Kingdom[5] or, in Greece, the Eastern Orthodox celebration of the presentation of Jesus Christ to the temple (2 February of Julian Calendar). Both the secular and religious Mother Day are present in Greece.[citation needed] Mothering Sunday is often referred to as "Mother's Day" even though it is an unrelated celebration.[5]

In some countries, the date adopted is one significant to the majority religion, such as Virgin Mary Day in Catholic countries. Other countries selected a date with historical significance. For example, Bolivia's Mother's Day is the date of a battle in which women participated.[16] See the "International history and tradition" section for the complete list.

Ex-communist countries usually celebrated International Women's Day instead of Mother's Day.[17][not in citation given] Some ex-communist countries, such as Russia, still follow this custom[18] or simply celebrate both holidays, which is the custom in Ukraine. Kyrgyzstan has recently introduced Mother's Day, but “year on year [International Women’s Day] is certainly increasing in status”.[19]

Gregorian calendar
Occurrence Dates Country

Second Sunday of February

Feb 8, 2015
Feb 14, 2016
Feb 12, 2017

 Norway

3 March

 Georgia[20]

8 March (with International Women's Day)

Fourth Sunday in Lent (Mothering Sunday)

15 Mar 2015
6 Mar 2016
26 Mar 2017

21 March
(Spring equinox)

25 March

 Slovenia

7 April (Annunciation day)

 Armenia (Motherhood and Beauty Day)

First Sunday of May

May 3, 2015
May 1, 2016
May 7, 2017

8 May

 South Korea (Parents' Day)

10 May

Second Sunday of May

May 10, 2015
May 8, 2016
May 14, 2017

15 May

 Paraguay (same day as Día de la Patria)[33]

19 May

 Kyrgyzstan (Russian: День матери, Kyrgyz: Энэ күнү)

26 May

 Poland (Polish: Dzień Matki)

27 May

 Bolivia[16]

Last Sunday of May (sometimes First Sunday of June if the last Sunday of May is Pentecost)

May 31, 2015
May 29, 2016
May 28, 2017

French Antilles (First Sunday of June if Pentecost occurs on this day)

30 May

 Nicaragua[35]

1 June

 Mongolia (together with Children's Day)

Second Sunday of June

Jun 14, 2015
Jun 12, 2016
Jun 11, 2017

 Luxembourg

First Monday of July

Jul 6, 2015
Jul 4, 2016
Jul 3, 2017

 South Sudan

12 August

 Thailand (birthday of Queen Sirikit)

15 August (Assumption of Mary)

 Costa Rica
 Antwerp (Belgium)

Second Monday of October

Oct 12, 2015
Oct 10, 2016
Oct 9, 2017

 Malawi

14 October

 Belarus (since 1996[36])

Third Sunday of October

Oct 18, 2015
Oct 16, 2016
Oct 15, 2017

 Argentina (Día de la Madre)[37]

3 November

 Timor Leste

8 December (Feast of the Immaculate Conception)

 Panama[38]

22 December

 Indonesia[39]

Hebrew calendars
Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

Shevat 30

Between 30 January and 1 March- Family Day

 Israel[40]

22 May Mother's Day - new  Israel[40]
Hindu calendars
Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

Baisakh[41] Amavasya (Mata Tirtha Aunsi[42])

Between 19 April and 19 May

6 May 2016[41]

   Nepal

Islamic calendars
Occurrence Equivalent Gregorian dates Country

20 Jumada al-Thani[n 1]

20 April 2014
10 April 2015
30 March 2016

 Iran[43]

Celebration[edit]

Mother's Day is celebrated in more than 46 countries throughout the world. On this day, most people pray in churches in honor of mothers, while some gift them presents on this day to express their love. Some may have dinner at home with the family.

One of the most popular ways people celebrate Mother's Day is by giving their mother a card and bouquet of flowers.[44] As it is a holiday, some people prefer to go out for a picnic to celebrate this festival. In schools, kids dedicate poems to their mothers and also performs various roles on this day.

International history and tradition[edit]

Mother's Day in the Netherlands in 1925
Northern Pacific Railway postcard for Mother's Day 1916.
Mother's Day gift in 2007
Mother and daughter and Mother's Day card

In most countries, Mother's Day is an observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in the United States.[45] As adopted by other countries and cultures, the holiday has different meanings, is associated with different events (religious, historical or legendary), and is celebrated on different dates.

In some cases, countries already had existing celebrations honoring motherhood, and their celebrations then adopted several external characteristics from the US holiday, such as giving carnations and other presents to one's mother.

The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

In the Roman Catholic Church, the holiday is strongly associated with revering the Virgin Mary.[46] In some Catholic homes, families have a special shrine devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. In many Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a special prayer service is held in honor of the Theotokos Virgin Mary.[47][citation needed]

In Islam there is no concept of Mother's Day, but mothers hold a very high position[48] in religious matters. According to some Islamic traditions, Heaven is said to be found under a mother's feet, meaning that one can attain admission into heaven after death if they are caring and loving sons to their mothers.[citation needed]

In Hindu tradition, Mother's Day is called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" or "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight", and is celebrated in countries with a Hindu population, especially in Nepal. The holiday is observed on the new moon day in the month of Baisakh, i.e., April/May. This celebration is based on Hindu religion and it pre-dates the creation of the US-inspired celebration by at least a few centuries.[citation needed]

In Buddhism, the festival of Ullambana is derived from the story of Maudgalyayana and his mother.[49]

By country (A–G)[edit]

Arab world[edit]

Mother's Day in most Arab countries is celebrated on 21 March. It was introduced in Egypt by journalist Mustafa Amin[50] and was first celebrated in 1956. The practice has since been copied by other Arab countries.[citation needed]

Argentina[edit]

In Argentina, Mother's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of October. The holiday was originally celebrated on 11 October, the old liturgical date for the celebration of the Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary but after the Second Vatican Council, which moved the Virgin Mary festivity to 1 January, the Mother's Day started to be celebrated the third Sunday of October because of popular tradition.[37] Argentina is the only country in the world that celebrates Mother's Day on this date.[citation needed]

Armenia[edit]

In Armenia, Mother's Day is celebrated on 8 March, and on 7 April as Maternity and Beauty Day.[citation needed]

Australia[edit]

In Australia, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. The tradition of giving gifts to mothers on Mother's Day in Australia was started by Janet Heyden,[51] a resident of Leichhardt, Sydney, in 1924. She began the tradition during a visit to a patient at the Newington State Home for Women, where she met many lonely and forgotten mothers. To cheer them up, she rounded up support from local school children and businesses to donate and bring gifts to the women. Every year thereafter, Mrs Heyden raised increasing support for the project from local businesses and even the local Mayor. The day has since become commercialised. Traditionally, the chrysanthemum is given to mothers for Mother's Day as the flower is naturally in season during May (autumn in Australia) and ends in "mum", a common affectionate shortening of "mother" in Australia.[citation needed] Men will often wear a chrysanthemum in their lapels in honor of mothers.[citation needed]

Belarus[edit]

Belarus celebrates Mother's Day on 14 October. Like other ex-Communist republics, Belarus used to celebrate only the International Women Day on 8 March. Mother's Day in Belarus was officially established by the Belarus government, and it was celebrated for the first time in 1996.[36] The celebration of the Virgin Mary (the holiday of Protection of the Holy Mother of God) is celebrated in the same day.[52]

Bhutan[edit]

Mother's Day in Bhutan is celebrated on the 8 of May. It was introduced in Bhutan by the Tourism Council of Bhutan.[53]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium, Mother's Day (Moederdag or Moederkesdag in Dutch and Fête des Mères in French) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. In the week before this holiday children make little presents at primary school, which they give to their mothers in the early morning of Mother's Day. Typically, the father will buy croissants and other sweet breads and pastries and bring these to the mother while she is still in bed – the beginning of a day of pampering for the mother. There are also many people who celebrate Mother's Day on 15 August instead; these are mostly people around Antwerp, who consider that day (Assumption) the classical Mother's Day and the observance in May an invention for commercial reasons. It was originally established on that day as the result of a campaign by Frans Van Kuyck, a painter and Alderman from Antwerp.[citation needed]

Bolivia[edit]

