Outlaw motorcycle club
An outlaw motorcycle club, also known as a biker gang, is a motorcycle subculture that has its roots in the immediate post-World War II era of North American society. It is generally centered on the use of cruiser motorcycles, particularly Harley-Davidsons and choppers, and a set of ideals that celebrate freedom, nonconformity to mainstream culture, and loyalty to the biker group.
In the United States, such motorcycle clubs (MCs) are considered "outlaw" not necessarily because they engage in criminal activity, but because they are not sanctioned by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) and do not adhere to the AMA's rules. Instead the clubs have their own set of bylaws reflecting the outlaw biker culture.
- 1 Organization and leadership
- 2 Membership
- 3 Biker culture
- 4 Identification
- 5 Gender and race
- 6 Outlaw motorcycle clubs and crime
- 7 Outlaw motorcycle clubs as criminal enterprises
- 8 Relationships between outlaw motorcycle clubs
- 9 Cultural influence
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Sources
- 14 External links
Organization and leadership
While organizations may vary, the typical internal organization of a motorcycle club consists of a president, vice president, treasurer, secretary, road captain, and sergeant-at-arms (sometimes known as enforcer). Localized groups of a single, large MC are called charters and the first charter established for an MC is referred to as the mother charter. The president of the mother charter serves as the president of the entire MC, and sets club policy on a variety of issues.
Larger motorcycle clubs often acquire real estate for use as a clubhouse or private compound.
Some "biker" clubs employ a process whereby members must pass several stages such as "friend of the club", "hang-around", and "prospect", on their way to becoming full-patch (see explanation of 'patching' below) members. The actual stages and membership process can and often does vary widely from club to club. Often, an individual must pass a vote of the membership and swear some level of allegiance to the club. Some clubs have a unique club patch (cut or top rocker) adorned with the term MC that are worn on the rider's vest, known as a kutte.
In these clubs, some amount of hazing may occur during the early stages (i.e. hang-around, prospecting) ranging from the mandatory performance of menial labor tasks for full patch members to sophomoric pranks, and, in rare cases with some outlaw motorcycle clubs, acts of violence. During this time, the prospect may wear the club name on the back of their vest, but not the full logo, though this practice may vary from club to club. To become a full member, the prospect or probate must be voted on by the rest of the full club members. Successful admission usually requires more than a simple majority, and some clubs may reject a prospect or a probate for a single dissenting vote. A formal induction follows, in which the new member affirms his loyalty to the club and its members. The final logo patch is then awarded. Full members are often referred to as "full patch members" or "patchholders" and the step of attaining full membership can be referred to as "being patched".
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Outlaw motorcycle clubs who identify with this subculture may not necessarily be criminals, with some members expressing their outlaw status on a social level, and equating the word "outlaw" with disregard for the law of groups like the American Motorcyclist Association, not the laws of government.
There are also non-outlaw motorcycle clubs, such as women's motorcycle clubs, who adopt similar insignia, colors, organizational structure and trappings, such as leather outfits typical of outlaw clubs, and, in the case of men, beards, making it difficult for outsiders (especially police) to tell the difference between the two. It has been said[by whom?] that these other groups are attracted by the mystique of the outlaw image while objecting to the suggestion that they are outlaws.
Outlaw clubs are often prominent at charity events, such as toy runs. Charitable giving is frequently cited as evidence that these clubs do not deserve their negative media image. Outlaw clubs have been accused of using charity rides to mask their criminal nature. The American Motorcyclist Association has frequently complained of the bad publicity for motorcycling in general caused by outlaw clubs, and they have said that the presence of outlaw clubs at charity events has actually harmed the needy by driving down public participation and reducing donations. Events such as a 2005 shootout between rival outlaw clubs in the midst of a charity toy drive in California have raised fears about the participation of outlaw biker clubs in charity events. Authorities have attempted to ban outlaw clubs from charity events, or to restrict the wearing of colors at events in order to avert the sort of inter-club violence that has happened at previous charity runs. In 2002, the Warlocks MC of Pennsylvania sued over their exclusion from a charity event.
