Motoyoshi was divided into four districts: Magome, Koizumi, Tsuya, and Ohya. Koizumi and Ohya were both home to spectacular beaches until the disaster of March 11. Tsuya constitutes "downtown" Motoyoshi. Fishing and farming are the main industries though a printing company is also a large local employer. Motoyoshi, like many of Japan's smaller towns, had a declining population as young people increasingly moved to the large regional cities of Kesennuma and Sendai, or further South to Tokyo.
The Motoyoshi Board of Education also employs Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs) that teach English at the local Elementary and Junior High Schools.