In Bolivia, Mother's Day is celebrated on 27 May. El Día de la Madre Boliviana was passed into law on 8 November 1927, during the presidency of Hernando Siles Reyes. The date commemorates the Battle of La Coronilla, which took place on 27 May 1812, during the Bolivian War of Independence, in what is now the city of Cochabamba. In this battle, women fighting for the country's independence were slaughtered by the Spanish army. It is not a public holiday, but all schools hold activities and festivities throughout the day.[16]

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. The first Mother's Day in Brazil was promoted by Associação Cristã de Moços de Porto Alegre (Young Men's Christian Association of Porto Alegre) on 12 May 1918. In 1932, then President Getúlio Vargas made the second Sunday of May the official date for Mother's Day. In 1947, Archbishop Jaime de Barros Câmara, Cardinal-Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro, decided that this holiday would also be included in the official calendar of the Catholic Church.[citation needed]

Mother's Day is not an official holiday (see Public holidays in Brazil), but it is widely observed and typically involves spending time with and giving gifts to one's mother. Because of this, it is considered one of the celebrations most related to consumerism in the country, second only to Christmas Day as the most commercially lucrative holiday.[54]

Canada[edit]

See also Other observances in Canada
Mother's Day cookie cake

Mother's Day in Canada is celebrated on the second Sunday in May (it is not a public holiday or bank holiday), and typically involves small celebrations and gift-giving to one's mother, grandmother, or other important female figures in one's family. Celebratory practices are very similar to those of other western nations. A Québécois tradition is for Québécois men to offer roses or other flowers to the women.[citation needed]

China[edit]

Mother's Day is becoming more popular in China. Carnations are a very popular Mother's Day gift and the most sold flowers in relation to the day.[55] In 1997 Mother's Day was set as the day to help poor mothers and to remind people of the poor mothers in rural areas such as China's western region.[55] In the People's Daily, the Chinese government's official newspaper, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China accept the holiday without hesitation because it is in line with the country's traditional ethics – respect for the elderly and filial piety towards parents."[55]

In recent years, the Communist Party member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ. He formed a non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics.[56][57] Li and the Society want to replace the Western-style gift of carnations with lilies, which, in ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home.[57] Mother's Day remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.[citation needed]

Czech Republic[edit]

In the Czech Republic , Mother's Day is celebrated every second Sunday in May. It started in former Czechoslovakia in 1923.[30] The promoter of this celebration was Alice Masaryková.[30] After World War II communists replaced Mother's Day with International Woman's Day, celebrated on 8 March.[30] The former Czechoslovakia celebrated Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989.[30] After the split of the country in 1993, the Czech Republic started celebrating Mother's Day again.[30]

Egypt[edit]

Mother's Day in Egypt is celebrated on the 21 of March, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. It was introduced in Egypt by journalist Mustafa Amin[50] in his book Smiling America (1943). The idea was overlooked at the time. Later Amin heard the story of a widowed mother who devoted her whole life to raising her son until he became a doctor. The son then married and left without showing any gratitude to his mother. Hearing this, Amin became motivated to promote "Mother's Day". The idea was first ridiculed by president Gamal Abdel Nasser but he eventually accepted it and Mother's Day was first celebrated on 21 March 1956. The practice has since been copied by other Arab countries.[citation needed]

When Mustafa Amin was arrested and imprisoned, there were attempts to change the name of the holiday from "Mother's Day" to "Family Day" as the government wished to prevent the occasion from reminding people of its founder. These attempts were unsuccessful and celebrations continued to be held on that day; classic songs celebrating mothers remain famous to this day.[citation needed]

Ethiopia[edit]

Mother's Day is celebrated for three days in Ethiopia, after the end of rainy season. It comes in mid-fall where people enjoy a three-day feast called "Antrosht".[58]

For the feast, ingredients will be brought by the children for a traditional hash recipe. The ingredients are divided along genders, with girls bringing spices, vegetables, cheese and butter, while the boys bring a lamb or bull. The mother hands out to the family the hash.[59]

A celebration takes place after the meal. The mothers and daughters anoint themselves using butter on their faces and chests. While honoring their family and heroes, men sing songs.[60]

Estonia[edit]

In Estonia, Mother's Day (emadepäev in Estonian) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, but is not a public holiday.[61]

France[edit]

In France, amidst alarm at the low birth rate, there were attempts in 1896 and 1904 to create a national celebration honoring the mothers of large families.[62] In 1906 ten mothers who had nine children each were given an award recognising "High Maternal Merit" ("Haut mérite maternel").[63] American World War I soldiers fighting in France popularized the US Mother's Day holiday created by Anna Jarvis. They sent so much mail back to their country for Mother's Day that the Union Franco-Américaine created a postal card for that purpose.[62] In 1918, also inspired by Jarvis, the town of Lyon wanted to celebrate a "journée des Mères", but instead decided to celebrate a "Journée Nationale des Mères de familles nombreuses." The holiday was more inspired by anti-depopulation efforts than by the US holiday, with medals awarded to the mothers of large families.[62] The French government made the day official in 1920 as a day for mothers of large families.[64] Since then the French government awards the Médaille de la Famille française to mothers of large families.[citation needed]

In 1941, by initiative of Philippe Pétain, the wartime Vichy government used the celebration in support of their policy to encourage larger families, but all mothers were now honored, even mothers with smaller families.[64]

In 1950, after the war, the celebration was reinstated. The law of 24 May 1950 required that the Republic pay official homage to French Mothers on the last Sunday in May as the "Fête des Mères" (except when Pentecost fell on that day, in which case it was moved to the first Sunday in June).[citation needed]

During the 1950s, the celebration lost all its patriotic and natalist ideologies, and became heavily commercialized.[62]

In 1956, the celebration was given a budget and integrated into the new Code de l'action Sociale et des familles. In 2004 responsibility for the holiday was transferred to the Minister responsible for families.[citation needed]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia celebrates Mother's Day on 3 March. It was declared by the first President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia in order to replace the International Women Day, and it was officially approved by the Supreme Council in 1991. Nowadays Georgia celebrates both Mother's Day on 3 March and International Women's Day on 8 March.[20]

Germany[edit]

Mother's Day cake in Germany

In the 1920s, Germany had the lowest birthrate in Europe, and the declining trend was continuing. This was attributed to women's participation in the labor market. At the same time, influential groups in society (politicians of left and right, churchwomen, and feminists) believed that mothers should be honored but could not agree on how to do so. However, all groups strongly agreed on the promotion of the values of motherhood. In 1923, this resulted in the unanimous adoption of Muttertag, the Mother's Day holiday as imported from America[citation needed] and Norway. The head of the Association of German Florists cited "the inner conflict of our Volk and the loosening of the family" as his reason for introducing the holiday. He expected that the holiday would unite the divided country. In 1925, the Mother's Day Committee joined the task force for the recovery of the volk, and the holiday stopped depending on commercial interests and began emphasizing the need to increase the population in Germany by promoting motherhood.[65]

The holiday was then seen as a means to encourage women to bear more children, which nationalists saw as a way to rejuvenate the nation. The holiday did not celebrate individual women, but an idealized standard of motherhood. The progressive forces resisted the implementation of the holiday because it was backed by so many conservatives, and because they saw it as a way to eliminate the rights of working women. Die Frau, the newspaper of the Federation of German Women's Associations, refused to recognize the holiday. Many local authorities adopted their own interpretation of the holiday: it would be a day to support economically larger families or single-mother families. The guidelines for the subsidies had eugenics criteria, but there is no indication that social workers ever implemented them in practice, and subsidies were given preferentially to families in economic need rather than to families with more children or "healthier" children.[65]

With the Nazi party in power during 1933–1945, the situation changed radically. The promotion of Mother's Day increased in many European countries, including the UK and France. From the position of the German Nazi government, the role of mothers was to give healthy children to the German nation. The Nazi party's intention was to create a pure "Aryan race" according to nazi eugenics. Among other Mother's Day ideas, the government promoted the death of a mother's sons in battle as the highest embodiment of patriotic motherhood.[65][66]

The Nazis quickly declared Mother's Day an official holiday and put it under the control of the NSV (National Socialist People's Welfare Association) and the NSF (National Socialist Women Organization). This created conflicts with other organizations that resented Nazi control of the holiday, including Catholic and Protestant churches and local women's organizations. Local authorities resisted the guidelines from the Nazi government and continued assigning resources to families who were in economic need, much to the dismay of the Nazi officials.[65]