The primary visual identification of a member of an outlaw motorcycle club is the vest adorned with a large club-specific patch or patches, predominantly located in the middle of the back. The patch(es) will contain a club logo, the name of the club, and the letters MC, and a possible state, province, or other chapter identification. This garment and the patches themselves are referred to as the colors or cut (a term taken from the early practice of cutting the collars and/or sleeves from a denim or leather jacket). Many non-outlaw motorcycle riding clubs such as the Harley Owners Group also wear patches on the back of their vests, without including the letters MC.
The club patches always remain property of the club itself, not the member, and only members are allowed to wear the club's patches. Hang-arounds and/or support clubs wear support patches with the club's colors. A member must closely guard their colors, for allowing one's colors to fall into the hands of an outsider is an act of disgrace and may result in loss of membership in a club, or some other punishment.
One-, two-, and three-piece patches
The colors worn by members of some motorcycle clubs will sometimes follow a convention of using either a one-piece patch for nonconformist social clubs, two-piece patch for clubs paying dues, a three-piece patch for outlaw clubs or side patches. The three-piece patch consists of the club logo and the top and bottom patches, usually crescent shaped, which are referred to as rockers. The number and arrangement of patches is somewhat indicative of the nature of the club. Though many motorcycle clubs wear the three-piece patch arrangement, this is not necessarily an indication that a club is an outlaw motorcycle club.
Law enforcement agencies have confiscated colors and other club paraphernalia of these types of clubs when they raid a clubhouse or the home of a MC member, and they often display these items at press conferences. These items are then used at trial to support prosecution assertions that MC members perform criminal acts on behalf of their club. Courts have found that the probative value of such items is far outweighed by their unfairly prejudicial effects on the defence.
Some outlaw motorcycle clubs can be distinguished by a "1%" patch worn on the colors. This is said to refer to a comment by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) that 99% of motorcyclists were law-abiding citizens, implying the last one percent were outlaws.
The alleged AMA comment, supposedly a response to the Hollister riot in 1947, is denied by the AMA, who claim to have no record of such a statement to the press and that the story is a misquote.[note 1]
Other patches may be worn by members, including phrases and symbols. The style or meaning of these other patches can vary between clubs. Some, such as a skull and crossbones patch, or the motto "Respect Few, Fear None", are worn in some clubs by members who commit murder or other acts of violence on behalf of the club.
There are also wings or biker's wings, which are earned something like jump wings or pilot's wings, but with various color-coded meanings, e.g. in some clubs, it is said that a member who has had sex with a woman with venereal disease can wear green wings. It has also been suggested that these definitions are a hoax, intended to make fools of those outside the outlaw biker world, and also to serve the purpose of provoking outrage among conservative public and authorities.
Frequently, additional patches may involve symbols, such as the use of Nazi swastikas or the SS Totenkopf. These may not indicate Nazi sympathies, but serve to express the outlaw biker's total rejection of social constraints, and desire for the shock value among those who fail to understand the biker way.
Gender and race
Most outlaw motorcycle clubs do not allow women to become full-patch members. Rather, in some 1%er clubs, women have in the past been portrayed as submissive or victims to the men, treated as property, forced into prostitution or street-level drug trafficking, and often physically and sexually abused, their roles as being those of obedient followers and their status as objects. These women are claimed to pass over any pay they receive to their partners or sometimes to the entire club. This appears to make these groups extremely gender segregated. This has not always been the case, as during the 1950s and 1960s, some Hells Angels chapters had women members.
Academic research has criticized the methodology of such previous studies as being "vague and hazy", and lacking in participant demographics. Such reports may have made clear statements and authoritative analyses about the role of women associated with outlaw motorcycle clubs, but few state how they have come to such conclusions; one admitting that, "[his] interviews with biker women were limited lest [his] intentions were misinterpreted" by their male companions and that such views of women are mythic and "sexist research" in itself, using deeply flawed methodologies and serve two highly political purposes of maintaining a dominance myth of women by men and amplifying the deviance of the male club members.
These myths about the women are: that they are subservient working class women, used as objects for club sexual rituals; are hard-bitten, unattractive, and politically conservative; and that they are 'money makers' for the biker men and clubs, i.e., prostitutes, topless barmaids or strippers who are forced to hand over their money to the club. A 1990 paper noted the changing role of women within outlaw motorcycle clubs and a 2000 paper stated that they now have agency and political savvy, and have reframed the narratives of their lives. "We did it. We showed them we are real women dealing with real men. I'd much prefer to be living with an OMC member than some dork who is a pawn in the system", said one woman who felt she and her peers had "set the record straight". One woman in 2001 described the previous work done by men about women in the outlaw motorcycle club world by saying "the men that wrote that must be meatheads". They are part of the scene because they want to be and enjoy it. These women have broken from society's stereotypically defined roles and find freedom with the biker world.