Mother's Day in UNRRA camp Germany in 1946

In 1938, the government began issuing an award called Mother's Cross (Mutterkreuz), according to categories that depended on the number of children a mother had. The medal was awarded on Mother's Day and also on other holidays due to the large number of recipients. The Cross was an effort to encourage women to have more children, and recipients were required to have at least four.[65][66]

By countries (H-M)[edit]

Hungary[edit]

In Hungary, Mother's Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. It was first celebrated in 1925 by the Hungarian Red Cross Youth.[citation needed]

India[edit]

The modern Mother's Day has been assimilated into Indian culture,[67] and it is celebrated every year on the second Sunday of May.[68] Indians do not celebrate the occasion as a religious event, and it is celebrated primarily in urban centers. The majority of the population still remains unaware of a formal Mother's Day.[citation needed]

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesian Mother's Day (Indonesian: Hari Ibu) is celebrated nationally on 22 December. The date was made an official holiday by President Soekarno under Presidential Decree (Indonesian: Dekrit Presiden) no. 316 in 1953, on the 25th anniversary of the 1928 Indonesian Women Congress. The day originally sought to celebrate the spirit of Indonesian women and to improve the condition of the nation. Today, the meaning of Mother's Day has changed, and it is celebrated by expressing love and gratitude to mothers. People present gifts to mothers (such as flowers) and hold surprise parties and competitions, which include cooking and kebaya wearing. People also allow mothers a day off from domestic chores.[69]

The holiday is celebrated on the anniversary of the opening day of the first Indonesian Women Congress (Indonesian: Kongres Perempuan Indonesia), which was held from 22 to 25 December 1928.[39][70] The Congress took place in a building called Dalem Jayadipuran, which now serves as the office of the Center of History and Traditional Values Preservation (Indonesian: Balai Pelestarian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional) in Brigjen Katamso Street, Yogyakarta. The Congress was attended by 30 feminist organizations from 12 cities in Java and Sumatra. In Indonesia, feminist organizations have existed since 1912, inspired by Indonesian heroines of the 19th century, e.g., Kartini, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Cut Nyak Meutia, Maria Walanda Maramis, Dewi Sartika, Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, Rasuna Said, etc.[39] The Congress intended to improve women's rights in education and marriage.[71]

Indonesia also celebrates the Kartini Day (Indonesian: Hari Kartini) on 21 April, in memory of activist Raden Ajeng Kartini. This is a celebration of the emancipation of women.[70] The observance was instituted at the 1938 Indonesian Women Congress.[71]

During President Suharto's New Order (1965-1998), government propaganda used Mother's Day and Kartini Day to inculcate into women the idea that they should be docile and stay at home.[71]

Iran[edit]

A woman rights the name of Fatimah during a ceremony for Mother's Day in Milad Tower

In Iran, Mother's Day is celebrated on 20 Jumada al-thani. This is the sixth month in the Islamic calendar (a lunar calendar) and every year the holiday falls on a different day of the Gregorian calendar. This is the birthday anniversary of Fatimah,[43][72] Prophet Muhammad's only daughter according to Shia Islam orthodoxy. Mother's Day was originally observed on 16 December but the date was changed after the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The celebration is both Women's Day (replacing International Women's Day) and Mother's Day.[43][73]

In 1960, the Institute for Women Protection adopted the Western holiday and established it on 25 Azar (16 December), the date the Institute was founded. The Institute's action had the support of Queen Farah Pahlavi, the wife of the last Shah of Persia, who promoted the construction of maternity clinics in remote parts of the country to commemorate the day. The government used the holiday to promote its maternalist view of women. The Shah's government honored and gave awards to women who represented the idealized view of the regime, including mothers who had many healthy children.[74]

The Islamic Republic government is accused of using the holiday as a tool to undercut feminist movements and to promote role models for the traditional concept of family. Fatimah is seen by these critics as the chosen model of a woman completely dedicated to certain traditionally sanctioned feminine roles.[43][75][76] However, supporters of the choice contend that there is much more to her life story than simply such "traditional" roles.[citation needed]

Israel[edit]

The Jewish population of Israel used to celebrate Mother's Day on Shevat 30 of the Jewish calendar, which falls between 30 January and 1 March. The celebration was set as the same date that Henrietta Szold died (13 February 1945). Henrietta had no biological children, but her organization Youth Aliyah rescued many Jewish children from Nazi Germany and provided for them. She also championed children's rights. Szold is considered the "mother" of all those children, and that is why her annual remembrance day (יום השנה) was set as Mother's Day (יוֹם הָאֵם, yom ha'em). The holiday has evolved over time, becoming a celebration of mutual love inside the family, called Family Day (יוֹם הַמִשְּפָּחָה, yom hamishpacha). Mother's Day is mainly celebrated by children at kindergartens. There are no longer mutual gifts among members of the family, and there is no longer any commercialization of the celebration. It is not an official holiday.[40]

Italy[edit]

Mother's Day in Italy was celebrated for the first time on 24 December 1933 as the "Day of the mother and the child" (Giornata della madre e del fanciullo). It was instituted by the Opera nazionale maternità e infanzia in order to publicly reward the most prolific Italian women every year.[77]

After World War II, Mother's Day was first celebrated on 12 May 1957 in Assisi, at the initiative of Reverend Otello Migliosi, the parish priest of the Tordibetto church.[78] This celebration was so popular that in the following year Mother's Day was adopted throughout Italy. On 18 December 1958, a proposal was presented to the Italian Senate to make the holiday official.[79]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, Mother's Day (母の日 Haha no Hi?) was initially commemorated during the Shōwa period as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito) on 6 March. This was established in 1931 when the Imperial Women's Union was organized. In 1937, the first meeting of "Praise Mothers" was held on 8 May, and in 1949 Japanese society adopted the second Sunday of May as the official date for Mother's Day in Japan. Today, people typically give their mothers gifts of flowers such as red carnations and roses.[citation needed]

Kyrgyzstan[edit]

In Kyrgyzstan, Mother's Day is celebrated on 19 May every year. The holiday was first celebrated in 2012.[80] Mothers are also honored on International Women's Day.[citation needed]

Latvia[edit]

Mother's Day in Latvia was celebrated for the first time in 1922. Since 1934, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.[81] After the end of the soviet occupation of Baltic states celebration was resumed in 1992.[82] Mothers are also honored on International Women's Day.[citation needed]

Maldives[edit]

In the Maldives, Mother's Day is celebrated on 13 May. The day is celebrated in different ways. Children give gifts and spend time with their mothers. Daughters give their mothers cards and handmade gifts and sons give their mothers gifts and flowers. Maldivians love to celebrate Mother's day, and they have it specially written on their calendar.[citation needed]

Malta[edit]

The first mention of Mother's Day in Malta occurred during the Radio Children's Programmes run by Frans H. Said in May 1961. Within a few years, Mother's Day became one of the most popular dates in the Maltese calendar. In Malta, this day is commemorated on the second Sunday in May. Mothers are invariably given gifts and invited for lunch, usually at a good quality restaurant.[citation needed]

Mexico[edit]

In Mexico, the government of Álvaro Obregón imported the Mother's Day holiday from the US in 1922, and the newspaper Excélsior held a massive promotional campaign for the holiday that year.[83] The conservative government tried to use the holiday to promote a more conservative role for mothers in families, but that perspective was criticized by the socialists as promoting an unrealistic image of a woman who was not good for much more than breeding.[83]

In the mid-1930s, the leftist government of Lázaro Cárdenas promoted the holiday as a "patriotic festival". The Cárdenas government tried to use the holiday as a vehicle for various efforts: to stress the importance of families as the basis for national development; to benefit from the loyalty that Mexicans felt towards their mothers; to introduce new morals to Mexican women; and to reduce the influence that the church and the Catholic right exerted over women.[84] The government sponsored the holiday in the schools.[84] However, ignoring the strict guidelines from the government, theatre plays were filled with religious icons and themes. Consequently, the "national celebrations" became "religious fiestas" despite the efforts of the government.[84]

Soledad Orozco García, the wife of President Manuel Ávila Camacho, promoted the holiday during the 1940s, resulting in an important state-sponsored celebration.[85] The 1942 celebration lasted a full week and included an announcement that all women could reclaim their pawned sewing machines from the Monte de Piedad at no cost.[85]

Due to Orozco's promotion, the Catholic National Synarchist Union (UNS) took heed of the holiday around 1941.[86] Shop-owner members of the Party of the Mexican Revolution (now the Institutional Revolutionary Party) observed a custom allowing women from humble classes to pick a free Mother's Day gift from a shop to bring home to their families. The Synarchists worried that this promoted both materialism and the idleness of lower classes, and in turn, reinforced the systemic social problems of the country.[87] Currently this holiday practice is viewed as very conservative, but the 1940s' UNS saw Mother's Day as part of the larger debate on the modernization that was happening at the time.[88] This economic modernization was inspired by US models and was sponsored by the state. The fact that the holiday was originally imported from the US was seen as evidence of an attempt at imposing capitalism and materialism in Mexican society.[88]

The UNS and the clergy of the city of León interpreted the government's actions as an effort to secularize the holiday and to promote a more active role for women in society. They concluded that the government's long-term goal was to cause women to abandon their traditional roles at home in order to spiritually weaken men.[88] They also saw the holiday as an attempt to secularize the cult to the Virgin Mary, inside a larger effort to dechristianize several holidays. The government sought to counter these claims by organizing widespread masses and asking religious women to assist with the state-sponsored events in order to "depaganize" them.[89] The clergy preferred to promote 2 July celebration of the Santísima Virgen de la Luz, the patron of León, Guanajuato, in replacement of Mother's Day.[86] In 1942, at the same time as Soledad's greatest celebration of Mother's Day, the clergy organized the 210th celebration of the Virgin Mary with a large parade in León.[89]

There is a consensus among scholars that the Mexican government abandoned its revolutionary initiatives during the 1940s, including its efforts to influence Mother's Day.[86]

Today the "Día de las Madres" is an unofficial holiday in Mexico held each year on 10 May,[90] the day on which it was first celebrated in Mexico.[91]

In Mexico, to show affection and appreciation to the mother, it is traditional to start the celebration with the famous song "Las Mañanitas", either a cappella, with the help of a mariachi or a contracted trio. Many families usually gather to celebrate this special day trying to spend as much time as possible with mothers to honor them on their day. They are organized to bring some dishes and eat all together or maybe to visit any restaurant.[citation needed]

By country (N–S)[edit]

Nepal[edit]

In Nepal, there is a festival equivalent to Mother's Day, called Mata Tirtha Aunsi ("Mother Pilgrimage New Moon"), or Mata Tirtha Puja ("Mother Pilgrimage Worship"). It is celebrated according to the lunar calendar. It falls on the last day of the dark fortnight in the month of Baishakh which falls in April–May (in 2015, it will occur on 18 April). The dark fortnight lasts for 15 days from the full moon to the new moon. This festival is observed to commemorate and honor mothers, and it is celebrated by giving gifts to mothers and remembering mothers who are no more.[citation needed]

To honor mothers who have died, it is the tradition to go on a pilgrimage to the Mata Tirtha ponds, located 6 km to the southwest of downtown Kathmandu. The nearby Mata Tirtha village is named after these ponds. Previously, the tradition was observed primarily by the Newar community and other people living in the Kathmandu Valley. Now this festival is widely celebrated across the country.[citation needed]

Many tragic folklore legends have been created, suggesting different reasons why this pond became a pilgrimage site. The most popular version says that, in ancient times, the mother of a shepherd died, and he made offerings to a nearby pond. There he saw the face of his mother in the water, with her hand taking the offerings. Since then, many people visited the pond, hoping to see their deceased mother's face. Pilgrims believe that they will bring peace to their mother's souls by visiting the sacred place. There are two ponds. The larger one is for ritual bathing. The smaller one is used to "look upon mother's face", and it's fenced by iron bars to prevent people from bathing on it.[92]

Traditionally, in the Kathmandu valley the South-Western corner is reserved for women and women-related rituals, and the North-Eastern is for men and men-related rituals. The worship place for Mata Tirtha Aunsi is located in Mata Tirtha in the South-Western half of the valley, while the worship place for Gokarna Aunsi, the equivalent celebration for deceased fathers, is located in Gokarna, Nepal, in the North-Eastern half. This division is reflected in many aspects of the life in Kathmandu valley.[93]

Mother's Day is known as Aama ko Mukh Herne Din in Nepali, which literally means "day to see mother's face". In Nepal Bhasa, the festival is known as Mām yā Khwā Swayegu, which can be translated as "to look upon mother's face".[citation needed]

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, Mother's Day was introduced as early as 1910 by the Dutch branch of the Salvation Army.[94] The Royal Dutch Society for Horticulture and Botany, a group protecting the interest of Dutch florists, worked to promote the holiday; they hoped to emulate the commercial success achieved by American florists.[95] They were imitating the campaign already underway by florists in Germany and Austria, but they were aware that the traditions had originated in the US.[95]

Florists launched a major promotional effort in 1925. This included the publication of a book of articles written by famous intellectuals, radio broadcasts, newspapers ads, and the collaboration of priests and teachers who wanted to promote the celebration for their own reasons.[95] In 1931 the second Sunday of May was adopted as the official celebration date. In the mid-1930s the slogan Moederdag - Bloemendag (Mother's Day - Flowers' Day) was coined, and the phrase was popular for many years.[96] In the 1930s and 1940's "Mother's Day cakes" were given as gifts in hospitals and to the Dutch Queen, who is known as the "mother of the country".[96] Other trade groups tried to cash in on the holiday and to give new meaning to the holiday in order to promote their own wares as gifts.[96]

Roman Catholic priests complained that the holiday interfered with the honoring of the Virgin Mary, the divine mother, which took place during the whole month of May. In 1926 Mother's Day was celebrated on 7 July in order to address these complaints.[97] Catholic organizations and priests tried to Christianize the holiday, but those attempts were rendered futile around the 1960s when the church lost influence and the holiday was completely secularized.[97]

In later years, the initial resistance disappeared, and even leftist newspapers stopped their criticism and endorsed Mother's Day.[98]

In the 1980s, the American origin of the holiday was still not widely known, so feminist groups who opposed the perpetuation of gender roles sometimes claimed that Mother's Day was invented by Nazis and celebrated on the birthday of Klara Hitler, Hitler's mother.[99]

New Zealand[edit]

In New Zealand, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. Mother's Day is not a public holiday. The New Zealand tradition is to give cards and gifts and to serve mothers breakfast in bed.[citation needed]

Nicaragua[edit]

In Nicaragua, the Día de la Madre has been celebrated on 30 May since the early 1940s. The date was chosen by President Anastasio Somoza García because it was the birthday of Casimira Sacasa, his wife's mother.[35]

Norway[edit]

Mother's Day was first celebrated on 9 February 1919 and was initially organized by religious institutions. Later it has become a family day, and the mother is often treated to breakfast in bed, flowers and cake.[100][better source needed]

It has gradually become a major commercial event, with special pastries, flowers and other presents offered by retailers. Day-cares and primary schools often encourage children to make cards and other gifts.[citation needed]

Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. Media channels celebrate with special shows. Individuals honor their mothers by giving gifts and commemorative articles. Individuals who have lost their mothers pray and pay their respects to their loved ones lost. Schools hold special programs in order to acknowledge the efforts of their mothers.[citation needed]

Panama[edit]

In Panama, Mother's Day is celebrated on 8 December, the same day as the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. This date was suggested in 1930 by the wife of Panama's President Florencio Harmodio Arosemena. 8 December was adopted as Mother's Day under Law 69, which was passed the same year.[38]

According to another account, in 1924 the Rotary Club of Panama asked that Mother's Day be celebrated on 11 May. Politician Aníbal D. Ríos changed the proposal so that the celebration would be held on 8 December. He then established Mother's Day as a national holiday on that date.[101]

Paraguay[edit]

In Paraguay, Mother's Day is celebrated on 15 May, the same day as the Dia de la Patria, which celebrates the independence of Paraguay.[33] This date was chosen to honor the role played by Juana María de Lara in the events of 14 May 1811 that led to Paraguay's independence.[102]

In 2008, the Paraguayan Minister of Culture, Bruno Barrios, lamented this coincidence because, in Paraguay, Mother's Day is much more popular than independence day and the independence celebration goes unnoticed. As a result, Barrios asked that the celebration be moved to the end of the month.[103] A group of young people attempted to gather 20,000 signatures to ask the Parliament to move Mother's Day.[103] In 2008, the Comisión de festejos (Celebration Committee) of the city of Asunción asked that Mother's Day be moved to the second Sunday of May.[104]