Outlaw motorcycle clubs reflect their social roots and the demographics of motorcyclists in general. High-profile outlaw bikers have historically been white and their clubs are typically exclusively racially homogeneous. Other sources state outright, that "With few exceptions, blacks are excluded from membership or riding with one-percenter biker clubs." The average age for a club studied was 34. There are black clubs, white clubs, and Mexican and other Spanish-speaking clubs. Although race does not appear to be important as a creed or philosophical orientation to them, virtually all of the clubs are racially unmixed. Bikers in American prison, as prisoners generally do, band together along racial lines. It is claimed that racial discrimination within clubs has led to creation of rival clubs in the past, such as the Mongols Motorcycle Club after members were rejected by the local Hells Angels chapter. Some clubs or individual chapters are now multi-racial, but the number of "white supremacist biker clubs are growing nationwide".
Outlaw motorcycle clubs and crime
Some members of outlaw motorcycle clubs engage in criminal activities and organized crime. Despite their connection with motorcycles and the "one percenter" subculture, law enforcement agencies perceive such individuals and motorcycle clubs as being unique among criminal groups because they maintain websites and businesses, identify themselves through patches and tattoos, write and obey constitutions and bylaws, trademark their club names and logos, and even hold publicity campaigns aimed at improving their public image.
Outlaw motorcycle clubs as criminal enterprises
The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as "outlaw motorcycle gangs": the Hells Angels, the Pagans, the Outlaws, and the Bandidos, known as the "Big Four". These four have a large enough national impact to be prosecuted under the U.S. Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute. The California Attorney General also lists the Mongols and the Vagos Motorcycle Club as outlaw motorcycle gangs.
The FBI asserts that OMGs support themselves primarily through drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion, and that they fight over territory and the illegal drug trade and collect $1 billion in illegal income annually. In 1985 a three-year, eleven-state FBI operation named Roughrider culminated in the largest OMG bust in history, with the confiscation of $2 million worth of illegal drugs, as well as an illegal arsenal of weapons, ranging from Uzi submachine guns to antitank weapons. In October 2008, the FBI announced the end of a six-month undercover operation by agents into the narcotics trafficking by the Mongols Motorcycle Club. The bust went down with 160 search warrants and 110 arrest warrants
Canada, especially, has in the late 20th century experienced a significant upsurge in crime involving outlaw motorcycle clubs, most notably in what has been dubbed the Quebec Biker war, which has involved more than 150 murders (plus a young bystander killed by an exploding car bomb), 84 bombings, and 130 cases of arson. The increased violence in Canada has been attributed to turf wars over the illegal drug trafficking business, specifically relating to access to the Port of Montreal, but also as the Hells Angels have sought to obtain control of the street level trade from other rival and/or independent gangs in various regions of Canada. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gazette, quoting from the Provincial Court of Manitoba, defines these groups as: "Any group of motorcycle enthusiasts who have voluntarily made a commitment to band together and abide by their organizations' rigorous rules enforced by violence, who engage in activities that bring them and their club into serious conflict with society and the law".
Members and supporters of these clubs insist that illegal activities are isolated occurrences and that they, as a whole, are not criminal organizations. They often compare themselves to police departments, wherein the occasional "bad cop" does not make a police department a criminal organization and the Hells Angels sponsors charitable events for Toys for Tots in an attempt to legitimize themselves with public opinion.
Contrary to other criminal organizations, OMGs operate on an individual basis instead of top-down, which is how supporters can claim that only some members are committing crimes. Belonging guarantees to each member the option of running criminal activity, using other members as support—the main characteristic of OMGs being "amoral individualism", in contrast to the hierarchical orders and bonds of "amoral familism" of other criminal organizations such as the Mafia. U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) agent William Queen, who infiltrated the Mongols, wrote that what makes a group like them different from the Mafia is that crime and violence are not used as expedients in pursuit of profit, but that the priorities are reversed. Mayhem and lawlessness are inherent in living "The Life" and the money they obtain by illegal means is only wanted as a way to perpetuate that lifestyle.