Philippines[edit]

In the Philippines, Mother's Day is officially celebrated every second sunday of May, but it is not a public holiday.[105] Although not a traditional Filipino holiday, the occasion owes its popularity to American influence, and is thus more commonly celebrated every second Sunday of May like in the United States.[citation needed]

According to a 2008 article by the Philippine News Agency, in 1921 the Ilocos Norte Federation of Women's Clubs asked to declare the first Monday of December as Mother's Day "to honor these fabulous women who brought forth God’s children into this world." In response, Governor-General Charles Yeater issued Circular No. 33 declaring the celebration. In 1937 President Manuel L. Quezon issued Presidential Proclamation No. 213, changing the name of the occasion from "Mother's Day" to "Parent's Day" to address the complaints that there wasn't a "Father's Day". In 1980 President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 2037 proclaiming the date as both Mother's Day and Father's Day. In 1988 President Corazon Aquino issued Presidential Proclamation No. 266, changing Mother's Day to the second Sunday of May, and Father's Day to the third Sunday of June, discontinuing the traditional date.[106] In 1998 President Joseph Estrada returned both celebrations to the first Monday of December.[105]

A Filipina mother is called the "light of the household" around which all activities revolve, and in accordance with Filipino culture, is the object of filial piety. Common practices include treating mothers and mother-figures to meals out, strolling in a park or shopping at malls, or giving mothers time to pamper themselves. Most families celebrate at home, with children doing household chores that the mother routinely handles such as preparing food, or giving mothers small handcrafted tokens such as cards.[citation needed]

Portugal[edit]

In Portugal, the "Dia da Mãe" ("Mother's Day") is an unofficial holiday held each year on the first Sunday of May (sometimes coinciding with Labour Day). The weeks leading up to this Sunday, school children spend a few hours a day to prepare a gift for their mothers, aided by their school teachers. In general, mothers receive gifts by their family members and this day is meant to be celebrated with the whole family. It used to be celebrated on the 8th December, the same date of the Conception of the Virgin celebration.[citation needed]

Romania[edit]

Since 2010, Mother's Day has been celebrated on the first Sunday of May in Romania. Law 319/2009 made both Mother's Day and Father's Day official holidays in Romania. The measure was passed thanks to campaign efforts from the Alliance Fighting Discrimination Against Fathers (TATA).[26] Previously, Mother's Day was celebrated on 8 March, as part of International Women's Day (a tradition dating back to when Romania was part of the Eastern bloc). Today, Mother's Day and International Women's Day are two separate holidays, with International Women's Day being held on its original date of 8 March.[citation needed]

Russia[edit]

Traditionally Russia had celebrated International Women's Day and Mother's Day on 8 March, an inheritance from the Soviet Union, and a public holiday.[107]

Women's Day was first celebrated on the last Sunday in February in 1913 in Russia.[108]

In 1917, demonstrations marking International Women's Day in Saint Petersburg on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar) initiated the February Revolution. Following the October Revolution later that year, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai persuaded Vladimir Lenin to make it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, and it was established, but was a working day until 1965.[citation needed]

On 8 May 1965, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the Soviet Union "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays."[109]

Samoa[edit]

In Samoa, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May, and as a recognised national holiday on the Monday following.

Singapore[edit]

In Singapore, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. The day is celebrated by individuals but not recognized as a holiday by the government.

Slovakia[edit]

Czechoslovakia celebrated only Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989. After the country split in 1993, Slovakia started celebrating both Women's Day and Mother's Day. The politicization of Women's Day has affected the official status of Mother's Day. Center-right parties want Mother's Day to replace Women's Day, and social-democrats want to make Women's Day an official holiday. Currently, both days are festive, but they are not "state holidays". In the Slovak Republic, Mother's Day is celebrated every second Sunday in May.[30]

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May and is not a public holiday. The tradition is to give cards and gifts and to serve mothers breakfast in bed or to go out to lunch together as a family.

South Sudan[edit]

In South Sudan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the first Monday in July. The president Salva Kiir Mayardit proclaimed Mother's Day as the first Monday in July after handing over from Sudan. Children in South Sudan are presenting mothers with gifts and flowers. The first Mother's Day was held in that country on 2 July 2012.[citation needed]

Spain[edit]

In Spain, Mother's Day or Día de la Madre is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. The weeks leading up to this Sunday, school children spend a few hours a day to prepare a gift for their mothers, aided by their school teachers. In general, mothers receive gifts by their family members & this day is meant to be celebrated with the whole family. It is also said to be celebrated in May, as May is the month dedicated to the Virgin Mary (mother of Jesus) according to Catholicism.[citation needed]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, Mother's Day was first celebrated in 1919, by initiative of the author Cecilia Bååth-Holmberg. It took several decades for the day to be widely recognized. Swedes born in the early nineteen hundreds typically did not celebrate the day because of the common belief that the holiday was invented strictly for commercial purposes. This was in contrast to Father's Day, which has been widely celebrated in Sweden since the late 1970s. Mother's Day in Sweden is celebrated on the last Sunday in May. A later date was chosen to allow everyone to go outside and pick flowers.[citation needed]

Switzerland[edit]

In Switzerland, the "règle de Pentecôte" law allows Mother's Day to be celebrated a week late if the holiday falls on the same day as Pentecost. In 2008, merchants declined to move the date.[110]

By country (T–Z)[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May, coinciding with Buddha's birthday and the traditional ceremony of "washing the Buddha". In 1999 the Taiwanese government established the second Sunday of May as Buddha's birthday, so they would be celebrated in the same day.[111][112]

Since 2006,[113] the Tzu Chi, the largest charity organization in Taiwan, celebrates the Tzu Chi Day, Mother's Day and Buddha's birthday all together, as part of a unified celebration and religious observance.[114][115][116]

Thailand[edit]

Mother's day in Thailand is celebrated on the birthday of the Queen of Thailand, Queen Sirikit (12 August).[117] The holiday was first celebrated around the 1980s as part of the campaign by the Prime Minister of Thailand Prem Tinsulanonda to promote Thailand's Royal family.[118] Father's Day is celebrated on the King's birthday.[118]

Ukraine[edit]

Ukraine celebrates Mother's Day (Ukrainian: День Матері) on the second Sunday of May. In Ukraine, Mother's Day officially became a holiday only in 1999[119] and is celebrated since 2000. Since then Ukrainian society struggles to transition the main holiday that recognizes woman from the International Women's Day, a holiday adopted under the Soviet Union that remained as a legacy in Ukraine after its collapse, to Mother's Day.[citation needed]

United Kingdom[edit]

Main article: Mothering Sunday
Balloons outside, in the week before Mothering Sunday 2008

The United Kingdom celebrates Mothering Sunday, which falls on the fourth Sunday of Lent (6 March in 2016). This holiday has its roots in the church and was originally unrelated to the American holiday.[5][120] Most historians believe that Mothering Sunday evolved from the 16th-century Christian practice of visiting one's mother church annually on Laetare Sunday.[121] As a result of this tradition, most mothers were reunited with their children on this day when young apprentices and young women in service were released by their masters for that weekend. As a result of the influence of the American Mother's Day, Mothering Sunday transformed into the tradition of showing appreciation to one's mother. The holiday is still recognized in the original historical sense by many churches, with attention paid to Mary the mother of Jesus Christ and the concept of the Mother Church.[citation needed]

The custom was still popular by the start of the 19th century, but with the Industrial Revolution, traditions changed and the Mothering Day customs declined.[120] By 1935, Mothering Sunday was less celebrated in Europe.[citation needed] Constance Penswick-Smith worked unsuccessfully to revive the festival in the 1910s–1920s. However, US World War II soldiers brought the US Mother's Day celebration to the UK,[122] and the holiday was merged with the Mothering Sunday traditions still celebrated in the Church of England.[123] By the 1950s, the celebration became popular again in the whole of the UK, thanks to the efforts of UK merchants, who saw in the festival a great commercial opportunity.[123] People from UK started celebrating Mother's Day on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the same day on which Mothering Sunday had been celebrated for centuries. Some Mothering Sunday traditions were revived, such as the tradition of eating cake on that day, although celebrants now eat simnel cake[22] instead of the cakes that were traditionally prepared at that time.[citation needed] The traditions of the two holidays are now mixed together and celebrated on the same day, although many people are not aware that the festivities have quite separate origins.[124]

Mothering Sunday can fall at the earliest on 1 March (in years when Easter Day falls on 22 March) and at the latest on 4 April (when Easter Day falls on 25 April).[citation needed]

United States[edit]

Prince Harry, Michelle Obama and Jill Biden helping children create Mother's Day cards at the White House, 9 May 2013
Handmade Mother's Day gifts

The United States celebrates Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May. In 1872 Julia Ward Howe called for women to join in support of disarmament and asked for 2 June 1872, to be established as a "Mother's Day for Peace". Her 1870 "Appeal to womanhood throughout the world" is sometimes referred to as Mother's Day Proclamation. But Howe's day was not for honouring mothers but for organizing pacifist mothers against war. In the 1880s and 1890s there were several further attempts to establish an American "Mother's Day", but these did not succeed beyond the local level.[125]

In the United States, Mother's Day remains one of the biggest days for sales of flowers, greeting cards, and the like; Mother's Day is also the biggest holiday for long-distance telephone calls.[126] Moreover, churchgoing is also popular on Mother's Day, yielding the highest church attendance after Christmas Eve and Easter. Many worshippers celebrate the day with carnations, coloured if the mother is living and white if she is dead.[127]

Mother's Day continues to be one of the most commercially successful U.S. occasions.[128]

It is possible that the holiday would have withered over time without the support and continuous promotion of the florist industries and other commercial industries. Other Protestant holidays from the same time, such as Children's Day and Temperance Sunday, do not have the same level of popularity.[129] Mother's Day is also prominent in the Sunday comic strips in the newspapers of the United States, expressing emotions ranging from sentimental to wry to caustic.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Since the Islamic Calendar uses the lunar year, which is shorter than the solar year, the day migrates through the seasons. Each year it falls a different day in the Gregorian Calendar, so it is listed separately.

Citations[edit]

Enstam, Elizabeth York. "The Dallas equal suffrage association, political style, and popular culture: grassroots strategies of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1913–1919." Journal of Southern History 68.4 (2002):817+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 14 Nov. 2014.

References[edit]