Recently, authorities have tried tactics aimed at undermining the gang identity and breaking up the membership. But in June 2011 the High Court of Australia overturned a law that outlawed crime-focused motorcycle clubs and required members to avoid contact with one another. In the U.S., a Federal judge rejected a prosecutor's request to seize ownership of the Mongols Motorcycle Club logo and name, saying the government had no right to the trademarks. Federal prosecutors had requested, as part of a larger criminal indictment, a court order giving the government ownership of the logo in order to prevent members from wearing the club's colors.
Relationships between outlaw motorcycle clubs
Certain large one-percent MCs have rivalries between each other and will fight over territory and other issues. Sometimes smaller clubs are forced into or willingly accept supportive roles for a larger one-percent club and are sometimes required to wear a "support patch" on their vests that shows their affiliation with the dominant regional club. Smaller clubs are often allowed to form with the permission of the dominant regional club. Clubs that resist have been forcibly disbanded by being told to hand over their colours on threat of aggression.
In Australia and the United States, many MCs have established statewide MC coalitions. These coalitions are composed of MCs who have chapters in the state, and the occasional interested third party organization, and hold periodic meetings on neutral ground where representatives from each club meet in closed session to resolve disputes between clubs and discuss issues of common interest. Local coalitions or confederations of clubs have eliminated some of the inter-club rivalry and together they have acted to hire legal and PR representation.
Outlaw motorcyclists and their clubs have been frequently portrayed and parodied in movies and the media generally, giving rise to an "outlaw biker film" genre. It generally exists as a negative stereotype in the public's subconscious and yet has inspired fashion trends for both males and, as "biker babes", for females. The appearance has even been exploited by the fashion industry bringing it into legal conflict with some clubs and simultaneously encouraging a cultural specific fetishistic look that conveys sex, danger, rebelliousness, masculinity, and working class values.
The biker style has influenced the look of other sub-cultures such as punk, heavy metal, leather subculture and cybergoth fashion, and, initially an American subculture, has had an international influence. Bikers, their clothing, and motorcycles have become cultural icons of mythic status, their portrayal generally exaggerating a criminal or deviant association exploited by the media for their own often financial interests.
In popular culture
- The outlaw biker film genre really took off in the mid-1960s, after the Hells Angels club became prominent in the media, in particular, after Hunter S. Thompson's book Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (1966) was published.
- The mini-series The Last Chapter (2002) was set in Toronto and Montreal, and portrayed a fictional feud reminiscent of the Quebec Biker War in which The Triple Sixers MC attempted to establish a chapter in the province of Ontario. This show predated Sons of Anarchy by six years.
- Sons of Anarchy portrays a fictional outlaw motorcycle club, founded mainly by Vietnam War veterans, which is involved in various criminal activity and associated with underworld gangs. The show's creator thought it was too obvious to have them be methamphetamine dealers, and so instead they traffic illegal guns.
- Bikie Wars: Brothers in Arms: The six-episode series dramatises the story of the Milperra massacre, when the Bandidos and the Comanchero motorcycle clubs went to war on Father's Day, Sunday 2 September 1984. The massacre had its beginnings after a group of Comancheros broke away and formed the first Bandidos Motorcycle Club chapter in Australia. This resulted in intense rivalry between the two chapters. At a public swap meet at the Viking Tavern at Milperra, New South Wales, a brief but violent battle ensued with seven people shot dead, including a 14-year-old innocent female bystander. A further 28 people were wounded with 20 requiring hospitalisation. Each episode starts with a quote stated by Justice Adrian Roden when the clubs went before the New South Wales Supreme Court; "As patriotism can lead to jingoism and mateship can lead to cronyism, so bikie club loyalty can lead to bikie club war."
- Gangland Undercover is an American dramatized series inspired by the true story of police informant Charles Falco, who infiltrated several bike clubs in the United States in the early 2000s.
- Mayans M.C. is a spin-off to Sons of Anarchy centered around the Sons rivals turned allies, the all Hispanic Mayans Motorcycle Club.
- Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned is the first of two episodic expansion packs developed for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and PC versions of Grand Theft Auto IV, developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was first released for the Xbox 360 on 17 February 2009 and on PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Windows on 13 April 2010. The protagonist of The Lost and Damned is Johnny Klebitz, a member of Liberty City's biker club The Lost.
- Grand Theft Auto Online received an outlaw-biker themed update known as GTA Online: Bikers, released on October 4, 2016. It brought back several vehicles, the ability to hit people off of bikes from The Lost And Damned, and introduced new weapons, clothing, tattoos, vehicles, properties, missions and other new mechanics and various bug fixes.
- In March of 1972 (p.3) Chas Deane, the editor of Motorcycle Mechanics wrote: Motorcycling is a way of life, almost a religion to some and the next best thing to breathing for others. There is no such thing as a "typical motorcyclist"; on the one hand we're outcasts and "one percenters", while on the other hand we are the "in" people.
- Drew, A. J. (2002), The everything motorcycle book: the one book you must have to buy, ride, and maintain your motorcycle, Adams Media Corp, pp. 193–203, 277, ISBN 9781580625548
- Dulaney, William L. (November 2005), "A Brief History of "Outlaw" Motorcycle Clubs", International Journal of Motorcycle Studies
- Wolf, Daniel R. (1992), The Rebels: a brotherhood of outlaw bikers, University of Toronto Press, p. 4, ISBN 9780802073631
- Joans, Barbara (2001), Bike lust: Harleys, women, and American society, Univ of Wisconsin Press, p. 15, ISBN 9780299173548
- Reynolds, Tom (2001), Wild ride: how outlaw motorcycle myth conquered America, TV Books, pp. 43–44, ISBN 9781575001456
- U.S. Dept. of Justice, Motorcycle Gangs, archived from the original on 2014-04-15
- 1% - Example of Bylaws- Motorcycle Club and Riding Club Education
- "Levels of Club Affiliation". Wolfpack Motorocycle Club. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- GQ The Untold Story of the Texas Biker Gang Shoot-out
- "Under and Alone: The True Story of the Undercover Agent Who Infiltrated America's Most Violent Outlaw Motorcycle Gang". Author William Queen, 2004
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- Joans, Barbara (2001), Bike Lust, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, p. 5, ISBN 9780299173548,
As middle America rides and parties with the urban middle class, neither discusses the skeleton in the closet. Neither draws attention to the fact that much of the Harley mystique, most of the unwritten rules of the road, and many of the values and ideals come from the unruly and bastard parent, the outlaw club
- Adler, Jeff (2001-03-03), "The Fall of a Hells Angel Leader; Indictment Alleges Spokesman's Charity Masks Drug Ring.", The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., p. A.07
- Klugh, David (7 October 2009), "Motorcycle Gang Training For Yakima", Kima Tv, archived from the original on 13 July 2011,
The problem with that according to Steve Cook is that if you eat in local restaurants, drink in local bars or even participate in local charity events, you already associate with them.
Charity rides, toy donations... Cook has learned these are part of the disguise.
'What they don't tell you is what they're doing the rest of the year. They're selling drugs. They're stealing motorcycles. They're beating people up. They're committing a laundry list of crimes.'
- Renegades Do Good Works, Too But Officials Say Biker Gang Is Simply Polishing Its Image. [Final Edition] Richard S. Koonce, Virginian - Pilot ( Norfolk, Va. ) 1999-12-29, A.1
- Assoc, American Motorcyclist (March 2003), "Gang fears hurt charity ride", American Motorcyclist
- Austin, Paige; Bjelland, Sonja (2005-12-06), "Gunfight blamed on bikers // About 150 people queried after violence at a toy giveaway", The Press - Enterprise, Riverside, Calif.,
Witnesses blame tensions between two rival motorcycle gangs for a shooting at a Christmas toy drive that left a firefighter and two others injured.
- Austin, Paige (December 8, 2005), "Neighbors want site of shooting shut down", The Press - Enterprise, Riverside, Calif., p. B.01,
Next week Norco city leaders will consider revoking an operating permit for Maverick Steakhouse where a Christmas toy drive Sunday ended in violence after several gunmen fired into the crowd.
Witnesses say a fight between two rival biker clubs at the event led to the shooting in which at least three people were injured, including a Norco firefighter.