  1. ^ L. James Grold (April 1968), "Mother's Day", American Journal of Psychiatry, 124: 1456–1458, Mother's Day, conceived by Anna Jarvis to honor unselfish mothers (...) Although there is no direct lineal descent to our modern Mother's Day custom, secular and religious motherhood have existed for thousands for the of years 10 May 1908: the first church – St. Andrew's in Grafton, West Virginia – responded to her request for a Sunday service honoring mothers . Cybele (...)  line feed character in |quote= at position 219 (help)
  2. ^ Tad Tuleja (1999), Curious Customs: The Stories Behind 296 Popular American Rituals, Galahad Books, p. 167, ISBN 9781578660704, Although attempts have been made to link Mother's Day to ancient cults of the mother goddess, especially the worship of Cybele, the association is more conceptual than historic. Mother's Day is a modern, American invention. 
  3. ^ Robert J. Myers, Hallmark Cards (1972), Celebrations; the complete book of American holidays, Doubleday, p. 143, Our observance of Mother's Day is little more than half a century old [this was written in 1972], yet the nature of the holiday makes it seem as if it had its roots in prehistoric times. Many antiquarians, holiday enthusiasts, and students of folklore have claimed to find the source Mother's Day in the ancient spring festivals dedicated to the mother goddess, particularly the worship of Cybele. 
  4. ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 208 "The American origin of the Day, however, was duly acknowledged. 'The idea is imported,. America led the way.'"
  5. ^ a b c d "Mothering Sunday", BBC, retrieved 4 March 2010 
  6. ^ O'Reilly, Andrea (6 April 2010). Encyclopedia of Motherhood. Sage Publications (CA). p. 602. ISBN 978-1-4522-6629-9. She organized the first official Mother's Day service at Andrews Methodist Church in Grafton, West Virginia, on the morning of May 10, 1908. That same afternoon, 15,000 people attended a Mother's Day service at the Wanamaker Store Auditorium in Philadelphia, which she also organized. Jarvis chose the second Sunday in May for Mother's Day to mark the anniversary of her mother's death and selected her mother's favorite flower, the white carnation, as the day's official emblem. 
  7. ^ Engaging Families 2015 Special Editions—Mother’s Day.
  8. ^ Connie Park Rice; Marie Tedesco (15 March 2015). Women of the Mountain South: Identity, Work, and Activism. Ohio University Press. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-8214-4522-8. 
  9. ^ a b c Lois M. Collins (6 May 2014). "Mother's Day 100-year history a colorful tale of love, anger and civic unrest". DeseretNews.com. 
  10. ^ a b "Hallmark celebrates 100th year of Mother's Day, started by a woman who grew to despise it". kansas.com. 
  11. ^ Compare footnote 51 in LaRossa, Ralph (1997). The Modernization of Fatherhood: A Social and Political History. University of Chicago Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780226469041. Retrieved 2016-04-28. Technically, at least, Mother's Day was 'owned' by Jarvis. She managed not only to incorporate the Mother's Day International Association, but also to register 'Second Sunday in May, Anna Jarvis, Founder,' as the organization's trademark. 
  12. ^ Louisa Taylor, Canwest News Service (11 May 2008). "Mother's Day creator likely 'spinning in her grave'". Vancouver Sun. Canada. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  13. ^ House Vote No. 274 (7 May 2008) H. Res. 1113: Celebrating the role of mothers in the United States and supporting the goals and ideals of Mother's Day (Vote On Passage)
  14. ^ House Vote No. 275 (7 May 2008) Table Motion to Reconsider: H RES 1113 Celebrating the role of mothers in the United States and supporting the goals and ideals of Mother's Day
  15. ^ Presidential proclamations from The American Presidency Project:
  16. ^ a b c Sources for Bolivia:
  17. ^ Nicolette Hannam; Michelle Williams (2011), German Festivals and Traditions - Activities and Teaching Ideas for Ks3, Brilliant Publications, p. 45, ISBN 9781905780815 
  18. ^ Robert A. Saunders; Vlad Strukov (2010), Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, Historical dictionaries of French history, 78 (illustrated ed.), Scarecrow Press, p. 246, ISBN 9780810854758 
  19. ^ “International Women’s Day”
  20. ^ a b "Bidzina Ivanishvili Congratulates Mothers on Mother's Day". News Agency InterPressNews (IPN). March 3, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b Ngo, Dong (June 25, 2009). "Latest U.S. export to Vietnam: Mother's Day". CNET. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  22. ^ a b c Allen, Emily; Macphail, Cameron (6 March 2016). "Mother's Day 2016: Everything you need to know about Mothering Sunday 2016". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 March 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sawwan, Ameenah A. (23 March 2016). "A Special Note to Syrian Mothers on Mother's Day". News Deeply. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  24. ^ John MacIntyre (2005), The amazing mom book: real facts, tender tales, and thoughts from the heart about the most important person on Earth, Sourcebooks, p. 7, ISBN 9781402203558, Lebanon in the first day of Spring. 
  25. ^ a b "Lamis' Story – International Women's Day 2015". Medical Aid for Palestinians. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  26. ^ a b "Romania Celebrates Fathers' Day On Second Sunday Of May". Mediafax. Bucharest. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  27. ^ "Días Nacionales en Chile". Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  28. ^ Xinhua from China Daily (16 May 2006). "It's Mother's Day". SCUEC online. 
  29. ^ "Principales efemérides. Mes Mayo". Unión de Periodistas de Cuba. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Mixed emotions on Women's Day in Eastern Europe, euractiv.com, 9 March 2010, archived from the original on 11 March 2010 
  31. ^ "Calendario Cívico Escolar". Dirección Regional de Educación de Lima Metropolitana. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  32. ^ Kabita Maharana (2014-05-09). "Mother's Day 2014 to be Celebrated in US and other Countries: Best Quotes to Say 'Thank You' to Mum". International Business Times. Retrieved 2014-05-11. 
  33. ^ a b Ministerio de Educación y Cultura de Paraguay, Día de la Madre (in Spanish) 
  34. ^ Sources: * "Haiti: Main Holidays". discoverhaiti.com. Retrieved 8 July 2008.  * "6310.- Fêtes et Jours Fériés en Haiti" (in French). Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008. 
  35. ^ a b Lic. Pedro Rafael Díaz Figueroa (27 May 1999), "El origen del Día de la Madre", El Nuevo Diario 
  36. ^ a b The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus (14 October 2009), Support for mothers remains the key priority of Belarus’ social policy 
  37. ^ a b Padre Fabián Castro (3 October 2010). "El día de la madre en el mundo y en la Argentina" (in Spanish). padrefabian.com.ar. Retrieved 13 May 2013. La cuestión tiene que ver con el calendario litúrgico que la Iglesia Católica utilizaba antes de la reforma producto del Concilio Vaticano II. Allí el 11 de octubre era la festividad de la Maternidad de la Virgen María. (Actualmente se celebra el 1 de enero). Con este motivo era costumbre argentina pasar la celebración litúrgica al domingo anterior o siguiente al 11. Con el lento correr de los años la tradición popular fue fijando como el tercer domingo de octubre la celebración de la Madre y las madres. 
  38. ^ a b editorial (8 December 2001), "Bendita Madre", Crítica (in Spanish) 
  39. ^ a b c seenthing (21 December 2010), Sejarah Perayaan Nasional Hari Ibu 22 Desembe 
  40. ^ a b c Sources for Israel :http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4801172,00.html https://www.facebook.com/events/1528903660772737/
  41. ^ a b Zhai, Yun Tan (7 May 2016). "Celebrating Mother's Day? Make Sure You Have The Date Right". NPR. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  42. ^ "Mata Tirtha Aunsi today". República. Kathmandu: Nepal Republic Media. 6 May 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  43. ^ a b c d Wendy S. DeBano (2009), "Singing against Silence: Celebrating Women and Music and the Fourth Jasmine Festival", in Laudan Nooshin, Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, Soas Musicology Series (illustrated ed.), Ashgate Publishing, p. 234 (footnote 18), ISBN 9780754634577, In 2002, Fatemeh's birthday celebration (observed according to the hejri calendar) fell on Thursday 29 August (20 Jamādi 1423) (...) Fatemeh's birth date is also currently used to mark Mother's Day in Iran, ritually recollecting, emphasising and reinscribing her role as a loyal mother, wife and daughter. Prior to the revolution, Mother's Day was used to promote the gender ideologies of the Pahlavi regime. 
  44. ^ "Best Mother's Day 2016 Card". 
  45. ^ Independent Staff (8 May 2016). "Mother's Day 2016: Which countries celebrate it on 8 May – and why?". The Independent. 
  46. ^ Cordelia Candelaria; Peter J. García (2004). Encyclopedia of Latino popular culture (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 375. ISBN 9780313332104. 
  47. ^ Kennedy, Jon; Schroedel, Jenny; Schroedel, John (2011). Jesus and Mary. East Bridgewater, MA: Adams Media. p. 397. ISBN 9781572157491. 
  48. ^ "Islams Women - Status of Mothers in Islam". islamswomen.com. 
  49. ^ Teiser, Stephen F. (1988). The Ghost Festival in Medieval China. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-691-02677-7. 
  50. ^ a b Jehl, Douglas (16 April 1997). "Mustafa Amin, Liberal Editor Jailed by Nasser, Dies at 83". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  51. ^ Sources for Janet Heyden:
  52. ^ "Belarus celebrates Mother's Day for 15th time. The President congratulated the Belarusian mothers.", Belteleradio, 14 October 2010 
  53. ^ "Bhutan celebrates Mother's Day for 5th time.", Bhutanbroadcastingserviceradio, 8 May 2010 
  54. ^ "Dia das Mães: shoppings têm promoções especiais". 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-06-06. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  55. ^ people.com.cn, sina.com.cn (17 June 2008). "Researchers and Experts Propose a Chinese Mother's Day". All-China Women's Federation. 
  56. ^ a b "Do we need our own Mother's Day?". China Daily. 16 May 2007. 
  57. ^ "Mother's Day - Holidays - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2016-04-13. 
  58. ^ "Happy Mother's Day Birtukan!". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-04-13. 
  59. ^ "Mothers Day History ~ The Complete History of Mother's Day". Mothers Day Central. Retrieved 2016-04-13. 
  60. ^ "Pühade ja tähtpäevade seadus". Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  61. ^ a b c d Histoire de la fête des mères et celle de "l'Union fraternelle des pères de familles méritants d'Artas", Union des Familles en Europe 
  62. ^ Artas, berceau de la Fête des mères, mairie d'Artas 
  63. ^ a b Luc Capdevila (CRHISCO – University of Rennes 2), Fabrice Virgili (IHTP – CNRS), "Guerre, femmes et nation en France (1939–1945)", in IRICE.
  64. ^ a b c d e Michelle Mouton (2007), "From Mother's Day to Forced Sterilization", From nurturing the Nation to Purifying the Volk: Weimar and Nazi family policy, 1918–1945, Publications of the German Historical Institute (illustrated ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 107–152, ISBN 0-521-86184-5 
  65. ^ a b Ann Taylor Allen (February 1995), "Reviewed work(s): Muttertag und Mutterkreuz: Der Kult um die "Deutsche Mutter" im Nationalsozialismus, by Irmgard Weyrather", American Historical Review, Frankfurt A.m, 100 (1): 186–187, doi:10.2307/2168063 
  66. ^ TTN (13 March 2004). "Social change in India discussed". Times of India. 
  67. ^ Charu Amar (1 May 2009), "Kyunki saas bhi toh maa hai!", The Times of India, Mention Mother's Day and everyone goes on a thinking spree to find the most innovative way to pamper their mommy dearest. 
  68. ^ Wardhani, Lynda K. (22 December 2010). "In observance of Mother's Day". The Jakarta Post. 
  69. ^ a b Bulbeck, Chilla (2009). Sex, love and feminism in the Asia Pacific: a cross-cultural study of young people's attitudes. ASAA women in Asia. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415470063.  Preview.
  70. ^ a b c Kathryn Robinson (2009), Gender, Islam and Democracy in Indonesia, ASAA women in Asia, Routledge, pp. 3, 36, 44, 72, ISBN 9781134118830 
  71. ^ "Ahmadinejad highlights women's significant role in society". Presidency of The Islamic Republic of Iran News Service. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2008. (...) the occasion of the Mother's Day marking the birthday anniversary of Hazrat Fatemeh Zahra (SA), the beloved daughter of Prophet Mohammad. The day fell on 23 June [2008] 
  72. ^ Shahla Haeri (1993). "Obedience versus Autonomy: Women and Fundamentalism in Iran and Pakistan". In Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby; Helen Hardacre; Everett Mendelsohn. Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education. The Fundamentalism Project. 2 (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780226508801. The more women try to engage the fundamentalists in their own discourse, negotiating and bargaining over their rights (Islamic or otherwise), the more frequently has the Islamic regime emphasized the ideal, the Fatimah model, the quintessential obedient woman. The fundamentalist regime in iran has yet to resolve its central dilemma regarding the role of women and male-female relationships: should women emulate a Zainab-autonomous and assertive-or a Fatimah-obedient and submissive? Given the logic of an Islamic marriage and the worldview it implies, the fundamentalist regime has shown a marked preference for the latter. Thus Woman's Day and Mother's Day in Iran are celebrated on the occasion of Fatimah's birth. 
  73. ^ Firoozeh Kashani-Sabet (2011), Conceiving Citizens: Women and the Politics of Motherhood in Iran (illustrated ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 201–206, ISBN 9780195308860 
  74. ^ Mahdi, Ali Akbar (2003). "Iranian Women: Between Islamization and Globalization". Iran Encountering Globalization: Problems and Prospects. Ali Mohammadi. London and New York: Routledge/Curzon. ISBN 0-415-30827-5. Archived from the original (DOC) on 15 September 2006. This Shia vision of family is based on a nostalgic and idealistic notion of Imam Ali's family in which Fatima Zahra (the Prophet Mohammad's daughter) dedicated herself to both her husband and Islamic cause. Other role models for women often cited by the officials and ideologues of the IRI are Khadijah, the prophet Mohammad's wife, and Zaynab, daughter of the first Shi'i (sic) Imam Ali. In fact, the IRI [Islamic Republic of Iran] replaced the universal Mother's Day with Fatima Zahar's (sic) birthday. 
  75. ^ Shahla Haeri (2009), "Women, Religion, and Political Agency in Iran", in Ali Gheissari, Contemporary Iran:Economy, Society (illustrated ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 137, ISBN 9780195378481, Such [feminist] gatherings would not have been so remarkable had they not happened against the backdrop of the regime's ceaseless effort to discourage, even harass, women activists and their supporters. Within the narrative of Islamization, the state's argument has been, all along, that such gatherings are representative of the culture of imperialism, and hence are subversive and against the public good and the moral order. Above all, the Islamic state has tried hard to co-opt women by appropriating the terminology and language: "protecting women," "respect for women," "gender complementarity." Accordingly, in order to accommodate, and yet control and channel women's movements and activitites, the state commemorates the birthday of Fatemeh, the Prophet Muhammad's daughter, as a national woman's/mother's day. 
  76. ^ de Ceglia, F. P.; Dibattista, L. (2013). Il bello della scienza. Intersezioni tra storia, scienza e arte (in Italian). Milan: Angeli. p. 102. ISBN 9788856849530. 
  77. ^ Anonymous (1 April 2010), "La Festa DeLLa Mamma", Italian America (in Italian)  (registration required)
  78. ^ Raul Zaccari - together with Senators Bellisario, Baldini, Restagno, Piasenti, Benedetti and Zannini. Senato della Repubblica, 78ª Seduta Pubblica, 18 dicembre 1958. "Istituzione de la festa della Mamma." (Annunzio di presentazione di disegni di legge)
  79. ^ Светлана Моисеева (17 May 2013). "Президент поздравил кыргызстанцев с Днем матери". Вечерный Бишкек. 19 мая народ Кыргызстана отмечает День матери. Эта памятная дата установлена только в прошлом году, но сразу стала для кыргызстанцев одной из любимых. 
  80. ^ Apollo.lv (13 May 2012). "Šodien sveicam Māmiņas!". Apollo.lv India. Mātes dienu Latvijā sāka svinēt 1922. gadā, bet ar 1934. gadu tika noteikts, ka šī diena svinama katra maija otrajā svētdienā līdzīgi kā citās Eiropas valstīs. 1938. gadā pēc prezidenta Kārļa Ulmaņa ierosinājuma Mātes dienu sāka dēvēt par Ģimenes dienu, uzsverot mātes lielo lomu ģimenes pavarda veidošanā un uzturēšanā. 
  81. ^ Latvijā atzīmē Mātes dienu TVNET
  82. ^ a b Newcomer, page 133
  83. ^ a b c Sherman, page 44
  84. ^ a b Newcomer, pages 133–134
  85. ^ a b c Newcomer, page 134
  86. ^ Newcomer, 134–135
  87. ^ a b c Newcomer, 135–136
  88. ^ a b Newcomer, 136–139
  89. ^ The History of Mother's Day from The Legacy Project, a Legacy Center (Canada) website
  90. ^ "When Is Mother's Day Celebrated In Mexico?". 2016-05-07. Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  91. ^ Bandana Rai (2009). Gorkhas: The Warrior Race. Gyan Publishing House. p. 126. ISBN 9788178357768. 
  92. ^ J. C. Heesterman; Albert W. Van den Hoek; Dirk H. A. Kolff; Marianne S. Oort (1992). Ritual, State, and History in South Asia: Essays in Honour of J.C. Heesterman. BRILL. p. 786. ISBN 978-90-04-09467-3. 
  93. ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 206
  94. ^ a b c Helsloot 2007, p. 208
  95. ^ a b c Helsloot 2007, p. 209
  96. ^ a b Helsloot 2007, p. 210
  97. ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 213
  98. ^ Helsloot 2007, p. 211
  99. ^ "Mother's Day in Norway". 11 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  100. ^ Penny de Henríquez (9 December 2005), "Origins. La celebración del Día de la Madre", La Prensa (in Spanish) 
  101. ^ Session of the Honorable Cámara de Senadores. Señor Senador Diego Abente Brun (in Spanish), p. 25 
  102. ^ a b "Buscan que se cambie fecha del día de la madre", Radio Viva 90.1 FM Paraguay, 14 May 2008 
  103. ^ Municipality of Asuncion (27 July 2008), Hoy miércoles 27 de agosto se inician las acciones de la Comisión de Festejos por el Bicentenario, con una retreta en la Plaza de los Héroes 
  104. ^ a b "Proclamation No. 58, s. 1998". Official Gazette (Philippines). December 11, 1998. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 
  105. ^ Content Manager 03 (December 1, 2014). "The First Monday of December is Mother's Day and Father's Day". Malacañan Palace (official residence of the President of the Philippines). 
  106. ^ Постановление ЦК ВКП(б). (8 March 1966). К советским женщинам, обращение ЦК КПСС в связи с Международным днём 8 Марта. (DjVu). Советское искусство (in Russian). p. 4. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  107. ^ "About International Women's Day". International Women's Day. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  108. ^ Балаховская, Л. Г. (1969–1978). Международный женский день 8 марта.. In Введенский, Борис. «Большая советская энциклопедия» (БСЭ) (in Russian). Москва: «Советская энциклопедия». 
  109. ^ Fleurop-Interflora (Suisse) (22 April 2008), La Fête des Mères 2008 ne sera pas reportée (in French) 
  110. ^ Camaron Kao (14 May 2012), "Thousands of believers mark Buddha's birthday", China Post 
  111. ^ Ko Shu-Ling (9 May 2011). "Sakyamuni Buddha birthday celebrated". Taipei Times. The legislature approved a proposal in 1999 to designate the birthday of Sakyamuni Buddha – which falls on the eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar calendar – a national holiday and to celebrate the special occasion concurrently with International Mother's Day, which is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. 
  112. ^ "300,000 Attend Buddha Day Ceremonies in 34 Countries". Tzu Chi. 15 May 2012. 
  113. ^ Staff (4 May 2008), "Tzu Chi Foundation to stage Mother's Day event", Taipei Times 
  114. ^ Caroline Hong (23 May 2004), "Cultural center performs `bathing Buddha' ceremony", Taipei Times 
  115. ^ unsigned (15 May 2006), "Taiwan Quick Take: Tzu Chi celebrates birthday", Taipei Times, p. 3 
  116. ^ Thai News Agency (10 August 2012). "Police chief returns earlier for Mother's Day". MCOT news. (...) an audience with Her Majesty Queen Sirikit on Tuesday on the occasion of her birthday, which is also observed as National Mother's Day. 
  117. ^ a b Paul M. Handley (2006). The King Never Smiles: a biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780300106824.  (online version)
  118. ^ "Украз Президента України. Про День Матері" (in Ukrainian). zakon2.rada.gov.ua. 
  119. ^ a b Robert J. Myers, Hallmark Cards (1972), Celebrations; the complete book of American holidays, Doubleday, pp. 144–146 
  120. ^ "BBC – Religion: Interfaith holy days by faith". Religion & Ethics. BBC. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  121. ^ "How Mothering Sunday became Mother's Day". Owenspencer-thomas.com. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  122. ^ a b Ronald Hutton (2001), The stations of the sun: a history of the ritual year in Britain (illustrated, reprinted ed.), Oxford University Press, pp. 174–177, ISBN 9780192854483 
  123. ^ David Self (1993), One hundred readings for assembly, Heinemann Assembly Resources, Heinemann, pp. 27–29, ISBN 9780435800413 
  124. ^ Bernhard, Virginia (2002). "Mother's Day". In Joseph M. Hawes; Elizabeth F. Shores. The family in America: an encyclopedia (3, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 714. ISBN 9781576072325. 
  125. ^ Barbara Mikkelson, "We love you – call collect". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2010.03.08.
  126. ^ J. Ellsworth Kalas (19 October 2009). Preaching the Calendar: Celebrating Holidays and Holy Days. Westminster John Knox Press. Church attendance on this day is likely to be third only to Christmas Eve and Easter. Some worshipers still celebrate with carnations, colored if the mother is living and white if she is deceased. 
  127. ^ "Mother's Day Dining Fact Sheet". National Restaurant Association. 2006-04-28. Mother's Day is the most popular day of the year to dine out, with 38 percent of consumers reporting doing so 
  128. ^ Leigh, page 256

General