- Calligeros, Marissa (June 22, 2009), "Bikie 'colours' banned from Morcombe charity ride", Brisbane Times,
'Ride organisers received an unlawful edict from police blocking the participation of riders wearing clothing that identified them as members of some motorcycle clubs,' Mr Walker said.
'You can't say that to our members...these guys live for their patches.'
He said bikies would never, ever ride without patches as a cardinal rule.
- Joyce, Nikkii (3 August 2009), "Police blitz hits bikers' charity ride", Sunshine Coast Daily
- Associated Press (9 November 2002), "National Briefing Mid-Atlantic: Pennsylvania: Biker Gang Sues Over Exclusion From Charity Event", New York Times, New York, N.Y., p. A.17,
The Warlocks motorcycle gang has filed a lawsuit accusing the Philadelphia Police Department of preventing its members from participating in a motorcycle parade to deliver toys to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia on Sunday. Joshua Briskin, a lawyer for the gang, said the Warlocks had taken part in the event for 15 years. The suit, seeking unspecified compensation, says the group's civil rights were violated.
- "Five charged in murders of eight Bandidos bikers". CTV.ca. 2006-06-10. Archived from the original on 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
- The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, Case Nos. 95-2829 and 95-2879; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. JOHN E. IRVIN and THOMAS E. PASTOR, Defendants-Appellants
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The Life story caused something of a tumult around the country (Yates), and some authors have asserted that the AMA subsequently released a press statement disclaiming involvement in the Hollister event, stating that 99% of motorcyclists are good, decent, law-abiding citizens, and that the AMA's ranks of motorcycle clubs were not involved in the debacle (e.g., Reynolds, Thompson). The American Motorcyclist Association says it has no record of ever releasing such as statement. Tom Lindsay, the AMA's Public Information Director, said 'We [the American Motorcyclist Association] acknowledge that the term 'one-percenter' has long been (and likely will continue to be) attributed to the American Motorcyclist Association, but we've been unable to attribute its original use to an AMA official or published statement—so it's apocryphal.'
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-  Herald Sun
-  Daily Mail
- Glover, Scott (22 October 2008), "Raid targets Mongols motorcycle gang", Los Angeles Times,
There also are patches associated with the gang's alleged sexual rituals. Members are awarded wings of varying colors for engaging in sex acts with women at pre-arranged 'wing parties,' the indictment states. For example, members who have sex with a woman with venereal disease are given green wings, according to the indictment.
- Bourne, Craig (2007), Philosophical Ridings: Motorcycles and the Meaning of Life, Oneworld Publications, pp. 11–12, ISBN 1-85168-520-0
- Pratt, Alan R. (2006), "Motorcycling, Nihilism, and the Price of Cool; Nihilism and FTW Style", in Rollin, Bernard E., Harley-Davidson and philosophy: full-throttle Aristotle; Volume 18 of Popular culture and philosophy, Open Court Publishing, ISBN 9780812695953,
'Dangerous Motorcycle Gangs,' a widely circulated two-hour police course, notes that a white cross on a biker's colors is earned by robbing a grave, a red cross by 'committing homosexual fellatio with a witness present.' Green wings denote the wearer performed cunnilingus on a venereally diseased woman and purple wing signify—get this!—oral sex with a dead woman! (p. 32). As a rejection of values and an expression of nihilism, what could be more aberrant and grossly offensive? And even if these interpretations are inaccurate or fabricated by bikers themselves as a joke, they still reveal the outrage that the outlaw biker expression of nihilism intended to inspire.
- Ebony Dec 1966. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
-  Book, Organised Crime By Alan Wright
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One percent biker clubs in the existing literature have been described as all white clubs, but there are at least four black or interracial 1% biker clubs.
- Barker, Thomas (6 April 2010). Biker Gangs and Organized Crime. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4377-5507-7.
- Hopper, Columbus B.; Moore, Johnny "Big John" (Summer 1983), "Hell on Wheels; The Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs", Journal of American Culture, Bowling Green, Ohio, 6 (2), pp. 58–9,
Outlaw cyclists are generally male and between 21 and 45 years of age.
- (Killinger and Cromwell, 1978). |doi=10.1111/j.1542-734X.1983.0602_58.x
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